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Vaidya Bhagwan Dash 

D.A.M.S., H.P.A., M.A., Ph. D. 

Deputy Adviser (Ayurveda) 

Ministry of Health & 

Family Welfare 

New Delhi 

Vaidya Lalitesh Kashyap 


Senior Physician (Ayurveda) 

Central Govt- Health Scheme 

Directorate General of Health Services, 

New Delhi 



First Published 1980 

© Vaidya Bbagwan Dash 1979 

Vaidya (Miss) Lalitesh Kashyap 

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash (b. 1934- ) 

Vaidya (Miss) Lalitesh Kashyap (Jb. 1939- > 

Published by 

Naurang Rai 

Concept Publishing Company 

H-13, Bah Nagar 

NEW DELHI-1 10015 (India) 

Printed by 

Hans Raj Gupta & Sons, 
Anand Parbat, 
New Delhi-1 10005 

Dedicated to the memory 


(Ex-Rajavaidya of Patiala) 


Grateful acknowledgement of his 

erudite scholarship and unwearied 

services for the revival and 

development of Ayurveda 


Though several important works on Ayurveda have been 
published till now, there is a large number of works which are 
still in the manuscript stage in libraries and could riot see the 
light. The name of some of these works we know by coming 
across them in commentaries and compilations. The reason is 
mostly economic because the texts which are included in the 
prospectus are studied in institutions and get priority in publi- 
cation while others lag behind. The result is that to-day 
teachers and students are not acquainted with even the names 
of such texts what of going through them. 

Todarananda is a work named on Raja Todaramalla, a 
minister of Mughal Emperor Akbar (16th .Cent. A.D.). This 
is an encyclopaedic work having Ayurveda Saukhya as a com- 
ponent. Ayurveda Saukhya too is a voluminous work dealing 
with several aspects of Ayurveda. The present volume deals 
with the portion of Materia Medica which is generally known 
as Nighantu. 

In 1972, when I was editing the Madhava Dravyaguna, I had 
the opportunity to see a manuscript of the Ayurveda Saukhya, 
I was surprised to find that it followed Madhava's Dravyaguna 
faithfully in the context of Nighantu portion though the author 
did not mention the name of Madhava or its work anywhere. 
It is also to be noted that though m other portions, source 
books are quoted explicitly, in Nighatnu portion it is conspi- 
cuously absent. Hence, it cannot be said definitely what was 
the source of this portion. 

It is almost certain that Madhava's Dravyaguna was quite 
earlier than the Ayurveda Saukh} a because of its having been 
quoted by medieval authors and commentators like Sarvananda 
(12th Cent. a.d.) and Vopadeva (13th Cent. a.d.). As regards 
Bhava Misra, he happened to be in 16th Cent. A.D. and thus 

viii Materia Medica 

may be contemporary to the work Ayurveda Saukhya. The 
verses of the Bhava Prakasa found in the Ayurveda Saukhya 
lead us to think that either these verses are later interpolations 
(particularly if they are not found in majority of the MSS.) or 
Bhava Misra himself might be associated with this work. A 
number of expert scholars of Banaras were engaged by Raja 
Todaramalla for this encyclopaedic work, and it is not improb- 
able if Bhava Miira, a resident of Magadha (Gaya) adjoining 
Kashi and a renowned expert of Dravya guria himself participat- 
ed in this great task. It is to be noted that Bhava Misra, apart 
from the Bhava Prakasa Nighantu, also composed another 
Nighantu entitled Guna ratna maid. Without close association, 
it becomes difficult to explain such situations. The possibility 
of a common source of both the authors, as proposed by the 
editor, is also not improbable. 

Vaidya Bhagwan Dash, the editor of this work, is well- 
known for his devotion to enriching the literature of Ayurveda 
and also to making it intelligible to the outer world. He has 
done this job with great labour and deserves congratulations 
not only of myself but of the entire circle of intellectuals 
interested in the study of Ayurveda. I hope, he will be able to 
bring out other remaining volumes so as to present a total 
picture of the work. 

Banaras Hindu University, P.V. Sharma 

Varanasi Professor and 

Head of the Department of 


20th September 1979 Institute of Medical Sciences 


There has been an increasing interest in the utilisation of the 
traditional systems of medicine for promotive, preventive and 
■curative health services in many countries of the world. Ayurveda 
is perhaps the oldest traditional system of medicine in India 
catering at present to the medical needs of a, large section of 
both the urban and rural population of this country. This system 
of medicine has also caught the attention of medical practioners 
in the West. The Materia Medica of ayurveda represents a rich 
storehouse of knowledge of drugs based on centuries of experi- 
ence. Scientists, research workers, physicians and students 
interested in ayurveda, often experience great difficulty in 
obtaining authentic works on the subject with a translation in a 
language generally understood by them. To cater to this long 
felt need, we are happy to present here the Materia Medica of 
Ayurveda by Raja Todaramalla with its English translation 
along with critical notes. 

Todaramalla hailed from Oudh in Uttar Pradesh, India. 
He was the dewan (Minister) under the great Moghul Emperor 
Akbar who ruled during the sixteenth century a.d. The 
emperor was well known for his secular outlook. Todaramalla, 
in spite of his unquestioned loyalty to this Muslim emperor, was 
si staunch follower of Hinduism. It was apparent to him that 
Hindu culture in India was in a decadent state and at a low 
ebb. Quite apart from religion, even sciences like astrology and 
medicine had fallen into disrepute. Very little original work, if 
any, was being done in these areas of knowledge and even 
the extant texts on various subjects were falling into disuse. 
Such of them as were available had been mutilated and subjec- 
ted to unauthorised interpolations with the accretion of 
superstitious ideas through the centuries. 

In his mission to revive and revitalise Hindu culture both 
in the religious and secular fields, he took the help of several 
•eminent Sanskrit scholars of Varanasi and composed encyclo- 

x Materia Medica 

paedic works on 23 different subjects by collecting material 
from authentic texts which were then available. To this, the 
added knowledge and experiences of the experts in the subject 
were incorporated. Most of the original texts which were then 
utilised for the composition of these works are no more extant 
and those which have survived the vicissitudes of time are now 
in a mutilated form with several unauthorised and erratic- 
interpolations. It is in this context, therefore, that today 
Todarmalla's work has gained considerable importance, and it 
is for the first time that the Materia Medica portion of his 
encyclopaedic work on ayurveda is being brought under print. 
The series of works on 23 topics of Hindu culture composed 
under the auspices of Raja Todaramalla is called Todarananda 
which means "the delight of Todaramalla". The term 
saukhyam meaning "happiness" is suffixed to the name of each 
text on a particular topic. Thus the text on ayurveda is called 
Ayurveda Saukhyam. This Ayurveda Saukhyam comprises 
several chapters each one of which is called harsa meaning 

In the beginning of each harsa, mangalacarana or the 
auspicious invocation in the form of a prayer to God is furni- 
shed. The colophons at the end of each chapter indicate the 
contents and chapter number, among others. These invocations 
and colophons are missing in some manuscripts. 

Calligraphic errors have not left this monumental work 
untouched. Six different manuscripts collected fiom various 
libraries of India and Nepal were utilised for the collation and 
editing of this work. Some of these manuscripts are incomplete. 
But in others which -appeared at first to be complete, some 
chapter numbers have been arranged and named differently. 
Some chapters have also been omitted in some of these manus- 
cripts. Therefore, while editing, it was felt desirable to serialise 
and renumber all these chapters making up a total of 97. This 
was a delicate job to perform because at the end of the chapters, 
in some manuscripts, the colophons are missing. For the 
preparation of this work on Materia Medica, ten chapters of 
Ayurveda Saukhyam have been utilised. On the basis of the 
remaining chapters, it is contemplated to prepare separate 

Preface xi 

volumes on different topics shortly and these texts will be in the 
hands of scholars gradually and in stages. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam deals with various topics of ayurveda 
including fundamental principles, anatomy, physiology, hygiene 
and public health, examination of patients, diagnosis, prognosis 
and treatment of diseases, iatro-chemistry and materia medica. 
Materia Medica and allied topics are found scattered in ten 
different chapters of this work. The eighth chapter deals with 
the properties of drugs. This chapter is available in five out 
of the six manuscripts consulted. In one manuscript, however, 
this chapter is left incomplete. 

This eighth chapter inter alia deals with some extraneous 
topics like vamana (emetic therapy) and virecana (purgation 
therapy). These topics, along with other allied topics, like 
snehana (oleation therapy), svedana (fomentation therapy), 
niriiha and anuvasana (medicated enema), nasya (inhalation 
therapy) and rakta moksana (blood letting) are described in 
detail in the 85th to 88th chapters of the edited text. It is 
proposed to bring out a separate volume on these topics, 
which taken together, are called pancakarma therapy. These 
extraneous topics, therefore, are excluded from this work. This 
8th chapter of the original text is divided into 29 chapters in the 
present work— one chapter dealing exclusively with one group 
of items. 

The 12th chapter of the original text deals with the des- 
cription of various groups of drugs collected from classics like 
Susruta Samhita. This chapter is, therefore, included in the 30th 
chapter of the present work. This chapter is available in three 

The last eight chapters of the original text deal with 
mostly the nigharitus or synonyms of drugs and the method of 
preparation of some food items. Details of these chapters are 
given overleaf : 


Materia Medic a 

Chapter Nos. 
given in the 

Chapter Nos. 
in the edited 

Chapter Nos. 
in the pre- 
sent work 

Tlie number of 
manuscripts in 
which these 
chapters are 

































There are of course, separate texts on the synonyms of 
drugs of ayurveda. But most of the extant ayurvedic works on 
materia medica invariably provide synonyms of drugs along 
with their properties. It is keeping in view this tradition of 
ayurveda, and also in order to make the present work more 
useful to research workers, physicians and students that these 
•eight chapters have been included here- 
All the manuscripts procured for the editing of this work 
were full of grammatical and syntactical errors. Some of these 
mistakes were common to all the manuscripts. Even the arrange- 
ment of topics in these manuscripts varied considerably. Many 
terms and suffixes used in this work do not stand correct accor- 
ding to the tradition of Panini's grammar. The readers will 
find some such terms even in the present publication. It is 
likely that these mistakes were there in the original texts from 
where references were collected and the scholars who did the job 
did not think it proper to make any change. The other possibility 
is that these errors were introduced by subsequent calhgraphers. 

There are some orthographical peculiarities in all the 
manuscripts of this work. In several places ria has been used in 
the places of na, sa in the place of sa and sa, ba in place of va, 
kha in the place of sa, ja in the place of va, ra in the place of la, 



gha in the place of dha and vice versa. In several places the 
consonants after ra are duplicated. 

While editing this work, the variant readings (which 
include some grammatical errors also) are given at the end of 
each chapter under Notes and References and the original 
manuscripts are referred to as adarsa pustika. Some topics 
given in this work are also available in other extant ayurvedic 
works. The variant readings in these texts are given at the end 
and these extant texts are referred to as akaia. Some portions 
of the manuscripts were so corrupt and incomplete that we did 
not think it proper to include them in the main text. In view of 
their significance from the materia medica point of view, they 
are given in the "Notes and References" at the end of the 

In the manuscripts some texts are originally referred to by 
name from where the information was collected by the scholars- 
The readings in these texts bear a striking resemblance to those 
of Mddhava dravyaguna and Bhava prakasa. The former has been 
edited by Prof. P.V. Sharma and published by Chawkhamba 
Vidya Bhawan, Varanasi in 1973. References to these works are 
conspicuous by their absence in the original manuscripts. How- 
ever, to facilitate research and study on this subject, these refer- 
ences are provided in the present work in square brackets [ ]. 
Since the names of these texts are not described in the original 
manuscripts, it is very difficult to determine as to who borrowed 
from whom. It is also very likely that both have borrowed 
their texts from a third source which has since become extinct 

While providing the English translation of the text, we 
have been very conscious of avoiding mistranslation. Where 
equivalent English words are not available, in the English text, 
the Sanskrit words have been transliterated as such and printed 
in italics. The glossary appended to this work provides a brief 
explanation of such terms. The nearest English equivalents of 
many such technical terms are given in parentheses in the 
English text itself. 

The botanical names of most of the medicinal plants are 
given in parentheses against the Sanskrit names of drugs in the 

xiv Materia Medica 

side-headings. Similarly, the English equivalents of animals, 
metals, minerals, etc., are provided. Wherever there is any 
controversy regarding the correct indentification of a drug, 
the botanical or English names have not been provided, lest the 
reader should be misguided. 

One manuscript of this work was procured from a private 
individual of Varanasi. Some scholars had attempted a Hindi 
translation of this work. From the language and the paper, 
it appears that this attempt was not of recent origin. In some 
places, this Hindi translation has been consulted to decide upon 
the exact reading of the text. 


Authors are exceedingly grateful to Pandit Shiv 
Sharma, President of the Central Council of Indian Medicine 
for supplying two manuscripts of this work from the collections 
of his illustrious father Vaidya Rama Prasad Sharma, who was 
the Raja Vaidya (Physician to the ruler) of Patiala. Greateful 
thanks are also due to the curators of the Abhilekhalaya, 
Kathmandu, the Royal Asiatic Society and Sanskrit College 
both at Calcutta for providing calligraphic/photostat copies of 
the manuscripts of this work available with them. 

For the preparation of this work, Subhash Gupta, Kan- 
chan Gupta and Sharada Gupta have provided considerable 
assistance. The authors are extremely thankful to them. 

A publication of this kind may not be a commercially 
viable proposition. It must, therefore be said to the credit of 
the publishers that they have brought it out in a spirit of 
dedication solely with the aim of propagating this unique 
science of medicine in the service of the suffering humanity. 

Bhagwan Dash 

Lalitesh Kashyap 


Foreword vii 

Preface ix 

Indo-Romanic equivalents of Devanagart xxx 

Introduction xxxi 

Chapter 1 : Fundamental principles 1-11 

Introduction [1-6], rasa (taste) [7-26], guna (attributes) 
[27-29], vlrya (potency) [31-32], vipaka (taste that emerges after 
digestion) [33-34], prabhava (specific action) [35-36]. 

Chapter 2 : Properties of Drugs 12 

Haritakl [1-18], bibhltaka [19-20], amalakl [21-25], triphala 
[26-29], trivrt [30-3 1], raja vrksa [31-33], katuka [33], trayantl 
[34], tikta valkali [34], yasa [35], bhu dhatri [35-36], khadira 
[36], bhu nimba [37], nimba [37-39], mahanimba [39], parpata 
[40], patha [40], kutaja [41-45], hrivera [46], musta [46], ativisa 
[46], bilva [47-48], punarnava [49], citraka [50], danti [51] hasti 
danti [51], jayapala [52], snuhi [52-53], hemahva [54], arka [55], 
aruskara [56], tuvaraka [56-57], guggulu [58-73], srl vasa [73-74], 
rasona [75-85], palandu [86-87], grnjanaka [88], ardraka 
[89-94], nagara [95-96], pippall [97-100], marica [100-102], 
tryusana [102-103], cavika [104], gaja pippall [104], paiica kola 
[105], sadusana [105], jala pippalika [106], hingu [107-108], 
jlraka [109-110], karavl[lll] upakuncika [111], vaspika [111], 
rajika [112], yavanl [112], chichika [113], bhtistrna [113] 

xvi Materia Mediccr 

kharahva [114], dhanyaka [115-117], jamblra [117], bhariga 
[118], surabhi [119], tumburu [120], varvarl [120-121], krsna 
gandha [121], sigru [122], madhu sigru [122], varuna [123], 
paribhadra [123], bilva [124], patala [124], kasmari [125], vahni 
mantha [125], eranda [126], trikantaka [126], kantakarika. [127], 
brhati [127], prs^i parni [128], sthira [128], jlnginl [129], bala. 
[130], maha bala [130], naga bala [131]. asva gandha [131], 
masa parni [132], mudga parni [132], rddhi [132], vrddhi [133], 
kakoll [133-134], meda [134-135], jivaka [135-136], rsabhaka 
[135-136], asta varga [136-137], visala [137], sariva [138], 
gavadanl [138], ananta [139], gundra [139], lodhra [140], savara 
lodhra [140], madhuka [141], prapaundanka [142], mafijistha 
[142[, laksa [143], musall [143-144], gatavan [144-146], partha 
[146], asthi sarhhara [147], markava [147], drona pusplka [148], 
giri karnika [148], vrscikali [149], dugdhika [149-150] ahimsra 
[150], sudarsana [150], bhargi [151], guftja. [151], jayantl [151], 
sairiya [151], prasarinl [152], kokilaksa [152], kulahala [152], 
dhuttura [153], halini [154], karavira [154], avartaki [154],. 
kosatakl [155], jyotlsmatl [155], brahmi [156], vaca [156], 
kukkurunda [157], sankha puspi [157], harhsa pad! [158], mundi 
[158-159], malatl [159], mukula [160], naga damanl [160], sirlsa 
[161], sikthaka [161], aphuka [162-163], durva, [163] ni£a [164], 
darvl [165], avalguja [165-166], prapunnada [166], karafija 
[167], kimsuka [167], arista [167], vidanga [168]., asphota 
[168], tinisa [168], asana [169], slrniapa [169], dhatakt [169], 
kadara [169], apamarga [170], sinduvara [170], lajjalu [170- 
171], vamsa [171], rohitaka [172], vrhaddara [172], tagara 
[173], kaunti [173], srlvasa [174-175], sarala [174-175], bola 
[174-175], kunduru [174-175], granthi parna [174-175], turuska 
[174-175], silhaka [174-175], spjkka [174-175], gundra [174-175], 
sarja [174-175], mura. [174-175], nakha [174-175], rala [176], 
candana [177-179], patanga [179], padmaka [180], sevya [180], 
kumkuma [181], kasturi [181], agura [>82], sura daru [182], 
kattrna [183], kustha [183], satl [184], kankola [184], jati phala 
[185], jati kosa [185], karpura [186-189], rasna [189-190], ela 
[190-191], lavanga [191], lata kasturika [192], katphala [192], 
madana [193], satahva [194], phalinl [195], gandha priyangtt 
[195], hapusa [196], rasna [197], pauskara [197], srngl [198], 
varanga [198-199], naga kesara [199], patraka [200], talisa patra 
[200-201], vam§a rocana [201], tugakslri [202], vasaka [202-203], 

Contents xvii 

kumarl [203-204], amrta [204-205], dasa mula [206-209], paftca 
kslri vrksa [210-212], paftca valkala [210-212], dhatus [213-214], 
svarna [215-222], tara [223-230], tamra [231-235], vanga 
[235-23"], naga [238-240], rttika [241-244], karhsya [245], loha 
[246-262], upa dhatu [26 3J, abhraka [264-279], maksika [279- 
282], haritala [283-285], manah sila [286-287], nllanjana [288], 
tutthaka [288-289], kharpara [289], rasaka [290], parada [290- 
300], upa rasa [301-303], hingula [303-305], gandhaka [306-311], 
silajatu [312-318], ratna and uparatna [319-323], visa [323-332], 
kala kuta [332-333], vatsa nabha [333-336], upa visa [336], 
gairika [337], svarna gairika [337], srotoftjana [338], sauvlra- 
kaftjana [338], sveta marica [339], pita rohin-I [339], vandaka 
[339], kaca [340], kasisa [340-341], samkha [341], udadhi mala 
[341], Iaghu sankha [341], saurastri [342], panka [342], hasti 
mada [343-344], gorocana [344], sindtira [345], kamala [346], 
raktotpala [347], kumuda [347], jati [348], karuna [349], mallika 
[350], madhavl [351], yuthika [351-352], kubjaka [353], sata- 
patrl [354-355], ketaki [356], naipall [356], varsikl [357], cam- 
paka [357], raja campaka [358], bakula [358], vaka [359], patala 
[360], deva vallabha [361], nipa [361], kadamba [361], tulasi 
[362-363], damana [363], phanijjhaka [364], kumuda [365], 
utpala [365], sana [366], kovidara [366], karbudara [366], 
salmati [366], madhflka [367], yuthika [367], dhatakl [367], 
mucukunda [368], mliika [368], jaya [368], vrsa [369], agastya 
[369], brahma [370], nimba [370], muskaka [370], asana [370], 
kutaja [370], ketaka [371], saireya [371]. 

Chapter 3 : Different Types of Salt etc. 122 

Salt in general [I], saindava [2], gaja [3], samudra [4-5], vida 
[5], pakya [6], tankana ksara [7]. sudha ksara [?], svadarhstra 
ksara [8], palasa ksara [8], other ksaras [9-11], rucaka [12-13], 
krsna lavana [13], romaka lavana [14], audbhida lavana [14], 
pamsuja [15], yavasukaja ksara [16], sarjika ksara [16], usah 
ksara [17], pacita ksara [17]. 

Chapter 4 : Sugar cane Juice and its Products 128 

Sugar cane juice [1], iksu [3-4], dirgha pora [5], vamsaka [5], 
Satapora [5], kantara [6], tapasa [6], kandeksu [6], suclpatra 

xviii Materia Medica 

etc. [7], kosakara [8], taste of different parts of 'iksu [8], juice 
extracted by chewing [9], juice extracted by machine [10], boiled 
juice [10], phanita [10-11], guda [12-15], khanda [16], paund- 
raka sarkara [16], madhu sarkara [17], samudrikodbhava sar- 
kara [17-18]. sarkara in general [18-19]. 

Chapter 5 : Honey 135 

Variety [1], property in general [2-4], paittika [4], bhramara 
[5], ksaudra [5], maksika [6], chatra [7-8], arghya [8], auddalika 
[9], dalodbhava [10], general description [11-16]. 

Chapter 6 : Milk & Milk Products 141 

Variety [1-2], cow's milk [3], goat's milk [4-5], sheep's 
milk [6], buffalo milk [7], camel milk [8], mare's milk [9], 
elephant's milk [10], woman's milk [10], general description 
[11-33], kslra phena [32-33], containers [34-35], ghana [35], 
plyusa [35], morata [36], dadhi kuxcika [37]. takra ktircika [37], 
kilata [37], ksiraslka [38], pinda [38-39], general description 

Chapter 7 : Curd 154 

Property in general [1-2], variety [3-9], curd of cow's milk 
[10], curd of buffalo milk [11], curd of goat's milk [12], general 
description [13-20], curd of camel's milk [21], curd of sheep 
milk [22], curd of mare's milk [22-23], curd of woman's milk 
[23-24], curd of elephant's milk [24-25], general description 
[25-28], sara and mastu [28-31]. 

Chapter 8 : Butter Milk 164 

Property in general [1-2], variety [2-7], property of different 
types [8-9], general description [10-18]. 

Chapter 9 : Butter and Ghee 171 

Butter of cow's milk [1-2], butter of buffalo milk [2-3], milk- 
butter [3-4], freshly collected butter [4-5], preserved butter [5], 

Contents xix 

ghee of cow's milk [6-7] ghee of goat's milk [7-8], ghee of 
buffalo milk [8-9], ghee of camel's milk [9-10], ghee of sheep's 
milk [10-11], ghee of mare's milk [11-12], ghee of elephant's 
milk [12-13], ghee of woman's milk [13-14], ghee prepared of 
milk [14], preserved ghee [15-16], ghrta manda [17], Hayam 
gavlna [18], preservation [19-23], contra-indication [22-23]. 

Chapter 10 : Different Types of Oil 179 

Property of oil in general [1-2], gingili oil [2-4], linseed oil 
[5-6], mustard oil [6-7], castor oil [7-9], kusumbha oil [10], 
kosamra oil [11], oil from other plants [U-13], karaftja oil [14], 
aristaja oil [14], tuvara oil [15], aruskara oil [15], jyotismat! 
oil [16], aksa oil [16-17]. atimukta oil [16-17], aksota oil [16-17], 
nalikelaoil [16-17], madhuka oil [16-17], trapusa oil [16-17], 
oil [16-17], kusmanda oil [16-17], slesmataka oil [16-17], piyala 
ervaru oil [16-17], srtparna oil [18], kimsuka oil [18], oi's for 
inhalation [19-20], yavatikta oil [21], sahakara oil [22], general 
description [22], sarja rasa oil [23], general description [24-25], 
muscle fat and bone marrow [26-29], general description [30]. 

Chapter 11 : Alcoholic Drinks 188 

Properties in general [1-3], asava arista [4-5], sura [6-7], 
varum [7-8], different parts [9-10], prasanna [11], kadambarl 
[11-12], jagala [12-13], medaka [13], vakkasa [14], kinvaka [14], 
madhulaka [15], mardvika [15-17], kharjura [18], gauda [19-20], 
madhuka [20-21], sidhu [21-23], sarkara [24], madhvasava [25], 
aksika [25-26], jambava & tauvara [26], general description 

Chapter 12 : Vinegars 199 

Sukta [1-3], kanjika [4-5], tusodaka [5-6], sauvlra l 7-8 1» 
aranala [9], dhanyamla [9-10], sandaki [10-12], special prepara- 
tion of kafijika [13]. 

Chapter 13 : Different Types of Urine 204 

Variety [1], general property [1-2], cow's urine [3-4], goat's 

xx Mataria Medica 

nrine [5], sheep's urine [6], buffalo's urine [6-7], elephant's 
urine [7-8], urine of horse [8-9], camel's urine [9], urine of 
donkey [10], stool of animals [11], human urine [12], general 
description [13-14], 

Chapter 14 : Different Types of Water 210 

Properties in general [1-2], variety [3-13], poisonous water 
[13-15], water from hail stone [15-17], water from dew & frost 
[17-19], water from snow [20-23], water from earth [23-30], 
river water [31-33], water coming out from earth [34-35], water 
from spring [36-37], water from pond [38-39], water from 
palvala or small pond [40-41], lake water [41-42], caunda water 
[43-44], vapl water [45-46], well water [4^-48], vikira water 
[49-50], water of the field [51], rain water [52], water in diffe- 
rent seasons [53-56], arhsudaka [56-58], water in different 
months [58-00], time of collection [61] mode of intake [62], 
candia kanta water [63] sea water [63], river water [64-67] 
polluted water [68-69], cold water [70-75], boiled water [76-79], 
arogyarhbu [80-83], srta sita [83-87], coconut water [88], time of 
taking water [89-91], water pollution [92-99], purification of 
water [100-102], time taken for digestion [103]. 

Chapter 15 : Different Types of Rice 241 

Rakta sali [1], gaura sastika [2], maha sali [3], kalama [3] r 
vrihi [3], patala [4], sowing & transplantation [4], cultivation 
[5], general description [6-9] 

Chapter 16 : Different Types of Corn and Pulses 245 

Syamaka, priyangu, nfvara & koradusa [1], yava [2-3], anu 
yava and varhsaja yava [3], godhuma [4-% tila [6-7], mudga 
[8-9], vanya mudga [10], masura [10], makusthaka f 1 1], canaka 
[11], harenu & satma [12], adhaki [12-13], kulattha [13-14], 
vanya kulattha [15], masa [15-16], atmagupta and kakanda [17], 
aranya masa [17], raja masa [18], kakanda & atma gupta [19], 
atasl and kusumbha [20], nispava [21], sirhbi [21-25], siddhartha 
[25-?6], rajika and sarsapa [26], property in preservation [27-28], 
germinated corns [29], general descriptian [29-30]. 

Contents xxi 

Chapter 17 : Different Types of Meat 256 

J&ngala and anupa [1-15], vilesaya [16-18], guhasaya [19-20], 
parna mrga [20-21], viskira [22-24], pratuda [25-28], prasaha 
[29-31], gramya [31-32], kulecara [33-35], plava [36-40], kosastha 
[41-42], padin [43-46], matsya [46-47], harina [48], ena [49], prsat 
[50] mundinl[51], nyanku[51], rsya [52], sasa [52], salyaka [53], 
lava [54-57], vartika [57], cataka [58], vesma cataka [58], var- 
taka [59], tittiri [60], kukkuta [61], paniya kukkuta [62], Mrita 
[63], panduka [64], kapota [65], paravata [65-66], egg [66], 
chaga [67-71], mesa [72-73], go [74], asva- [75], mahisa [76], 
kadambaka & cakraiiga [77], kacchapa [78], gaja [78-79], varaha 
[79], carma citrita sukara [80], khadga [8 1], barhl [82], kapota 
[82-84], sarpa [85-86], sankha kurma [86-87], krsna karkata 
[87], hamsa [8S], cakravaka etc., [88-89], godha [90], mf*e.aka 
[90], description in general [91-96]. 

Chapter 18 : Different Types of Fish 286 

Property in general [1-2], rohita [3], nandikavarta & sakula 
[4], pathma [5], srngl etc., [6-7], madgura [8], krsna matsya [8], 
ali [9], pryu [9], illisa [10], balanga [10], prostika [11], nandi- 
varta [II], dirgha tundaka [12], bhaskara [12], sakula[13], 
saillndhu [13] gargabha[14], nhvaka [14], imbika [15], small fish 
[15], eggs [16], dry fish [17], pntrified fish [17], burnt fish [17], 
river fish [! 8], pond fish [19], sea fish[19-20], well fish [23], 
general description [22-32]. 

Chapter 19 : Fruits 298 

Dadima [1-2], nipa etc., [3], karkandhu etc., [4-5J, amra [6-18] 
amrataka [19-20], lakuca [21], kara mardaka [21], amla vetasa 
[22], tmtidika [22-23], amlika and kosamra [23], airavata & 
danta satha [24], naranga [24], nirhbtika [25], raja nimbu [25], 
jarhbira [26], karuna [26], matulunga [27], tvak tikta [28] 
kesara [29], madhu karkati [30-31], kapittha [31-33], jambu 
[33], tinduka [34], priyala [34], parpatika [35], ksiri [36], phalgu 
[37], bimbi[37], sami [38], mfdvika [38-42], kadali [43-44], 
kasmarya [44], kharjura [45-52], madhuka J52-53], parusaka 
F54-55], tala [55-59], narikela [59-60], panasa [61-64], moca[65], 

xxii Materia Medica 

slsmataka [66], pauskara [66], udumbara [66], valuka [67-68], 
tinduka [68], priyala [69], vibhttaka [69], kola [70], amalaka 
[70], bijapuraka, sampaka & kosamra [71], vadama [72-73], 
pulp in general [74], bad fruits [75]. 

Chapter 20 : Vegetables 323- 

General description [1-2], jivantl [3], tanduliyaka [3], vas- 
tuka [4], cili & palankya [5], kasa rnardaka [6], kaka jangha [7], 
methika [7], kakamaci [8], satlna [9], harimantha [9], kalaya 
[10], raja ksavaka [10-11], manduka parni & gojihvaka [11-12], 
sunisannaka [12], cangeri [13], karhcata [14], modaka [14], 
varuna& prapunnata [15], vatsadanl etc., [16], kala saka [171, 
varsabhti [17], clra bilva, ankura & asana [18], venu karlra [18- 
19],^tarQsaka etc., [20], vartaka [21-23], vartaku [24], brhatl 
[25], patolo [26], kara vellaka [27], karkotika & hasti karkotika 
[27-28], vandhya karkoti & kevuka [28], kusmandaka etc., [29- 
31], alabti [32], katu tumbi [32], trapusa, ervaru & kakaru [33- 
36], kusmanda nadi [36-37], alabu nalika [37], patolika [38], 
upodika [39], aruka [40], nirica [40-41], marusa [41-42], kalarh- 
buka [42], hila mocika [43], grisma sundara [43], mula kapotika 
[44], mtllaka [45-46], sarsapa [46], rajika & pancangula [47], 
kausumbha [47], masa [48], abastini & pattQra [48], nyagrodha 
etc., [49], sarhsvedaja [50-53], pinakl [54], vidarl [54], satavarl 
[55-56], visa saluka etc., [57], pauskara [58], tala pralamba [58], 
mufijataka [59], aluka [59-60], pindaruka [61], surendra kanda 
[61], kadali kanda [62], manaka [62], surana & bhtikanda [63], 
amlika. kanda [64], kumuda kanda etc., [65], musall [66], 
varaha kanda [66-67], tala siras etc., [67-69], general description 

Chapter 21 : Group of Best Articles 348- 

Dhanya [1], marhsa [2], phala [3], saka [4], ksira, ghrta & 
lavana [5], sour and pungent articles [5]. bitter and sweet 
articles [6], astringent things [6], sugar cane products & drinks- 
[7], miscellaneous [7-9]. 

Contents xxiii 

Chapter 22 : Attributes of six Tastes 352 

Sweet [1], sour [2-3], saline [3], pungent [4], bitter [5], 
astringent [6], 

Chapter 23 : Different Types of Manda 355 

Manda [1]; laja manda [2-3], dhanya manda [3-4], vatya 
manda [4-5], rakta sail manda [6], astaguna manda [7-8], miscel- 
laneous [9-11]. 

Chapter 24 : Peyas and Allied Preparations 359 

Peya [1], vilepl [2], yavagu [3-5], payasa [6], krsara [6], anna 
[7-11], ghola bhakta [12], varyanna [13-14]. 

Chapter 25 : Supa and Allied Preparations 364 

Supa [1] yava & canaka saktu [2], sali saktu [3-4], laja 
saktu [5], yava saktu [6-8], avalehika [8], mantha [9-12], dha- 
nolamba [12], laja [13], prthuka [14], dhana [15], nispava [15], 
tandula pista [16], 

Chapter 26 : Meat and Its Preparations 370 

Marhsa [1-9], mamsa rasa [10-14], sorava [14-15]. 

Chapter 27 : Yusas and Allied Preparations 376 

Mudga yusa [1], raga sadava [2-4], patola & nimbu yusa 
[5], mQlaka yiisa [6], kulattha yusa [7] pancamustika yusa 
[8-9], navanga yusa [10], other varieties [11-12], yava manda 
[13], sarva dhanya manda [14], khada & kambalika [14], dadi- 
mamla [15], dhanyamla [16], dadhyamla [16], takramla [17], 
krta & akrta yusa [18-19], sandakl [19], raga sandava [20], 
rasala [21], panaka [22-24], bhaksya [25], ghyta pura [26], 
guda bhaksya [27], madhu sirsaka etc., [28], sattaka [29], 
abhisyanda [30], phenaka [31-32], vesavara [33], palala & sas- 
kull [33], parpata & kslra parpati [34], paistika bhaksya [34-35], 
virudhaka bhaksya [35-37], pupaka [37], other varieties [38-42] 
kulmasa [43], miscellaneous [43]. 

xxiv Materia Medica 

Chapter 28 : Amipana 394 

Anupana in general [1-2], water [2], hot water [3-4], cold 
water [5-6], luke warm water [6], milk & meat soup [7]dhanya- 
mla [7], alcohol [8], fruit juice [9], milk [9-10], honey water [10], 
miscellaneous [11-19], 

Chapter 29 : Substitutes 401 

Permissible substitutes of various drugs [1-33], miscellane- 
ous [34-38]. 

Chapter 30 : Groups of Drugs 410 

General description [1-7], vidari gandhadi gana [8-9], arag- 
vadhadi gana - [10-11], sala saradi gana [12-13], varunadi 
gana [14-15], viratarvadi gana [16-17], rodhradi gana [18-19], 
arkadi gana [2C-21], surasadi gana [22-23], muskakadi gana 
[24-25], krsnadi gana [26-27], eladi gana [28-29], vacadi & 
haridradi gana [30-31], kakolyadi gana [32-33], tisakadi gana 
[34-35], sarivadi gana [36-37], anjanadi gana [38-39], parusa- 
kadi gana [40-41], brhatyadi gana [42-43], guducyadi gana [44], 
vatsakadi gana [45-46], mustadi gana [46-47], utpaladi gana 
[48], triphala [49-53], tryusana [53-54], tnkarsita [55], amala- 
kyadi gana [56], trapvadi gana [57-58], laksadi gana [59-60], 
ksudra paftca miila [63], mahat pafica mula [62], dasa mula [63], 
vallija pafica mula [64], panca kantaka [65-66], trna pafica 
mula [67], kadambadi gana [68], karafljadi gana [69], pafica 
kola [70], pacana gana [72], darana gana [73], prapldana gana 
[74], sodhana kasaya [75], sarhsodhana varti [76-78], pafica 
gavya, etc., [79-81], sarhsodhana ghrta [81-82], sodhana taila 
[83], sodhana curna [84], sodhana rasa kriya [85], ropana 
kasaya [86], ropana varti [87], ropana kalka [88], ropana ghrta 
[89], ropana taila [90], ropana curna and rasaknya [91], utsa- 
dana [92], avasadana [93-94], panca valkala [96], asta varga 
[97-103], sarvausadhi [104-105], sugandhamalaka [106], tri 
sugandhi &. catur jataka [107-109], pafica sugandhi [110], 
varardha & adya puspaka [111], maha sugandhi [112], samtar- 
pana [113], group of sweet drugs [114-117], group of sour drugs 
[118-121], group of saline drugs [121-122], group of pungent 

•Contents xxv 

drugs [122-124], group of bitter drugs [125-130], group of 
astringent drugs [131-134], pancagni [135], groups of drugs for 
samsodhana [136], drugs for emesis [137], drugs for purgation 
[138], drugs which are both emetic & purgative [139-140], 
errhlines [141], group of drugs for alleviation of vayu [143], 
group of drugs for alleviation of pitta [144], group of drugs 
for alleviation of kapha [145], proper dosage [146], unwhole- 
some food for a patient [147], wholesome food & regimens 
[148-150], general description [151-154]. 

■Chapter 31 : Synonyms of Drags 450 

(Abhayadi varga) 

Upakrama [1], harltaki [2-3], amalaka [4], vibhltaka [4-5], 
triphala [5], bhumyamalakl [6], pracinamalaka [6], vasa [7], 
guducl [8-9], bilva [9-10], aranl [10], patala & kastha patala [11], 
gambhari [12], syonaka [13], mahat parlca raula [14], goksura 
[15], sali parni [16], prsni parni [17], brhat kantakarl [18], laghu 
kantakarl [19], sveta kantakarl [20], laghu panca mula [20], 
dasa mula [21], rdhi and vrddhi [21], kakoli [22], kslra kakoll 
[23], meda [23], maha meda [24], jlvaka [24], rsabhaka [25], 
asta varga [25], jtvanti [26], madhu yasti [27], masa parni [28], 
mudga parni [29], jivanija gana [30], eranda [31], rakta eranda 
[32], sariva [33], yavasa [34-35], maha mundi [36], apamarga 
[37], rakta apamarga [38], kampillaka [38], danti [39-40], jaya- 
pala [41], sveta nisotha [41], syama nisotha [42], indra varunl 
[43-44], aragvadha [45], nllim [46], katuki [47], ahkola [48], 
sehunda [49], nirhba [50], maha nimba [51], kirata tikta [52], 
kutaja [53], indra yava [54], madana phala [55], kamkustha 
[56], svarna kslrl [57], satala [58], asmanta [59], kaficanara [60], 
nirgundl [61], sephalika [61], mesa s;ngi [62], sveta punarnava 
[63], rakta punarnava [64], ksudra varsabhu [64], rasna. [65], 
a§va gandha [66], prasaranl [67], satavari [68], maha satavari 
[69], bala [70], maha bala [71], an bala [72], tejavati [73], 
jyotismati [74], devadtiru [74], sarala [75], puskara mula [76], 
kustha [77], karkata sragi [78], rohisa trna [79], katphala [80], 
bhargi [81], pasana bheda [82], musta [83], dhatakl [84], vidarl 
kanda [85-86], mayika [87], varahl kanda [88], patha [89], 
murva [90], mafljistha. [91], hatidra [92], daru handra [93], cakra 
-marda [94], vakucl [95], bhrnga raja [96], parpata [97], ^ana 

xxvi Materia Medica 

puspl [98], traya mana [99], maha jalini [100], ativisa [101], 
kakamacl [102], kaka jangha [103], lodhra [104], vrddha dam 
[105], devadali [106], hamsa pad! [107], soma valli [108], nakull 
[108], vata patri [109], lajjalu [109], musali [110], kapi kacchu 
[111], putrafljlva [111], vandhya karkotl [(12], visnu kranta. 
[113], samkha puspl [11?], dugdhi [122], arka puspl [123], bhal- 
lataka [123] cerapoti [124], drona puspl [125], brahml [126] r 
suvarcala [127], matsyaksi [128], nagadamanl [129], gunja. [130],. 
vellantara [131], vandaka [132], pindalii [133], chikkini [133], 
robitaka [134], moca rasa [135], aja gandh! [136]. saireyaka 
[136-137], girikarnika [138], kokilaksa [139], karpasa [140], 
arama sitala [140], tamra cuda [141], vami [141], vala mota 
[142], sara purhkha [142], mayura. sikha [143], Iaksmana [143], 
mamsa rohini [144], asthi samhara [144], arka [145], karaviras 
[146], dhastura [147], kalihari [148], kumari [149], bhanga [150], 
kancani [150], dflrva [151], garida durva [152], kasa [152],. 
darbha [153], mufija [153], nala [154], variisa [154], kburasani 
yavani [155], khasa khasa [155], aphxi [156], patala garuda 

Chapter 32 : Synonyms of Drugs 496 

(Suntbyadi varga) 

£unthi [1], ardraka [2], marica [2], pippall [3], tryusana and 
caturuSana [4]. pippall mula [5], cavya [6], gaja pippall [6], 
citraka [7], panca kola, sadiisana [8], sata puspa [9], misreya. 
[10], raethi [10], aja moda [11], jira [12], upakuflcika [13] r 
yavani [14-15], aja gandha [16], vaca [17], hapusa [18], vidanga 
[19], dhanyaka [20], hingu patri [21], hingu [22], vamsa rocana 
[23], saindhava [24], sauvarcala [24], vida [25], samudra lavana 
[25], audbhida lavana [26], romaka lavana [26], pamsu lavana 
[27], kaca lavana [27], yava ksara [28], svarji ksara [28], tankana 
[29], sudha ksara [29], sarva ksara [30]. 

Chapter 33 : Synonyms of Drugs 507 

(Karpuradi varga) 

Karptira [1], kasturl [2], candana [3], rakta candana [4],. 
pita candana [5], krsnaguru [6], kurhkuma [7], sila rasa [8],. 
jatiphala [9], jati patri [9], lavanga [10], kamkola [11], suks- 

Contents xxvii 

maila [11], sthulaila [12], tvak [13], teja patra [14], naga kesara 
[14-15], tri sugandhi & caturjataka [16], talL-a [17], sara'a T18] y 
srivasa [18], bala [19], jatamamsl [20], uslra [21], renuka [21], 
priyarigu [22], paripela [22], saileya [23], kunduru [23], guggulu 
[24], rala [25], sthauneyaka [26], coraka [26], ekangi [27], kar- 
cura [27], sati [28], sprkka [28], granthi parm [29], nail [29], 
padmaka [30], pundarlka [30], tagara [31], gorocana [32], 
nakha [33], patanga [34], laksa [35], parpatl [3f], padma 
[36-37], padma carinl [37], sveta karaala [38-40], raktotpala 
[40], nllotpala [41], kalhara [42], kamala kesara [42], padma 
bija [43], mrnala [43], saluka [44], jatl [44-45], malatl [46], 
yuthika [46-47], sevatl [47-48], ketakl [49], vasantl [50], 
madhavl [50-51], punnaga [52], vakula [53], kunda [54], muca- 
kunda [54], vela [55-56], bandhu jlva [56], japa [57], sindOrl 
[57], tulasl [58], maruvaka [59], damana [59-60], kutheraka 

Chapter 34 : Synonyms of Drugs 529* 

(Suvarnadi varga) 

Suvarna [1], rupyaka [2], tSmra [2], kamsya [3], pittala [4]„ 
vanga [5], naga [5], lauha [6], mandura [6], parada [7], abhra 
[8], gandhaka [8], makslka [9], manahsila [9], hantala [10], 
gainka [11], tuttha [12], kaslsa [13], hingula [14], sindura [14], 
sauvira afijana [15], srotonjana [15], rasafijana [16], puspaiijana 
[17], sila jatu [18], bola [19], sphatika [19], samudra phena [20], 
pravala [21], mukta. [21], manikya [22], surya kanta [22], 
candra kanta [23], gomeda [23], hlra [24], vaidurya [24], mara- 
kata [25], Sukti [25], samkha [26], laghu samkha [26], kapar- 
dika [27], khatika [27], gauda pasaria [28], panka and valuka 
[28], cumbaka pasana [29], kaca [29]. 

Chapter 35 : Synonyms of Drugs 541 

(Vatadi varga) 

Vata [1], asvattha [2], udurhbara [3], kasthodumbara [4], 
plaksa [4], nandl [5], kadarhba [5], arjuna [6], sirisa [7], arta- 
gala [8], vetasa [8], jala vetasa [9], samudra phala [9], slesma.- 
taka [10], pilu [11-12], saka [12], sala [13], tamala [13], khadira 
[14], vit khadira [15], babbula [15], vijaya sara [16], unisa [16], 

xxviii Materia Medico 

bhurja [17], palasa [17], dhava \l%], dhanvana [19], aja karna 
[19], varuna [20], jingini [20], sallakl [21], ingudl [22], karaharl 
[22], muskaka [23], paribhadra [23], Salmall [24], tragi [25], 
sapta parna [26], haridra [26], karanja [27], karafiji [28], saml 
[29], sirlsika [30], aristaka [30], sirhsapa [31], agastya [31]. 

Chapter 36 : Synonyms of Drugs 554 

(Draksadi varga) 

Draksa [1-4], amra [5-8], jambu [8-10], narikela [11-13], 
kharjurika [14-17], silemani kharjura [18], kadali [19-21], dadi- 
ma [21-?3], badara [24-27], laghu badara [27-30], ksiri [31-32], 
pri>ala [33-34], parusaka [35-36], tinduka [37-39], kirhkinl [40- 
4i], aru [41-42], madhuka [42-45], panasa [46-47], lakuca [48- 
49j, tala [49-5!], kharbuja [52-53], seva [53-55] amrta [56], 
badama [57], mkocaka and pista [58-60], kela [60], aru [61], 
afljlra [62], aksota [63], palevaka and malavaka [64-65], tiita 
[66], gangeruka and todana [67-69], tuvaraka [70-71], bija 
puraka [71-75], madhu karkatika [75-76], narangl [76-77], jam- 
biraka [78-79], amla vetasa [79-80], saramlaka [81], nirhbuka 
[81-85], karma ranga [86], amlika [87-88], tittidlka [89-90] 
karamarda [90-91], kapittha [92-94], kapittha patri [94-95], 
amrataka [95-96], rajamra [97], caturamla and pancamla [98- 
99], kosamra [99-101], suparl [101-103], tambula [104-105], 
lavall [106-107], general description [108-109], 

Chapter 37 : Synonyms of Drugs 587 

(Kusmandadi varga) 

kusmanda [1], kalinga [2], tumbl [2], katu tumbl [3], karkatl 
[3], trapusa [4], cirbhati [5], valuka [5-6], kosataki [6-7], raja 
kosataki [7], maha kosataki [8], vrntaki [8-9], bimbl [10], kara- 
vellaka [10-11], karkotaka [11], vandhya karkotaki [12], kola 
simbi [13], dindisa [13], simbi [14], vastuka [14], jlvantaka [15], 
cilll [15], kala saka [16], tandullyaka [16-17], phogo [17], 
patola [18-19], ciccinda [19], palankya [20], upodika [20], 
lonika [21], sunisannaka [22], sira vara [22], sarsapa saka [23], 
canaka saka [23], kalaya saka [24], cangerl [24], kasamarda ann 
grfljana [25], mulaka [25], kariraka [26], sigru [26-28], Iasuna 
J28-29], palandu [29], ksira palandu [30], grrijana [30-32], sura- 

Contents xxix. 

na[32-33], asthi samhara [33], varahi [34], musall [34], keyu [35], 
bhuchatra [35], mana kanda [36], kaseru [36], srrigataka [3 7 ], 
pindalu [37-39]. 

Chapter 38 : Synonyms of Drugs 602 

(Jaladi varga and food preparations) 

Jala [1], dugdha [2], dadhi [2], takra [3-4], navanlta [5j, 
ghrta [5], madya [6], iksu [7], iksu vikara [8-9], madhu [10-11] 
madhucchista [12], group of dhanya [12-14], ksirl [15-16], 
raga sadava [16-19], khandamra & khandamalaka [19-20], 
sikharini [20-22], panaka [23-28], sattaka [28-30], mandaka [30- 
33], poiika [34-35], salipista [35-36], godhuma bhaksya [36]. 
vaidala bhaksya [37], masa bhaksya [37], anya bhaksya [38], 
guda yukta bhaksya [38], ghrta pakva bhaksya [39], taila pakva 
bhaksya [39], dugdha bhaksya [40], ghrta pfira [41-44], sam- 
yava [44-48], madhu slrsaka [48-50], madhu pupaka [50-51], 
dadhi pupaka [51-53], visyandana [54-58], lapsika [58-60], 
phenika [60-61], modaka [61-64], vataka [64-66], indarl [67], 
somalika [67], kundalika [68-71], kulmasa [71-72], mantha [72- 
75], saktu [76-79], laja [80-81], dhana [81], prthuka [82], holaka 
[83], umvi [84]. 

Index : I 625 

(Glossary of Technical Terms) 

Index : II 645 

(Drugs and Diet described in this Text) 

Index : III 673* 

(Synonyms of Drugs) 


31 a ^ ka trr na ^ va 

5TT a 13 kha cr ta ^r £a 


































































sf m s- da ^ ra 

«r: h s: dha ^ i a 


The history of the materia medica of ayurveda is "as old 
as the Vedas. The Rk Veda (prior to 4500 B.C.), which is the 
oldest repository of human knowledge, has described about 67 
plants. Other Vedas, namely, Soman, Yajus and Atharvan are 
also replete with references to various aspects of ayurveda, 
including the description of drugs and their therapeutic effects. 
Medicinal plants are also described in the samhita, upanisat and 
purana texts. 

Ayurveda is an upaveda or subsidiary text of the Atharva 
veda and it has the following specialised branches ; 

(1) Kaya cikitsa or Internal medicine ; 

(2) Salya tantra or Surgery ; 

(3) Salakya tantra or the treatment of diseases of head 
and neck ; 

(4) Agada tantra or Toxicology ; 

(5) Bftiita vidyd or the management of seizures by evil 
spirits and other mental disorders ; 

(6) Bala tantra or Paediatrics ; 

(7) Rasayana tantra or Geriatrics including Rejuvenation 
therapy ; and 

(8) Vajikarana tantra or Science of Aphrodisiacs. 

Classics were composed on each of these specialised 
branches. In some classics, all these branches of ayurveda were 
put together. Prior to the seventh century B.C., many ayurvedic 
classics were composed. The important ones, among them, are 
Caraka samhita, Siismta samhita, Bhela samhita, Kasyapa sam- 
hita and Harita samhita. Most of these texts are not available 
in their original form now. Caraka samhita, which was origi- 
nally composed by Agnivesa and was called Agnivesa samhita, 
was subsequently redacted by Caraka. Even this redacted ver- 
sion is not available in its entirety now. Out of 120 chapters, 

xxxii Materia Medica' 

about 41 chapters were missing and were subsequently added 
by a fourth century scholar named Drdhabala. Susruta 
samhita. was also redacted by Nagarjuna. The remaining three 
texts are not available in their complete form. Harita samhita, 
which is available now, appears to be different from the original 
one. Subsequently, two texts of Vagbhata, namely, Astanga 
hrdaya and Astanga samgraha were added to this series of 
classics and both these works are available m their complete- 
form. In all these important ayurvedic classics, separate chap- 
ters are provided for the description of drugs and their therapeu- 
tic properties. The fundamental principles dealing with the 
concept of drug composition and drug action are also described 
in these texts. Dravya guna or materia medica, as a separate 
text, came into existence much later. 

The advent of Buddhism in India brought considerable 
change in the practice of ayurveda. Surgery, the performance of 
which is invaiiably associated with pain, was treated as a form 
of hirixsa or violence, and therefore, its practice was banned. To 
compensate this loss, and to alleviate the sufferings of ailing hu- 
manity, more drugs were added during this period to ayurvedic 
materia medica. Prior to this period, metals and minerals were 
no doubt used for therapeutic purposes. But their use was in a 
crude form and they were sparingly used. Buddhist scholars 
added considerably to the metals and minerals in ayurvedic 
materia medica, inasmuch as Rasa testra or Iatro-chemistry, 
formed a specialised branch and many authentic texts were 
composed on this subject. Thus, the loss by discarding the 
practice of surgery was well compensated by the addition 
of iatro-chemistry to the materia medica of ayurveda during 
this period. 

Some of the Buddhist rulers, like Asoka, established seve- 
ral herb-gardens, so that people could get drugs conveniently 
for the treatment of their diseases. Buddhist monks were 
encouraged to learn ayurveda and practise it, which was consi- 
dered to be the most convenient and popular method of sprea- 
ding the teachings of their Preceptor. Thus, through Buddhism, 
ayurveda spread -to Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, the 
Buriyat Republic of Soviet Russia, China, Korea, Japan and. 

Introduction xxxiii 

other South-East Asian countries. Ayurvedic texts, including 
texts on materia medica, were translated into the languages of 
these countries and these are still available in translated form 
even though some of their originals have become extinct in the 
country of their origin. Based upon the fundamental principles 
of ayurveda, some local herbs, diet and drinks were included ia 
the traditional medicine of the respective countries. The 
materia medica of ayurveda was thus enriched. 

India was severally invaded by outsiders like the Greeks, 
the Saks and the Hoons. When these people came into contact 
with the rich tradition of India, especially the medical 
science, they carried back with them medicines and doctors. 
Indian doctors who went with them, translated ayurvedic 
texts into their languages. The new drugs which were specially 
used in those places were incorporated into the ayurvedic phar- 
macopoeia. Such repeated exchanges of scholars enriched 
ayurveda and its materia medica. Through commercial channels 
ayurvedic drugs and spices were exported to these countries 
and they were held in high esteem there. 

Several universities were established during this period for 
imparting theoretical and practical training in different religious 
and secular subjects. Taxila and Nalanda were the two such 
universities which attracted not only intellectuals, from different 
parts of this country but many from abroad. In Taxila, there 
was a medical faculty with Atreya as its Chairman. In Bud- 
dhist literature, there are many interesting stories and anecdotes 
about the activities of these universities, their scholars and 
faculty members. One such anecdote is related to Jlvaka who 
was three times crowned as the King of Physicians because of 
his proficiency in the art of healing. He was an expert in 
paediatrics and brain surgery. It was the practice at that time 
for candidates desirous of admission to the faculty in the uni- 
versity to appear for a test before the Dvarapala or the 
gate-keeper. Jlvaka and several other princes had to face 
these tests before being considered for admission to the medi- 
cal faculty. They were asked to go to the nearby forests 
and collect as many plants as possible, which did not possess 
any medicinal property. By the evening candidates returned 

xxxi V Ma tei ia Medica 

with several plants which they considered to be free from 
medicinal properties. Jlvaka did not return for several days 
and, when he did, he was empty handed. On a query from 
the gate-keeper, Jlvaka replied, "I could not find any plant, 
or for that matter anything which does not have medicinal 
value." He alone was selected for admission to the medical 
faculty. This was the status of knowledge of the candidates 
for the medical faculty at that time. This was the time when 
the knowledge of materia medica became highly developed. 

As has been mentioned before, Buddhism was partially 
responsible for the arrest of development in some branches of 
ayurveda. Foreigners who ruled over India brought with them 
medicines and medical men from their own countries and pat- 
ronised them. The practice of ayurveda, thus, lost the support 
and patronage of the rulers. Apart from foreign invasions, 
during the medieval period, the ruling states in this sub-conti- 
nent itself were engaged in fighting amongst themselves. The 
spread of Buddhism was so rapid among the masses of India 
and abroad that the intellectuals of the country were terribly 
afraid for their own existence. While their rulers were engaged 
in political battles, these intellectuals quarrelled among them- 
selves in the name of religion. During this process, many 
libraries were burnt. Quite apart from any original thinking, 
the scholars could not preserve even the books which had already 
been composed prior to this period. The practice of ayurveda 
was despised. It was considered sinful to touch a dead body or 
a woman giving birth to a child. Thus, the practice of obste- 
trics, anatomical dissections and surgery went out of the hands 
of the physicians. Examination of urine and stool was consi- 
dered unclean. Pulse examination by touching the patient was 
frowned upon. Thus, the practitioners of ayurveda became out- 
castes. The profession did not attract intellectuals. Specialised 
branches disappeared from the scene. What remained were 
only a few medicines for a few diseases and these were practised 
by people of low intellectual calibre. 

Because of the arrest of the progress, many supersti- 
tious interpolations and redactions crept into the medical 
texts. Even these texts were not readily available Such was the 

Inti oduction xxx v 

state of affair during the sixteenth century A.D. which moved 
Raja Todaramalla to salvage the remanants of these sciences 
from the then available mutilated texts by incorporating the 
knowledge and experience of the scholars of that time. In this 
encyclopaedic work different topics of ayurveda are described in 
91 chapters. Out of these, only ten selected chapters have been 
utilised for preparation of the present work on materia medica. 

Literature on Ayurvedic materia medica 

The oldest text on the materia medica of ayurveda now 
extant is the Rasa vaisesika of Nagarjuna (fifth century A.D.). 
It deals, among others, with various concepts of drug composi- 
tion and drug action. During the medieval period, the Astanga 
nighantu was composed by one Vahatacarya. This work 
describes the synonyms of drugs belonging to various groups or 
ganas of Astanga sarhgraha. This Vahatacarya seems to be 
different from Vagbhata, the author of Astanga hrdaya and 
Astanga sarhgraha. This seems to be the work done during the 
eighth century A.D.. 

The Paryaya ratnamala of Madhava (9th century A.D.) 
describes the synonyms of different groups of drugs. Dhanvantari 
nighantu is perhaps the most popular text where the properties 
of different groups of drugs are described along with their 
synonyms. This work was composed prior to the thirteenth 
century A.D. Nighantu sesa was composed by a Jain scholar 
namely Hemacandra in twelfth century A.D. It contains the 
synonyms of different types of plants. Sodhala nigltantu is ano- 
ther important work on the materia medica of ayurveda next 
to Dhanvantari nighafu. It was composed during the twelfth 
century A.D. Madanapala nighantu composed by Madana pala 
in 1374 A.D. describes the properties of different types of drugs. 
Kaiyadeva nighantu written by Kaiyadeva, describes the proper- 
ties of 9 groups of drugs. It was composed during A.D. 1450. 
Bhava misra composed an encyclopaedic work called Bhavapra- 
kasa during the sixteenth century A.D. It has a separate section 
on the description of drugs and their synonyms. Besides, several 
texts on rasa §astra were composed djring this period. In these 
texts the properties of metals and minerals and a few vegetable 
as well as animal products are also described. 

Xxxvi Materia Medico, 

These texts on the materia medica of ayurveda were 
composed prior to the composition of Ayurveda Saukhyam of 
Todarananda. Many verses of Ayurveda Saukhyam are also 
available in the Bhava-prakdsa, Ayurveda prakasa and Madhava 
nighantu, even though these names are not quoted by the author. 
A cursory glance through the text of Ay urveda Saukhyam of 
Todaramalla indicates that the author has taken care to indicate 
the name of the text or the author from where material has been 
compiled. Madhava nighantu, Ayurveda prakasa and Bhava 
prakasa were already composed when Jlyurveda Saukhyam was 
under preparation. Either these works were not considered im- 
portant enough to be cited as references or they were not avail- 
able to the scholars who compiled the text of Ayurveda Saukh- 
yam. The identity of the texts between these works namely, 
Ayurveda Saukhyam on the one hand, and Madhava nighantu, 
Ayurveda prakasa and Bhava prakasa on the other, indicates 
that all of them might have collected their textual material 
from another work which has since gone extinct. 

The classification of drugs, food and drinks in these texts, 
vary from each other. The system of classification followed 
by Madhava nighantu is closer to the classification followed in. 
Ayurveda Saukhyam. 

Basic Concepts regarding the Creation of the universe 

Ayurveda has drawn its basic concepts from the different 
philosophical systems of ancient India. The Samkya-Patah- 
jala system and the Nyaya-Vaisesika system have considerably 
influenced the physical, physico-chemical, physiological and 
pharmocological theories of ayurveda. Sdinkya-Pdtanjala" 
system accounts for the creation of the universe and composi- 
t'on of matter on the principles of cosmic evolution. The 
Nyaya vaisesika system lays down the methodology of scienti- 
fic studies and elaborates the concepts of mechanics, physics. 
and chemistry. 

The manifested world, according to the Samkya is an evo- 
lution of the unmanifested Prakrti or primordial matter, stuff, 
which is conceived as formless and undifferentiated, limitless 
and ubiquitous, indestructible and undecaying, ungrounded and 

Introduction xxxvii 

uncontrolled as well as without beginning and without end. 
This unity of Prakrti is a mere abstraction. It is in reality an 
undifferentiated manifold and indeterminate infinite continuum 
of three attributes called (1) the sattva (2) the rajas and 
(3) the tamas. The sattva attribute is the medium of reflection 
of intelligence. The rajas represents the energy which creates a 
tendency for work by overcoming resistance. The tamas is the 
mass or inertia where the effects of rajas and sattva in the form 
•of energy and conscience respectively are manifested. 

These three gunas or attributes are interdependant. The 
rajas, in combination with the sattva, helps in the creation of 
the sensory and motor faculties including the mental faculty. 
The rajas, in combination with tamas, gives rise to theiive cate- 
gories of tanmatids which are also known as subtle bhutas. 
These tanmdti as are in the form of quanta of different types of 
■energy, which, by different types of of permutation and combi- 
nation, gives rise to different categories of material. All these 
quanta of energy are present in all the types of matter. There- 
fore, there is nothing like a pure substance consisting of only 
one type of energy. It is at this stage that the energy is trans- 
formed into matter with undifferentiable distinction. 

These unmanifested tanmdtrds and the manifested mahabhu- 
ias are of five types namely, prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and dkdsa. 
Since there is nothing like a pure substance, as has already 
been explained, the substance of a drug is called pdrthiva, 
opya, taijasa, vayaviya or akdsiya, depending upon the pre- 
dominance of the tanmdtrds of prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and 
dkdsa respectively in its composition. 

According to Nyaya-Vaisesika system, there are nine drav- 
yas or categories of matter. They are the five mahd bhutas, 
namely, prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and dkdsa and dik (direction or 
space), kala (time), dtman (soul) and manas (mind). It is signi- 
ficant to note here that the time and space are considered in 
Nyaya-Vvaisesika as two different categories of matter. Similarly, 
dtman and manas are also considered as matter. Thus, accord- 
ing to Nyaya-Vaisesika, the entire universe, including the -time, 
.space, soul and mind is of nine categories. Depending upon 

xxxviii Materia Medica 

their attributes all the basic atoms of modern physics and 
chemistry can be classified into these five categories of maha- 
bhutas. If these items are to be explained according to the 
Samkya-Patanjala system then each one of these atoms is a 
conglomeration of five categories of energy or tanmatras, having 
a mass in the form of prthvT, cohesion or gravitation in the 
form of ap, heat or light in the form of tejas, 'motion in the 
form of vayu and intermittant space in the form of akasa 
tanmatra. Thus, the Nyaya-Vaisesika concept of matter begins, 
from where the Samkhya-Pdtanjala concept of matter ends. 
There is a subtle difference between these two concepts. 

These mahabhutas are present both in drugs and in human 
bodies, . in a particular proportion. The human body grows- 
during young age, gains stability during adulthood and gets 
decayed or reduced during the old age. During all these 
stages of human life, these mahabhutas remain in a particular 
proportion in a state of equilibrium in the human body. 
During the different stages of life, because of the activities of 
life force represented in the form of the action of agni or 
enzymes, there is a natural consequence of these mahabhutas 
being consumed for the manifestation of energy and heat. 
This natural loss is replenished and the hormal growth and 
maintenance of stability are achieved by the supplementation 
of these mahabhutas through intrinsic and extrinsic sources 
i.e., food, drinks, senses, air, light and mental activities. 

If there is any change in this equilibrium of mahabhutas 
in the human body, it results in disease and decay. To correct 
this state of imbalancement, the patients are given different 
types of drugs, food, drinks and regimens which help in the 
maintenance of this state of equilibrium. This, m brief, is 
the concept on the basis of which a drug is selected for the 
treatment of a disease. But it is very difficult to ascertain the 
nature of the mahabhutas which have undergone changes in the 
body. It is also difficult to ascertain the quantum of rnahd- 
bhuta present in a particular drug, diet or regimen. , That is- 
why, for all practical purposes, this theoretical concept in 
ayusveda has further been simplified with a view to enable the 
physician to determine with ease and convenience the nature of 

Introduction XXXIX 

disturbance in the body and the type of drug, diet and regimen 
required for a healthy person and a patient. 

Composition of Human body 

The five mahabhutas which enter into the composition of 
the human body are classified into three categories, namely 
(1) dosas, (2) the dhatus and (3) the malas. Dosas govern 
the physiological and physico-chemical activities of the body 
and these are three in number, namely (1) v&yu, (2) pitta and 
(3) kapha. (These are often mistranslated as wind, bile and 
phlegm respectively). Vayu is responsible for all the move- 
ments and sensations, including motor actions inside the body. 
Pitta is responsible for all physio-chemical activities of the 
body in the form of metabolism, production of heat and 
energy. Kapha is the substance which maintains compactness 
or cohesiveness in the body by providing the fluid matrix to 
it. These dosas are dominated by different mahabhutas as per 
the table given below : — 

Dosa Dominating mahabhuta 

1. Vayu Vayu and akasa mahabhutas 

2. Pitta Tejas mahabhuta 

3. Kapha Prtkvi and ap mahabhutas. 

These dosas, namely, vayu, pitta and kapha, are further 
divided into five categories each. Their locations and func- 
tions are described in detail in ayurvedic classics. Diseases 
that are produced by the aggravation or diminution of dosas 
are also described in ayurvedic texts. From these signs and 
symptoms manifested in the human body, the physician can 
judge the type of mahabhuta that has gone astray resulting in 
the manifestation of the disease and this helps the physician 
to select a particular drug. 

The dhatus are the basic tissue elements of the body. 
They are seven in number, namely, (1) rasa or chyle or 
plasma, (2) rakta or the red-blood corpuscles, (3) mSrhsa or 
muscle tissue, (4) medas or the fat tissue, (5) asthi or bone 
tissue, (6) majja or the bone marrow and (7) sukra and rajas or 
the sperm and ovum which are responsible for procreation. 

XL Materia Medico. 

These dhatus or basic tissue elements remain in a particular 
proportion in the human body and any change in their equili- 
brium leads to disease and decay. Their functions are descri- 
hed in detail in ayurvedic classics. Diseases are produced 
only -when the dosas interact with these dhatus and this 
happens only when there is disturbance in their equilibrium. 

These seven dhatus are also composed of live mahabhutas. 
However, prthvi mahabhuta predominates in muscle and fat 
tissues; Jala mahabhuta predominates in lymph, chyle and 
other fluid tissue elements; the hemoglobin fraction of the 
blood is primarily composed of tejas mahabhuta', bones are 
composed of vdyu mahabhuta and the pores inside the body 
are dominated by akasa mahabhuta. 

If there is any change in the equilibrium of these dhatus 
certain signs and symptoms are manifested in the body which 
are described in detail in ayurvedic classics. From these signs 
and symptoms, the physician can ascertain the mahabhautic 
requirement of the body for the correction of the disease, and 
drugs are selected accordingly. 

The malas or the waste products are primarily of three 
categories, namely, (l)the stool, (2) the urine and (3) the sweat. 
These are required to be eliminated regularly. The catabolic 
products of the body in the form of unwanted mahabhutas 
are eliminated through them. If these are not eliminated in 
the required quantity, then this results m disease and 
decay, and various signs and symptoms are manifested in the 
body. From these signs and symptoms, the physician can 
ascertain the exact mahabhautic requirement of the body 
and select a drug or recipe for correcting the disease. 

Thus, the physician can ascertain the exact position of 
the mahabhutas in the body from certain external signs and 

Drug Composition 

Depending upon the predominance of mahabhutas, drugs 



are classified into five categories details of which are given 
the table below : 


-of mahabhuta 
in the drug. 




Attributes and actions of the 


Substances that are heavy, tough, 
hard, stable, non-slimy, dense, 
gross and abounding in the 
quality of smell are dominated 
by prthvi; they promote plump- 
ness and stability. 

Substances that are liquid, unc- 
tuous, cold, dull, soft, slimy and 
abounding in the qualities of 
taste are dominated by ap or 
jala; they promote stickiness, 
unctuousness, compactness, mois- 
tness and happiness. 

Substances that are hot, sharp, 
subtle, light, ununctuous, non- 
slimy and abounding in the qua- 
lities of vision are dominated by 
tejas; they promote combustion, 
metabolism, lustre, radiance 
and colour. 


Substances that are light, cold, 
ununctuous, rough, non-slimy, 
subtle and abounding in the 
qualities of touch are dominated 
by vayu; they promote rough- 
ness, aversion, movement, non- 
sliminess and lightness. 

XLii Materia Medica 

(0 00 

Akasa Substances that are soft, light, 

subtle, smooth and dominated 
by the qualities of sound are 
dominated by akasa; they pro- 
mote softness, porosity and 

From the above description alone, it becomes difficult at 
times to select a particular drug, diet, drink or regimen for the 
treatment of a particular disease. To facilitate the understand- 
ing of the mahabhautic composition of a drug and to ascertain 
its exact action on the human body, drugs are classified into 
six categories on the basis of their tastes; into 20 categories on 
the basis of their gunas or attributes; into eight or two cate- 
gories on the basis of their vlrya or potency and into three cate- 
gories on the basis of their vipaka or the taste that emerges 
after digestion. In ayurvedic texts, the actions of different 
groups of drugs on the above lines are described in detail- 
From these tastes (rasas), attributes (gunas), potency (viryay 
and the taste that emerges after digestion (vipaka), one can 
determine the mahabhautic composition of the drug. The dom- 
inating maha bhutas in drugs of different tastes are given in the 
table below : 

Taste Predominating maha bhutas: 

1. Sweet Prthvia.n6.ap 

2. Sour Ap and tejas 

3. Saline Prthvi and tejas 
,4. Pungent Vayu and tejas 

5. Bitter Vayu and akasa 

6. Astringent Vayu and prthvi. 

Mahabhautic predominance for the manifestation of twenty 
gunas or attributes is given in the table below : 

Guna Predominating maha. bhutas: 

1 . Guru (heavy) Prthvi and ap 

2. Laghu (light) Tejas, vayu <fe akasa 



3. Sita (cold) 

4. Usna (hot) 

5. Snigdha (unctuous) 

6. Ruksa (ununctuous) 
-7. Manda (dull) 

8. Tiksna (sharp) 

9. Sf/i/ra (stable) 

10. Sera (fluid) 

11. Mrdu (soft) 

12. Kathina (hard) 

13. Visada (non-slimy) 

14. Picchila (slimy) 

15. Slaksna (smooth) 

16. Khar a (rough) 

17. Suksma (subtle) 

18. Sthula (gross) 

1 9. Sandra (dense) 

20. Drava (liquid) 




Prthvi, tejas and vayu 

Prthvi and ap 



Vayu and ap 

Ap and akasa 


Prthvi, tejai, vayu and akasa 




Tejas, vayu and akasa 




About virya or potency, there are two different views. One 
group of scholars hold usna (hot) and sita (cold) to be the two- 
types of viryas. Regarding their mahdbhautic composition usna 
dravyas are dominated by tejas maha bhiita and sita dravyas are 
dominated by ap and prthvi maha bhutas. Another group of 
scholars hold eight attributes as viryas and their maha bhautic 
composition is given below : 


1. Sita 

2. Usna 

3. Snigdl.a 

4. Ruksa 

5. Guru 

6. Laghu 

7. Manda 

8. Tiksna 

Predominating maha bhutas- 

Prthvi and ap 




Prthvi and ap 

Tejas,, vayu and akasa 



Vipaka or the taste of a drug after digestion, is of three- 
types, namely, madhura (sweet), amla (sour) and katu (pungent). 

xli*v Materia Medica 

The mahabliautic composition of these vipakas is determined 
according to those of the respective tastes. 

The action of some drugs cannot be explained according to 
their rasa (taste), guna (attribute), virya (potency) and vipaka 
(taste that emerges after digestion). It is because the maha 
bhutas which take part in the manifestation of rasa, guna etc., 
do not actually take part in producing the therapeutic action 
of the drug. They manifest their action only when the drug is 
administered to the patient and this is called prabhava or 
specific action. 

It will be seen from the above that a drug, diet or drink, for 
a healthy person or a patient to prevent and cure a disease, is 
not selected empirically but on the basis of a rational theory. 
In the ayurvedic texts on materia medica, in respect of each 
drug, such rational explanations are not provided because such 
details were not found necessary. None the less, these rational 
explanations are always kept in view before deciding upon the 
therapeutic effect of a drug. On the basis of accumulated 
experience and the repeated observations through centuries, 
these actions are determined. A physician or a research worker 
is supposed to have prior comprehension of the rationality of 
these actions on the basis of paribhasd. that is described in the 
fundamental concepts. ' 

Mechanism of Drug Action 

Before closing this topic, it will be necessary to explain 
some basic differences in the mechanism of drug action bet- 
ween ayurveda and the modern allopathic system of medicine. 
Ayurveda, like other systems of traditional medicine, has its 
unique features. It lays more emphasis on the promotion of 
positive health and prevention of diseases. The existence of 
organisms and their role in the causation of several infective 
diseases in the body have been recognised and elaborated. 
But for the prevention and cure of such diseases, the drugs 
and therapies prescribed in ayurvedic classics and administered 
by ayurvedic physicians do not aim at only killing these organ- 
isms. Some of these medicines might have bacteriostatic or bac- 
tericidal effects. But most of them do not act in this way. In 

Introduction xlv 

ayurveda, more emphasis is laid upon the "field" than th? 
"seed". If the field is barren then the seed, howsoever potent 
it may be, will not germinate. Similarly, howsoever potent 
the germ or the bacteria may be, they will not be able to pro- 
duce disease in the human body unless the tissues of the body 
are fertile (vitiated) enough to accept them and help in their 
growth and multiplication. Killing these germs by adminis- 
tering medicine would not solve the problem permanently. It 
may give instant relief, and perhaps the body resistance during 
this period will be developed enough as a reaction to the infec- 
tion by these germs which may result m the prevention of 
their further attacks. Man cannot live in an absolutely germ- 
free atmosphere even though he can minimise it. The only 
thing that can be done safely is to keep the tissues of the body 
barren and unreceptive towards these germs. Once the body 
is afflicted, the tissues should be so conditioned by drugs, 
diet and other regimen that these germs or bacteria, by what- 
soever name we may call them, will find the atmosphere hos- 
tile towards their survival, multiplication and growth. All 
medicines and therapies including preventive measures pres- 
cribed in ayurveda aim at conditioning the tissues and not 
killing the invading organisms. 

Allopathic drugs which are employed specially for killing 
organisms may produce the same or a similar effect on the 
tissues of the body. When they are given in a dose sufficient 
to kill the invading organisms, they may simultaneously kill 
the friendly organisms in the body as well, and may impair the 
normal functioning of the tissues. Thus, they produce side or 
toxic effects while curing the disease. Ayurvedic medicines, 
on the other hand, while conditioning the tissues of the body 
against the organisms, nourish and rejuvenate them. Thus, 
when the disease is cured, the individual gets many, side bene- 
fits It is because of this that all ayurvedic medicines are 

Except for a few modern drugs, e.g. minerals and vitamins, 
all others are meant exclusively for patients. All ayurvedic drugs, 
on the other hand, can be given to both patients and healthy 
individuals simultaneously — in patients they cure diseases and- 

"XLvi Materia Medica 

in kealthly individuals they prevent disease and promote posi- 
tive health. To illustrate the point : vasa (Adhatoda vasica 
Nees) is very often prescribed by ayurvedic physicians to a 
patient suffering from bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis and 
even tuberculosis. May be, some fractions of this drug have 
properties to kill some of the organisms causing these ailments. 
But that is not the primary consideration which motivates the 
physician to prescribe this drug. These organisms thrive and 
multiply to produce a disease in the respiratory tract and 
throat only when the local tissue elements are afflicted with 
excessive kapha dosa. Vasa counteracts this aggravated kapha 
dosa, and helps in the maintenance of its state of equilibrium 
in the body by which the organisms become incapable of pro- 
ducing these ailments. 

In ayurveda the treatment prescribed does not aim at cor- 
recting the afflicted part alone. In the process of manifesta- 
tion of the disease several organs are involved. The disease 
takes its origin from a particular place. It moves through a 
particular channel and then gets manifested in a particular 
organ. Therefore, the treatment always aims at correcting the 
site of origin, the channels of circulation along with the site 
of manifestation of the disease — all together. Take for 
example, the treatment of bronchial asthma which in ayur- 
vedic parlance is known as tamaka svdsa. The breathing 
difficulty in the disease is caused by the spasm of the bronchi, 
and to relieve it, antispasmodic drugs are generally prescribed 
in modern medicine. But the aim of the ayurvedic treatment 
of this disease is different May be, some ayurvedic drugs 
used against this disease have this antispasmodic effect which 
can be demonstrated even in animals under experiment. But 
most of the drugs which are used in this treatment will not 
produce any anti-spasmodic effect and a pharmacologist will 
be at a loss and reject them as useless in the treatment of 
bronchial asthma. A clinician, on the other hand, will appre- 
ciate its effects on his patients even though he may not be 
able to explain their effects in terms of modern physiological 
and pathological concepts. This disease takes its origin from 
the stomach and small intestine. The primary aim of the 
ayurvedic physician is to correct these two organs either by 

Introduction xr.vii 

giving emetic therapy, or by giving such medicines which will 
keep the bowels clean. Hantaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.) 
along with other medicines is useful in correcting these two 
organs of the body, and therefore, all preparations indicated 
for the treatment of bronchial asthma invariably contain hari- 
taki and other drugs having identical properties. 

These four topics on (1) the basic concepts regarding the 
creation of the universe; (2) composition of the human body; 
<3) drug composition and (4) the mechanism of drug action, 
■described above are very important to the understanding 
and appreciation of the materia medica of ayurveda. At 
times, research workers, in their enthusiasm to develop the 
new drug from the plant sources, chemically and pharma- 
cologically screen the drugs prescribed in the ayurvedic 
materia medica without paying any attention to these basic 
•concepts and peculiar features of the system. They try to 
isolate alkaloids, glycosides and other similar active principles 
from these drugs. These so called active principles « are often 
not found in some of these ayurvedic drugs and when they are 
found they do not necessarily produce the results which are at- 
tributed to the whole drug in the ayurvedic materia medica. No 
wonder, therefore, that the scientists are disappointed at the 
-end of their hard labour and after considerable expenditure 
from the State exchequer. Sometimes they come to an erroneous 
conclusion that all ayurvedic drugs or at least most of them are 
therapeutically useless. This disappointment and wrong con- 
clusion could be avoided if the research on ayurvedic drugs is 
planned and designed in the beginning, keeping in view these 
fundamental principles of ayurveda on drug composition 
and drug action. 

In the present text on ayurvedic materia medica, only the 
single drugs — their synonyms and properties are described 
along with a few compound recipes, food articles and drinks. 
In actual ayurvedic practice, along with the single drugs, a 
number of compound preparations are used. These single 
drugs and compound preparations which are in use in ayur- 
vedic therapeutics are not free from shortcomings. 

XLviii Materia Medics* 

Classification of Ayurvedic Drugs 

In Ayurveda, more than 8000 medicines — single drugs and' 
compound preparations — have been described. In general, these- 
ayurvedic drugs can be classified into five categories as follows : 

(a) Scientifically Studied Drugs : Some single drugs and 
compound preparations, for example, sarpa gandha and yoga- 
raja guggulu have been studied scientifically and their thera- 
peutic claims verified. Sarpa gandha is useful for high blood 
pressure and yoga raja guggulu for rheumatism. The gum 
resin of a plant called guggulu is the important ingredient of" 
the latter medicine. 

(b) Popular Non-toxic Drugs : Some ayurvedic medicines 
are popular for their therapeutic utility and of non-toxic cha- 
racter- One such medicine is Cyavana prasa. Amalakl is the 
important ingredient of this medicine which is useful in treat- 
ing chronic diseases of the lungs like chronic bronchitis. 

(c) Effective but Toxic Drugs : There are some drugs for 
example, bhallataka avaleha, which have known therapeutic 
value but which also produce severe toxicity, if used injudi- 
ciously. Bhallataka is the important ingredient of this medi- 
cine which is used in the treatment of chronic and obstinate 
skin diseases, among others. 

(d) Drugs of Rare Use : Some drugs, for example, SrT 
visnu taila, though mentioned in ayurvedic classics, are not 
in extensive use. Only physicians of certain regions of India 
use them and claim their efficacy. 

(e) Hereditary and Patent Drugs : Some physicians have spe- 
cialised in curing certain diseases. The formulae and methods of" 
preparation of the drugs they administer are known only to 
them or to the trusted members of their family. While some 
of the drugs are not as effective as the claims made for them, 
some others are found to be very effective. In most cases, 
physicians are not at all willing to disclose the formulae; and 
even if they give consent, it is associated with a demandi 
for heavy financial compensation. 

Introduction XLiX 

Need For Standardization 

In olden days, the physician was rarely required to 
be consulted for minor ailments because the senior members 
of every family were well acquainted with the use of herbs 
available in their vicinity for treating such ailments. The phy- 
sician's role in such cases was only to guide the family members 
to obtain the correct herb, to process it properly and to instruct 
the patient about the dietetic and other regimen to be followed- 
Only serious cases were brought to the physician for direct 
supervision, and in such cases, he had to prepare his own med- 
icines. Things have changed now. At present, the physician 
is approached even for a minor ailment. People generally are 
not interested in knowing common household remedies or they 
do not believe in their efficacy. Thus, ayurvedic physicians, 
like modern doctors, have become busy practitioners who are 
also hard pressed for time to prepare their own medicines. Even 
for dispensing, these physicians are dependant entirely upon 
their compounders. As a result, many big commercial firms 
supplying medicines to ayurvedic physicians have come into 
existence. This, in turn, has led to a number of problems as 
follows : 

(a) Collection of Premature Herbs : For therapeutic purposes 
different parts of medicinal plants are required to be used which, 
are to be collected during specified periods. For example, 
amalaki should be collected only when the fruits are fully ripe. 
Annual plants should be collected before the ripening of seeds, 
biennials during spring and perennials during autumn. Twigs 
must be of the first year's growth and roots, leaves and bark 
should be collected in the cold, hot and lainy seasons respecti- 
vely. These instructions are seldom followed during the actual 
collection of herbs by large manufacturers of ayurvedic med- 

(b) Improper Processing and Preservation: Usually, raw drugs 
are stored for some time before they are processed. Proper 
care in processing and preservation is required so that the active 
principles of the drugs may not get deteriorated. Dumping 
them in bundles or in gunny bags, and keeping them exposed 

L Materia Medica 

to sun, rain and dust, adversely affect their therapeutic effec- 

(c) Methods of Preparation : Various methods are indicated 
in ayurvedic texts for 'the preparation of the same medicine. 
While some of the methods involve much time and labour, 
some others are less expensive. For reasons of economy, quite? 
a few pharmacies follow the less expensive methods or develop 
some methods which make their products less expensive with 
no guarantee that the drugs so prepared are equally effective. 
According to ayurvedic texts, raw oil has to be processed before 
it is used for the preparation of medicated oil. This process- 
ing is known as mw-chana. Pharmacies very rarely resort to 
this processing and in the absence of standard methods for 
testing these discrepancies in their drug preparation, the physi-' 
cians cannot be sure about the effectiveness of the drugs they 

(d) Use of Adulterated and Substandard Drugs : Therapeuti- 
cally important drugs like vatsa nabha and yasti madhu are often 
adulterated and sold in the market at a comparatively cheaper 
price. In the absence of any effective control over the sale of 
adulterated and spurious drugs, the dealers take full advantage 
and sell to their customers anything that resembles, or is made 
to resemble the genuine drug. The art of adulteration and pre j 
pration of spurious drugs has advanced to such an extent that 
even the most experienced among the vaidyasr finds it difficult 
to distinguish between genuine and spurious samples. Ayurve- 
dic physicians as well as commercial firms are often cheated 
and supplied with adulterated stuff. This obviously results in 
the circulation of sub-standard drugs in the market: 

(e) Substitution of Costly Drugs :• In some ayurvedic texts, 
of late, pratinidhi dravyas or official substitutes of many costly 
drugs have been prescribed; for example, kustha can be used 
in place of puskara mvh and gaja pippali in the place of cavya. 
Instead of treating these usages as exceptional cases, the substi- 
tutes are often unscrupulously used as a rule (under the shelter 
of textual prescriptions) to make the medicinal preparations 

Introduction Li 

(f) Omission of Ingredients: Generally speaking, compound 
preparations are used in ayurvedic medicines. It is often the 
total effect of all the ingredients in the formula rather than the 
action of individual drugs that plays a vital role in therapeutics. 
Drug combinations are envisaged to serve the following 
important purposes : 

(i) Synergistic action : Trna-panca-mula-kvaiha presents a 
case of synergistic action. Even though all the ingredients of 
this group are known to be diuretics, still when given together, 
they produce marked diuresis which effect is not observed in 

individual drugs. 

(ii) Combined action : The case of Rasna-saptaka-kvatha 
used for the treatment of rheumatic afflictions is illustrative of 
the combined action of an ayurvedic medicine. For curing 
rheumatism, which is known in ayurveda as ama vata, the 
medicine should have sedative, digestive, laxative and anti- 
inflammatory action. Of all the ingredients of this drug, rasna 
is anti-inflammatory and sedative, ginger promotes digestion, 
and the root of eranda is a laxative. 

(lii) Neutralizing toxicity : An example of this is the case 
of Agni fundi vati. Kupilu is an irritant to the nerves. It cannot 
be taken alone in a heavy dose as is required to make it thera- 
peutically effective. But it is well tolerated when taken in com- 
bination with other drugs, specially after undergoing sodhana. 

(iv) Specific Action : An example of this is the case of 
Cyavana prdsa. Pippall added to this preparation has heating 
effect in addition to anti-tubercular property. The heating effect 
of the preparation is neutralized by the addition of other cool- 
ing drugs like amalakT. Thus, the medicine is left with a 
marked anti-tubercular effect. 

Keeping the above points in view, various formulae have 
been described for medicinal preparations in ayurvedic classics. 
Due to non-availability of drug ingredients or the expense 
involved, if any ingredient is accidentally or intentionally 
omitted from the preparation then not only is the efficacy 
reduced but adverse effects may also be produced at times. 

xJi Materia Medica 

(g) Improper Storage : Different categories of ayurvedic 
preparations which remain effective for a certain limited period 
are described in the classics. If these drugs are kept for a 
longer period, they lose their potency. Large manufacturing 
concerns, however, cannot help neglect this rule; for, the drugs 
prepared cannot be consumed immediately but will have to be 
sent to their various branches. Hence, there is considerable 
lapse of time before the medicine is actually used by the 

Identification of Raw Drugs 

It is difficult to correctly identify certain drugs described in 
ayurvedic classics due to the following reasons : 

(a) Non-availability : Some drugs like Soma and Jivaka are 
not available now a days. It is probable that they have 
become extinct. 

(b) Multiplicity of Names : In ayurvedic classics, drugs are 
often described with synonyms. Synonyms apart, the same 
drug is known by different names in different parts of the 
country. For example, Clitoria ternatea Linn, which is known 
in North India as apard jita, is called sarhkha puspi in South 
India. But these two have distinct and different therapeutic 
attributes or characteristics. 

(c) Many Drugs with Same Name : Under the name of 
rasnd, thirteen different drugs are being made use of in different 
parts of the country for medicinal preparations. 

(d) Non-availability of Specific Varieties : The drug haritaki 
is said to be of seven varieties. But presently, not more than 
four varieties are available. So is the case with other drugs 
like bhrngaraja and dilrva. 

(e) Exotic Plants : Some plants, though introduced in 
India very recently, have grown profusely. Due to lack of 
proper knowledge, some of these plants have been given 
ayurvedic names which have led to their wrong identification- 

Introduction Liii 

"For example, Argemone mexicana Linn, is often mistaken for 

(f) Adulteration : Because of short supply, drugs, such as 
yasti-madhu, are often adulterated. 

(g) Synthetic Preparations : Taking advantage of the heavy 
demand from consumers of certain drugs, such as varhsa locana 
or bamboo salt, some firms have started manufacturing imita- 
tions and synthetic preparations the therapeutic efficacy of which 
is in no way comparable to that of the genuine drug. 

Difficulties for Identification 

Most of the ayurvedic drugs can be identified conveniently. 
But there are some, which elude proper identification because 
of the following reasons : 

(a) Passage of Time : Ayurvedic classics were written about 
3000 years ago. Some of the drugs described at that time may 
have undergone modifications due to physical and genetic 
factors and some others may have become extinct. Thus, 
identification of a drug from the physical characteristics men- 
tioned in the ayurvedic texts or commentaries thereon is not an 
easy task. The plant soma, which is mentioned even in the 
Vedas, is described by Susruta as having 15 leaves in total. 
On new moon day, the plant, becomes leafless and every 
day thereafter, one leaf is added to it till it has 15 leaves on full 
moon day. Its root is said to contain a large quantity of an 
exhilarating sweet juice. Plants of this description are not, 
however, to be seen now. 

(b) Inadequate Description : An important plant by name 
svarna-ksiri is described as having golden latex and leaves like 
those of sariva. This is said to grow in the Himalayas. This 
information is, however, very inadequate for identifying the 
plant correctly. Whether the contributors to the ayurvedic 
classics had a knowledge of systematic botany or not is a 
debatable point; but when these texts were compiled, there was 
no printing facility, so much so that brevity was always 
ihe rule in describing ayurvedic drugs. 

ijv Maieria Medica- 

re) Loss of Contact : In olden days, learning had to be 
done through guru-sisya parampara, which meant that the 
disciple had to seek and obtain first-hand knowledge from- 
teachers. But with the advent of foreign influence, this tradi- 
tional way of learning has been given up. Due to the inade- 
quacy of written texts and the absence of direct links to gain;' 
deeper knowledge of the ayurvedic classics, it became difficult 
for later authors to appreciate what has been originally stated" 
in the classics; and this has resulted in incoherent views. 
Personal knowledge of drugs available in various surroundings- 
has become so meagre that ayurvedic physicians are often 
required to seek guidance from cow-herds and forest dwellers- 
for the identification of such drugs. 

(d) Lack of Facility : Even the available knowledge is not 
properly codified. Descriptions of plants and animals are also* 
available in texts allied to ayurveda, such as Smrti sastras and: 
Dharma testras. They are required to be critically screened. 

(e) Observance of Secrecy : In the medieval period, in order- 
to prevent the acquisition of ayurvedic knowledge by foreign 
invaders and unscrupulous natives, names having more than 
one meaning and also with allegorical meanings have been. 
used in the texts. Due to the rigidity observed in the selection. 
of disciples, some authors died without training even a single- 
disciple and the knowledge acquired by them had thus beea. 

(f) Short Supply : Some important raw drugs, such as- 
musk and bamboo salt, are m short supply. Hence, their 
prices are not only very high but spurious substitutes for them, 
are also largely sold in the market. 

Procedure for Naming Formulae 

The names of the drug formulations are usually based on the- 
" following six factors : 

(a) Important Ingredient : Some preparations are named':- 
after the important ingredient, for example, Amalaki rasayana. 

Jntrodu^. tion L\r 

(b) Authorship : The name of the sage or rsi who first dis- 
covered or patronized the formula is used in naming the drug, 
for example, Agastya hantdkl. 

(c) Therapeutic Property : The disease for which the for- 
mula was indicated is at times used in naming the preparation, 
for example, KustLaghna lepa. 

(d) First Ingredient of the Formula : The drug that heads 
the list in the formula is sometimes used in naming the prepara- 
tion, for example, Pippalyasava. 

(e) Quantity of Dtug : At times, the preparation is named 
after the quantity of drug used, for example, Satpala ghrta. 

(f) Part of the Plant : The drug is at times named after 
the part of the plant used, for example, Dasa mula kasaya. 

Multiplicity of Formulae 

There are medicines having the same name but a number 
•of different formulae, so much so that each differs from the 
-other in composition, ratio' of ingredients, method of prepara- 
tion, mode of administration, mode of action, dosage and 
anupana. Take, for example, khadiradi vati. It has as many as 
eight formulae. In this preparation, the number of ingredients 
varies from 5 to 37, and the percentage of the main ingredient, 
namely, khadira (catechu) varies from 15 to 92. In four out of 
the eight formulae, costly drugs like kasturi or musk are added, 
the percentage of musk varying from formula to formula. In 
one formula, poisonous drugs like bhalldtaka and bdkuci are 
added as they are considered to be effective in obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy. Thus, standardization of such medi- 
cines, which must also take into account of these variations, 
poses a very difficult problem. 

Pharmaceutical Processes 

In ayurveda, different pharmaceutical processes are followed 
in the preparation of drugs. Besides helping isolation of the 

Lvi Materia Medicar 

active fraction of the drugs, these processes help make the 

(a) easily administrate, 

(b) tasteful, 

(c) digestible and assimilable, 

(d) therapeutically more effective, 

(e) less toxic and more tolerable, and 

(f) more preservable. 

Sodhana or Purification 

Some raw drugs are required to be used after Sodhana. The? 
literal meaning of the word sodhana is purification. But this 
Is often misinterpreted to mean that the substance is rendered 
physically and chemically pure. Sodhana, no doubt, brings- 
about physical and chemical purity to some extent but at times- 
more physical and chemical impurities are added to the sub- 
stance during certain stages of this processing. By such addi- 
tions, the drug becomes less toxic and therapeutically more effec- 
tive. Pure aconite, for example, cannot be administered so- 
freely as sodhita aconite. Aconite, which is a cardiac depressant^ 
becomes a cardiac stimulant after sodhana with cow's urine. 
Thus, the actual implications of sodhana processes require 
detailed study. 

Some gum resins, such as guggulu and some drugs contain- 
ing volatile oils, such as kustha are also described to undergo' 
sodhana by boiling them with milk, go-mutra, etc. Boiling of, 
these drugs however, definitely reduces the volatile oil content 
which is supposed to be therapeutically very active. The 
utility of such purificatory processes should, therefore, be- 
studied before proceeding with the standardization of ayur- 
vedic drugs. 

Ayurveda should not be viewed from the point of his- 
tory of medicine alone. Jt is both history and medicine. No- 
doubt, there is a history of thousands of years behind it, but it is- 
even now a living medical system catering to the health needs- 
of millions of people living in India, §n lanka and Nepal 

Introduction LVii 

including some of the Central Asian and South East Asian 
countries. There are several hundreds of trained and regis- 
tered practitioners of .ayurveda m these countries and people 
have implicit faith in the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs and 
therapies of this system. Like other medical systems it has, 
of course, its limitations. Advanced civilization and moderni- 
sation have not left ayurveda untouched Accidental human 
errors and intentional profit motives coupled with the vicissi- 
tudes of time have created several problems for this system of 
medicine. Therefore, the Ayurvedic drug that is found in the 
market may not carry the same therapeutic effect as is claimed 
for it in the ayurvedic texts. The reasons for this are elaborated 
in the last eight topics of this 'Introduction' for the guidance 
of research workers, practitioners and well wishers of this 
system. The ayurvedic materia medica provides a rich store- 
house of therapeutically effective drugs and these gems are 
to be selected with due care for mitigating the miseries of the 
suffering humanity." 

"There is no letter which is not a mantra (incantation); there 
is no root which is not a medicine and there is no human be- 
ing who is not useful. Only their yojaka (co-ordinator) is a 
rare commodity." 


srrarsift g^a - ; gfzpjfsf: qrffcrrfSrfVr: ti r ii 

A physician who is not acquainted with the good and bad 
effects of drugs, diet and regimens, does not correctly know the 
things which are useful and harmful for healthy persons and 
patients. Therefore, a good physician who desires the welfare 
of others, should carefully ascertain the good and bad qualities 
of all these things. 

^ff^ftsqTTcT: ^rB: tiX^xfi fMTSRt II 3 II 

Physicians generally do not like to go through details. 
They like books in condensed form. Therefore, this work is 
being composed in a condensed form by collecting useful 
material (from different sources). 

Materia Medica 


3^firff% ff sr#TTft«risrr: sr^fcrRrsr: n v n 

In brief, all dhatus, dosas etc., get increased in quantity by 
the utilization of homologous material (having similar pro* 
perties). They get decreased by the utilization of material having 
opposite properties. 

z& t& wft tfnf faqw: wfa^r t i 

*f%^T5F*TT^TT: q-^^TW^T SR?tf%i3T: II X II 

According to Dravyaguna Ratnamala 

Rasa (taste), guna (property), vlrya (potency), vipdka (taste 
that emerges after digestion) and sakti (specific action) — these 
are the five consecutively manifested states of matter. 

afsrfawr jvn: ^rPr sftzf faqisp r/=r =^r i 

While being lodged inside the matter, sometimes the rasa, 
sometimes the guna, sometimes the vuya, sometimes the 
vipdka and sometimes the prabhava manifest their effects on the 
individual's body. 

? ^ q"f ^tt: ^TTcrr: TT5Tre3q?rmf«rgrr: u \s u 

Six Tastes 

Madhura (sweet), amla (sour), pafu or lavana (saline), kafu 
(pungent), tikta (bitter) and kasaya (astringent)— these are the 
six rasas (tastes) which are lodged in matter. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of TodarSnanda 3 


srsreft Sfpr: *F<JS*r: *rs: ?psrT?r^?iT?r: 

flrwsfr fafsg^'^rTfa f^F^r: <ftc;qrrg;tfrf|cr; i 

Attributes of Sweet taste 

Sweet taste is cooling, promoter of the growth of tissue 
elements (dhatus), lactation (stanya) and strength. It promotes 
eyesight (caksusya), alleviates vdyu and pitta, and causes 
obesity, excessive production of waste products (mala) and krmi 
(parasites). It is useful for children, old men and persons suff- 
ering from consumption and emaciation. It is also useful for 
complexion, hair, sense organ and ojas. It is nourishing and 
promoter of voice. It is heavy (guru) and it helps in uniting the 
broken or torn tissues (sandhanakvt). It is anti-toxic, slimy 
(picchila) and unctuous (snigdha). It is conducive to pleasant 
feeling and longevity. 

When used in excess, it causes jvara (fever) svdsa (asthma), 
galaganda (goitre), arbuda (tumour), krmi (parasitic infestation), 
sthaulya (obesity), agnimandya (suppression of digestive power), 
meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes)* and 
diseases caused by the vitiation of medas (adipose tissue) as well 
as kapha, 

4 Materia Medica 


IrtPftwfif *ff: sfatf "F^T: T^TTT^: II ?? II 

Attributes of Sour Taste 

Sour taste is carminative (pacana) and appetiser (rucya). 
It produces /?/fta and slesman. It is light, lekhana (which 
causes scraping), hot, ra/zz7z slta (cooh'ng from outside) and 
kledana (promoter of stickiness). It alleviates vayu. It is 
unctuous, sharp and sara (mobile). It reduces sukra (semen), 
vibandha (constipation), anaha (tymphanitis) and eye sight. It 
causes horripilation and tingling sensation in teeth. It also 
causes twitchings in eyes and eyebrows. 

^TH^f^^^^S^ II \\ n 

When used in excess, it causes bhrama (giddiness), trf 
(morbid thirst), daha (burning sensation), timira (cataract), 
para (fever), kaiidu (itches), pandutva (anemia), visphota 
(postules), sotha (oedema), visarpa (erysipelas) and ku§tha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). 

srsrsnrw : 

WHS- «tft«pft i&sr. qrerq-: ^fw=[: i 

sns^T sTirw?*?: ^flsnrasrrgspar I 

Attributes of Saline taste . 

Saline taste is sodhana (cleansing), rucya (appetiser) ?nA 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 5 

pacana (carminative). It produces kapha and pitta. It reduces 
viril'ty (pumstva) and vayu. It causes slothfulness (saithilya) 
and softness (mrdutd) of the body. It reduces strength. It 
causes salivation and burning sensation in the cheek and throat. 


[TTWSpPFir: %$WtZ: ^SFWl $ : ?=?o-?*3] 

When used in excess, it causes aksipaka (conjunctivitis), 
asrapitta (bleeding from different parts of the body), ksata 
(consumption), vali (premature wrinkling), palita (premature 
graying of hair), khalitya (baldness), ku§fha (obstinate skin dis- 
eases including leprosy), visarpa (erysipelas) and trf (morbid 


J^T^: "TT^TT W&ft ^Tfe^T^fm^T: TTTT II ?\s II 

Attributes of Pungent taste 

Pungent taste aggravates pitta and reduces kapha, krmi 
(parasitic infection), kandu (itching) and toxicity. It has pro- 
perties of fire (agni) and it aggravates vayu. It reduces stanya 
(lactation), medas (fat) and sthaulya (adiposity). It is light. It 
causes lacnmation and irritates nose, eyes, mouth and tip of 
the tongue. It is dipana (stimulant of digestion), pacana (carmi- 
native) and rucya (appetiser)- It causes dryness (sosand) of the 

6 Materia Medica 

nose. It depletes (sosarta) kleda (sticky substance in the body), 
medas (fat), vasa (muscle fat), majja (bone marrow), sakrt 
(feces) and mutra (urine). It opens up the channels of circula- 
tion. It is ununctuous (ruksaj. It promotes intellect (rnedhyd). 
It produces more of feces and constipation. 


^STr^Tt^nT^^q-^t sr^sP [§¥] nun 

When used in excess, it causes giddiness, dryness of 
mouth, lips and palate and diarrhoea. It also causes pain in 
throat etc., murcha (fainting), trf (morbid thirst) and kampa 
(shivering). It reduces strength and semen. 

3m f5T?E : 


^rfrr^55f^tsft?SR^T5TlTTB [*T3T] «T^: II R° II 

Attributes of Bitter taste 

Bitter taste is cooling and it cures morbid thirst, fainting 
and fever. It alleviates pitta and kapha. It cures krmi (parasi- 
tic infection), kustha (obstinate skxn diseases including leprosy), 
visa (poisoning), utklesa (nausea), daha (burning sensation) and 
diseases caused by the vitia+ion of blood. Even though bitter 
taste itself is not relishing it is an appetiser. It cleanses the 
throat, lactation and mouth. It aggravates vayu and stimulates 
agni (enzymes responsible for digestion and metabolism). It 
dries up the nose. Tt is ununctuous and light. 

sfrsfagrR: fisrc:sra*r«mcr«T3rTrrfr^ i 

^qTfegfcrq-rsffrft' sr^^aTcrsr^: II ^ II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda *l 

When used in excess, it causes iirab. sula (headache), 
manyastambha (torticolis), srama (exhaustion), arti (pain), kampa 
(tremor), murchd (fainting) and trsa (morbid thirst). It reduces 
strength and semen. 

Attributes of Astringent taste 

Astringent taste is healing (ropana), constipative (grdhi) 
and drying (gosana). It aggravates vdyu. It causes sluggishness 
in the movement of the tongue and it obstructs the throat as 
well as the channels of circulation. It causes constipation. 

'tftsffT^Tfit Sr^n^f^ft^TnTTf^cf II R\ II 

When used in excess it causes graha (obstruction), adh- 
mdna (tymphanitis), hrtpida (pain in cardiac region), dksepana 
(convulsions) etc. 

'^T^W^SHf^rRT ^rr^rrfwa; II R* II 

[^T^sr^Rr : <$W§: srifSRPOT %. ■ ?£*] 


AU sweet things aggravate kapha except old sali rice, 
mudga (Phaseolus mungo Linn.), wheat, honey, sugar and meat 
of animals of jdngala type. 

*r*5f farPFr smfr fa^rr srr^Y «r ^Tf^mcf i 

cscpii mwt i«fr %^5T>: ^=«r# fair u rv. u 

8 Materia Medica 

srriRr^crF^rff sfftcr ¥*iw*ptf feTT 11 W n 

All sour things aggravate pitta except dhatrl and dadima. 
Generally saline things afflict eyesight; but rock salt (saindhava) 
is an exception to it. Generally pungent and bitter things are 
not aphrodisiac and they aggravate vayu. Sunthi, krsna, 
rasona, patola and amrta are, however, exceptions. All astringent 
things are generally stambhana (constipative); but abhaya is an 
exception to this rule. 


In the above, properties of drugs having six tastes are 
described in general. Combination of various tastes, however, 
produces new properties which were non-existent in the original 

sRtarfrof *TTfcr smi^ mftren i 

At times the combination of certain drugs produces poiso- 
nous effects; for example, ghee and honey in equal quantities. 
Even a poison at times works like ambrosia; for example, 
administration of poisonous drugs to a person afflicted by 
snake bite. 

<FIWir <ix sftecf "PW sftmrfa ^ I 
^IcT^C jfe: 5§rB?T^g f%TTT% ^ II -R6. II 

Actions of various gupas (attributes) 

Things which are laghu (light) are wholesome. They 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda $ 

alleviate kapha and get digested immediately. Things that are 
guru (heavy) alleviate vata. They cause nourishment and 
aggravate kapha. They take a long time for digestion. 

ferref *PW?: BTTcT^T *pf ^"^5RW I 

cft^f fTcPPT STTzfT %^ ^^ToTf <T It ^o »! 

Snigdha (unctuous) things aggravate kapha and alleviate 
vata. They are aphrodisiac and they promote strength. Ruksa 
(ununctuous) things alleviate kapha and aggravate vdyu. Things 
that are tiksna (sharp) aggravate pitta and they are generally 
lekhana (having scraping property). They alleviate kapha and 

3T«T sfaN : 

Virya (Potency) 

Virya (potency) is of two categories viz., usna (hot) and 
sita (cold). They are inherent in matter. They represent the 
agni and soma principles of the three worlds. 

Their attributes 

Those having usna (hot) potency alleviate vata and kapha 
and they aggravate pitta. 

Those having sita (cooling) potency cause diseases of 
vdyu and kapha', but they alleviate pitta. 

10 Materia Medica 

Vipaka (Taste that emerges after digestion) 

The vipaka of sweet and saline things is madhura (sweet) 
and sour things have amla (sour) vipaka. The vipaka of pungent, 
bitter and astringent things is generally katu (pungent). 

ST"* feTFfiTCf »TTT: 

^z\ ^r-dfcr q-^^r *p<p fq^r ^ m^cr ii 3* ii 

Attributes of Vipakas 

Things having madhura (sweet) vipaka aggravate kapha 
and alleviate vata and pitta. Those having afnla (sour) vipaka 
aggravate pitta and alleviate diseases of vayu and kapha. Katu 
(pungent) vipaka aggravates vayu but alleviates kapha and 
pitta (?). 

arc swrw : 

^pftsfq- ^ 3taft<rcTO f^TSiR^ ii \w\ 

Prabhava or specific action 

The examples of prabhava are dhdtrl and lakuca. They 
have similar rasa (taste) etc. But the former alleviates all the 
three dosas whereas the latter does not. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 11 


At times the dravya (matter) itself produces action by its 
prabhava. For example, the root of sahaden cures fever when 
tied into the head (hair). 


This is the eighth chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in 
Todarananda and the invocation reads as follows : 

1. ifrf^TTT # ffcT W*3 5*cT% <TT3 : 

4. TfTT ff T?r: ^fcT vn^k vrs: I 

5. sriwrsufr %fa m^. <us: i 

6. fTcr^ts^rgTf^cT ^f?r stpf^: its: i 

7. scesq-JT ^rr^rsr^Tsn": 5#«w^: ^sr^nr %. : ?=;vi 

8. , STf?cr5T§5'sr?rF^t'ss^ft^cT *f?r ?n^% <rra. i 

10. feWTT^: ^f?r f§:?fcrj*cr% VT5: I 

11. ^3^5 ffcT 5TT^ <TT5: I 

12. Iw: ff^r srnf^: ire: 

13. -pfepTFRT: ifa «r*5$?5fr TT5; ! 



%T&* ?TcT?r 5TT3T ffTcTT =^ *sprPT5T: I 

HaritakT (Terminalia chebula Retz.) 

It is called harltaki because of the following : 

(1) it grows in the abode of Hara (Lord Siva) i.e. in the 
Himalayas ; 

(2) it is green (Jiaritd) by nature ; 

(3) it cures (harate) all diseases ; 


sft^^cft 3ffa?ft ^ftTTST qre*TT?J?FTT TRTT I 

spn^rFrar ^m ftrsnn favrprsrer n ^ n 

The names of different varieties of haritaki have £b,e 
following significance ; 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 13 

(a) Jivanti because it promotes life (jTvana ) ; 

(b) Putana because it purifies (pdvana) ; 

(c) Amrtd because it is like ambrosia (amrtd) ; 

(d) Vijayd because it endows the user with victory 
(yijayd) ; 

(e) Abhayd because it takes away fear (bliaya) ; 

(f) Rohini because it promotes (what) the attributes 
(gunas) ; 

(g) Cetakf because it promotes consciousness 

*r^rr ft^rT sftrsr fwrr ^prePr>fY n * n 
<T^Fft ^prsT ?rt *fm ^ttt 5 -df^ft i 

3 . 

Different varieties of haritaki have the following charac- 
teristics : 

(a) Jivanti is golden in colour ; 

(b) Putana has a bigger stone ; 

(c) Amrtd has three dalas (pieces or fruits in a 

(d) Vijayd is like a tumbl ; 

(e) Abhaya has five a/jgas (pieces) ; 

(f ) Rohini is round in shape , 

(g) Cetakf has three angas (pieces), 

14 Materia Medica 


%^?t ^jft?r Piiw^srrs^r sraftfcrar u \s u 

Properties of different varieties of haritaki are as below : 

(a) JTvantl is useful in all diseases p 

(b) Putana is useful in external application ; 

(c) Amrta is useful in cleansing the body ; 

(d) Vijaya cures all diseases ; 

(e) Abhaya is useful in the diseases of bones ; 

(f ) Rohini helps in the healing of ulcers ; 

(g) Cetaki is useful in potions used in the form of 

These are the seven varieties of haritaki. 

^WfaojT ^T?ff %s*TT S*P|<TFFT ^HFFft Hull 



Haritaki has five tastes. It does not possess saline taste. 
It is extremely astringent. It is ununctuous, hot, dipana 
(digestive stimulant), medhya (promoter of memory), svadu paka 
(sweet in vipakd), rasayana (rejuvenating), sara (laxative), 
buddhi prada (promoter of intellect), ayusya (promoter of 
longevity), caksusya (promoter of eye sight), tymhana (nouri- 
shing) and laghu (light), 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 1 5 

i^T¥-^rra"-sT^Tw: §^-5fr«fte^*fta; mil 



It cures svasa (asthma), kasa (coughing), prameha (obsti- 
nate urinary disorders including diabetes), arms (piles), kustha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), sotha (oedema), 
udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), krrni 
(parasitic infections), vaisvarya (hoarseness of voice), graham 
dosa (sprue syndrome), vibandha (constipation), visamajvara 
(malarial fever), gulma (phantom tumour), adhmdna (tympha- 
nitis), vrana (ulcer), chardi (vomiting), hikkd (hiccup), kandu 
(itching), hrdamaya (heart disease), kamala (jaundice), sula 
(colic pain), anaha (wind formation in stomach) and plihd 
(splenic disorder). 

*r*55c^TSTcT3m-;ft fa^rr sanjfsreRr. i 

txzt: ^qT*TT?*FBS|cj; f^sp^ft ITT?r# II 

Because of sour taste it alleviates vdyu ; because of sweet 
and bitter tastes it alleviates pitta and because of pungent and 
astringent tastes it alleviates kapha. Thus, hantaki alleviates all 
the three dosas. 

c^lfsra <J *£&$ fcTxR ^5fTf«ra- TFX\ It n H 

Tastes predominant m different parts of hantaki are as 

follows : 

(1) Sweet taste in majjd or pulp ; 

(2) Sour taste in fibres and stone , 

16 Materia Medica 

(3) Pungent taste in skin ; 

(4) Bitter taste in stalk ; 

(5) Astringent taste in stone. 


Characteristics of good quality 

Haritaki which is fresh, unctuous, compact, round and 
heavy is the best. When put in water it should sink. This 
type of haritaki is extremely useful and therapeutically very 


ft^-^T *rarf^ft wim ^st q-^r Pretwga; n ?vi i 

Different ways of Using 

Used in different ways it produces the following effects : 

(H when taken by chewing it promotes digestive power ; 

(2) when used in paste form it cleanses the bowels ; 

(3) when used by steam boiling it is constipative ; 

(4) when used after frying it alleviates all the three dosas. 

fq-cq^qr f%ftr3: sn=RW*r^ sfhf <r spfrfcra-pr i 
tr^tr* ^ftrRftfa-^sft qwg- cr sprer: i i ? ^i i 

Use in different seasons 

In different seasons haritaki should be used as follows : 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 17 

(1) In summer it should be used with equal quantity of 

(2) In rainy season it is to be used with adequate quantity 
of saindhava ; 

(3) In autumn season it is to be used with 'equal quantity 
of purified sugar ; 

(4) In the beginning of winter it is to be used with 

(5) In the later part of winter it is to be used with 

(6) In the spring season it should be mixed with honey 
and then used. 

O ! King, let your enemies be destroyed as diseases get 
destroyed by the use of Jiarltaki in the above mentioned 

^3^ «Ff> ^f% flrf ^f% SHOW I 

srefa srRrsTFT ThTF*r#Tt»n«r¥ifN"?n' n ?« it 

Usage for different dosas 

It alleviates kapha when taken with salt. Pitta is alleviated 
when it is taken with sugar. When taken with ghee it cures all 
diseases caused by vayn. Taken with guda, haritaki cures all 
types of diseases. 


Haritaki should not be used by persons who are extremely 
exhausted by travelling, who have lost the lustre of then- 
body, who have ununctuous skin, who are emaciated, whose 
body is dried up by fasting, whose pitta is aggravated, ladies 
who are pregnant and those who have lost their will power. 

18 Materia Medica 


Bibhltaki (Terminalia belerica Roxb.) 

Bibhftakf is sweet in vipaka. It is astringent in taste. It 
alleviates kapha and pitta. It is hot in potency. It is cooling 
in touch. It is bhedana (purgative), kdsa naSana (cures 
coughing), ruksa (ununctuous), netrahita (useful for eyesight) 
and kesya (useful for hair). It cures parasitic infections and 
impaired voice. 

f^^s^S^^FncTfft WV. II Ro II 

The seed pulp of bibhltaka cures trt (morbid thirst), 
chardi (vomiting) and diseases caused by kapha and vata. It 
is light. 


Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) 

The seed pulp of amalaki has the same property as that of 
bibhltaki. It is intoxicating and sweet. 

CfonffcOT STTSftacf fipfg faSPTcT. II R? II 

The fruit of dhatn is similar to harftaki in its properties. 
It has, however, some specific properties. It cures raktapitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body) and prameha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes). It is exceedingly aphrodisiac and rejuvenating. 

fffcr WTcf <res*rc3Tfcq - Tf *TsnMc3rcr: i 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 19 

It alleviates rata because of its sour taste. Because of its 
sweet taste and cooling effect it alleviates pitta. Kapha is 
alleviated by its ununctuousness and astringent taste. The 
fruit of dhatrl alleviate all the three dosas. 

STTcf ^ST^IAk^lW f% 5T f%"*fcr: II R3 II 

It should aggravate pitta by its sour taste. By its sweet 
taste and cooling effect kapha should get aggravated. Its 
ununctuousness and astringent taste should aggravate vayu. 
Why does it not happen ? 

^znf^retsr^pr *x*mw gftrfa: **rcnr i 

SPdTSHTspirTgTBT T^T^^fq- l^cTT II ^V U 

According to sages this property of dhdtri to alleviate all 
the three dosas is because of its prabhdva (specific action). This 
property has been explained on the basis of its rasa etc., because 
of the existence of such a possibility. 

zw 3W3 - sftw *T33rr?PTfq- fafirw 11 ^ w 

The potency (ylrya) of the pulp of the seed will be the 
same as that of its fruit. This rule is applicable to all plants. 



One fruit of abhayd, two fruits of bibhitaki and four fruits 
of dmalaki — taken together these are called triphald. 

20 Materia Medica 

Siva has five tastes. It is ayusya (promoter of longevity), 
caksusya (promoter of eyesight), alavana (free from saline 
taste), sara (laxative), medhya (promoter of intellect), usna (hoi) 
and dipana (stimulant of digestion). It alleviates dosas, sotha 
(oedema), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and 
vrana (ulcer). 

^ZgFft fsnfN'uT 3[sqT sift^ sfl%: I 

Dhdtri has similar properties. It has, however, some 
specific properties inasmuch as it is aphrodisiac and it is sita 
(cooling) in patency. 


[W : ^ V^ : ^oo] 

Aksa is purgative, purgent, ununctuous and hot. It 
cures hoarseness of voice and parasitic infection. It promotes 
eyesight. It is sweet in vipaka and astringent in taste. It alleviates 
kapha and pitta. 


^STEZIT ^tqift ^TT fwJT^TJTTfenft' II ^5. II 

Triphala alleviates kapha and pitta. It cures meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders) and kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy). It is caksusya (promoter of eyesight), 
dipana (digestive stimulant) and rucya (appetiser). It cures 
visama jvara (malarial fever). 


TOf^f |w tt% terror f^nsfacn u 3° u 

Trivft (Operculum turpetbara Silva Manso) 

The b&9k variety of trivrt alleviates kapha and pitta. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 21 

ruksa (ununctuous), madhura (sweet), mifdu recana (laxative), 
vatakrt (aggravator of vata), katu pdka (pungent in vipdka) and 
astringent in taste. 

The reddish (aruna) variety of trivft is slightly inferior in 

^Tf^witfi^r<rexiff? — ftftrq u 3? \\ 

Rdjavrksa (Cassia fistula Linn.) 

For patients suffering from para (fever), hrdroga (heart 
disease), vdtdsrk (gout) and uddvarta (upward movement of 
wind in abdomen), rdjavrksa is extremely wholesome. It is mrdu 
(soft), sweet and cooling. 

cTc^ST *TfT W&* ^T?Tfar!TJTfcSR t! 3^ It 
ft€ cft^T fa-T s RP?'TSrcff STSHSFR-fq- I 

Its fruit is sweet and strength promoting. It reduces 
vata, pitta and dma. It is laxative. When taken with water it 
cures even the severe type of grdhrasi (sciatica). 

Katukd (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.) 

Katukd is laxative and ununctuous. It alleviates kapha, 
pitta and fever. 

Trayantl (Gentiana kurroo Royle) 

Trdyanti cures vitiated kapha, pitta and blood gtiffia 
(phantom tumour) and fever. It is laxative. 

19 20 

22 Materia Medica 

Tikta valkali 

Tikta valkali alleviates vitiated kapha, pitta and blood, 
pain, chardi (vomiting) and visa (poisoning). 

Yasa (AlhagI pseudalhagi Desv.) 

Yasa is laxative. It cures fever, vomiting, aggravated 
kapha and pitta and visarpa (erysipelas). 

fTTRrr ^ra-fq-TTTW-^-^TDf-sTTrTinr 1 

Bhudhatri (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) 

Bhudhatri aggravates vayu. It is bitter, astringent and 
sweet in taste. It is cooling. It cures pipasa (morbid thirst), 
kasa (coughing), pittasra (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the body), vitiated kapha, pandu 
(anemia) and ksaya (consumption). 

ntfkxt f^sq%ff<raf3Pmi u ^ ii 

Khadira (Acacia catechu Willd.) 

Khadira cures kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), visarpa (erysipelas), meha (obstinate urinary disorders 
including diabetes), aggravated pitta and visa (poisoning). 

Bhunimba (Swertia chirata Buch. — Ham.) 

Bhunimba aggravates vayu. It is ununctuous and it 
alleviates aggravated kapha and pitta as well as fever. 


Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) 

Nimba cures aggravated pitta and kapha, chardi (vomi- 
ting), vrana (ulcer), hrllasa (nausea) and kustha (obstinate skin 
djseases including leprosy). It is cooling, constipative and. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 23 

digestive stimulant. It cures kdsa (coughing), jvara (fever), 
trt (morbid thirst), krmi (parasitic infection) and meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes). 


Leaf of nimba promotes eye sight. It cures krmi (para- 
sitic infection), aggravated pitta and visa (poisoning). 


Fruit of nimba is purgative, unctuous and hot. It cures 
kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). It is light. 

Maha nimba (Melia azedarach linn.) 

Maha nimba is exceedingly constipative, astringent, 
ununctuous and cooling. 

<rts: fq-Trqs5TfsJncfcT ^^stt^cttt: 1 

Parpata (Fumaria parviflora Lam.) 

Parpata cures aggravated pitta, trf (morbid thirst), ddha 
(burning syndrome) and jvara (fever). It dries up kapha. 

«TT5KftaT^pP5rft ^Bfq-rf^^FTWJ II Vo || 

Pdfhd (Cissampelos pareira Linn.) 

Patha cures atisara (diarrhoea), sula (colic pain), aggrava- 
ted kapha and pitta and jvara (fever). 


ffcw. 5%^3^. ftrRsft <£r#5®s: 3^th; 11 v? \\ 

Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenteriea Wall.) 

According to scholars, kufaja is of two types viz., male 

24 Materia Medica 

and female. The male variety has bigger fruits, white flowers 
and unctuous as well as long leaves. Its bark is exceedingly 
red and thick. 

aroj^TT Wtfg^l 3^: SJTTCTWg'aT II v^ n 

If the fruits are small, flowers are round in shape and 
grayish red in colour and bark is white, then this is undoub- 
tedly the female variety of kutaja. 

jot jwr sift T?#rmftRTR3cT ii v^ h 

arrwsfV srs^: aftszft cicft ft^FrwTS'Rr i 

The male variety of kutaja is constipative and it allevia- 
tes raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body) and atisara (diarrhoea). It alleviates vayu 
and is useful in pradara (menorrhagia and other allied gynae- 
cological disorders). 

The female variety is inferior in quality. 

According to the sage Parasara; these varieties of kutaja 
should be determined from the characteristics of their fruits 
and flowers. 


Kutaja alleviates vitiated kapha, pitta and rakta. It cures 
tvagdosa (skin diseases), ar§as (piles) and atisara (diarrhoea). 

cTsN TcBpTrTT%?nT3^RfT ff*PT II W. II 

Its seed cures raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleed- 
ing from different parts of the body), atisara (diarrhoea) and 
para (fever). It is cooling. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 25 

Hrivera (Coleus vettiveroides K. C. Jacob.) 

Hrivera cures chardi (vomiting), hrllasa (nausea), rsnS 
(morbid thirst) and atisara (diarrhoea). 

Mustd (Cyperus rotundas Linn.) 

Musta alleviates kapha. It is pungent and bitter in taste, 
sarhgrdhi (constipative) and pdcana (carminative). 


Ativisd (Aconitum heterophyllom Wall.) 

Ativisd alleviates dosas. It is carminative, constipative 
and bitter. 

Wlvt, T& f^WTq - f^^fcWrecf II VUJ II 

ifr/va (Aegle marmelos Corr.) 

Unripe and immature fruit of bilva is constipative. It 
alleviates kapha and vata. It is a digestive stimulant and 

Ripe and matured fruit of bilva aggravates all the three 
dosas. It is difficult of digestion and produces foul smelling 

^^rerr^^ffT ?rrf^wr fsr^qfspPT i 

The pesi (pulp or flesh) of bilva. cures vitiated kapha and 
vdyu, dma and sula (colic pain). It is constipative. 

Generally, among fruits, matured ones are considered to 
be of good quality. Bilva is an exception to this rule inas~ 
much as its immature fruits are bettei in quality. 

26 Materia Medico. 

Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.) 

Two varieties of punarnava alleviate kapha and vayu, 
reduce ama and cure durnaman (piles), vradhna (inguinal 
lymphadenitis), sopha (oedema) and udara (obstinate abdo- 
minal diseases including ascitis.) They are laxative and hot in 
potency. They are rasayana (rejuvenating). 

Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) 

Citraka acts like fire during digestion i.e. it is a strong 
digestive stimulant. It cures sopha (oedema), arsas (piles), 
krmi (parasitic infection) and kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy). 

sfrfp": %Sirr"T5W fjfa^FseTCHf : 1 1 Roll 

The red variety of citraka imparts colour to the hair and 
it cures krmi (parasitic infection), kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy) and para (fever). 

?r§^ft snrrere far^raf?r m ^^ i 

Danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell. — Arg.) 

Danti has properties similar to those of citraka. However, 
because of prabhava (specific action) it causes purgation. 

*pq5frf*rf^> sfaFTT ?rftcTSf?ft fw&ft u R? u 

Hasti danti (Trichosanthes foracteata Voigt) 

Hasti danti alleviates kapha and krmi (parasitic infection). It 

is sharp and purgative. 

Jayapala (Croton tiglium Linn.) 

Jayapala is heavy, unctuous and purgative. It alleviates 
pitta and kapha. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 11 

**# wnsst^n^iR^f^^ STCT II ^ It 

Snuhl (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) 

Snuhl cures asthilikd (stony tumour in abdomen), adhmana 
(tymphanitis), gulma (phantom tumour) and udara (obstinate 
abdominal diseases including ascitis). It is sard (purgative). 


srpt% SPfr^/^f^FT ^errqir: II a.^ II 

The latex of snuhl which is like fire should be used when 
the dosas in a patient are aggravated very much in excess and 
also for patients suffering from dlisT visa (artificial poison), udara 
(obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), plfhd roga 
(splenic disorder), gulma (phantom tumour), kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy) and prameha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes). 

|*TrfT ^nft Rttrt *rega; =£w+iruyY i 

11 kv ii 

Hemahva (Argemone mexicana Linn.) 

Hemahva is purgative, bitter and madanut (cures intoxi- 
cation.). It produces kleda (stickiness) in body. It cures krmi 
(parasitic infection), kandu (itching), vitiated kapha, dndha 
(constipation), visa (poisoning), and kusfha (obstinate skin dis- 
eases including leprosy). 

29 30 

Arka (Calotropis gigantea R. Br. ex Ait.) 

Arka cures krmi (parasitic infection). It is sharp and 
purgative. It also cures arsas (piles) and kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy). 

The latex of arka cures kj-midosa (parasitic infection) and 
if js useful for patients suffering from kustha (obstinate skin. 

28 Materia Medica 

diseases including leprosy), udara (obstinate abdominal 
diseases including ascitis). 

31 32 

nmswri effort wwi *&rrfk; *r I 


Aruskara & Tuvaraka (Semecarpus anacardram Linn. f. & 
Hydnocarpus wightiana Blnme) 

Aruskara and tauvaraka — both are astringent in taste and 
pungent in vipaka. They are hot and they cure krmi (parasitic 
infection), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including 
ascitis), anaha (constipation), sopha (oedema) dumaman (piles), 
graham (sprue syndrome), vitiated kapha and vata, agnimandya 
(suppression of the power of digestion), ama, jvara (fever) and 
guJma (phantom tumour). 

3'M^i t§^: "TT% apsresiwT^c: qr: uvsu 

The pulp of these drugs is sweet in vipaka and aphro- 
disiac. It also cures arsas (piles). 

gxnf: ^f: apj. qi% ^~ ^^ofrfapftcpT. | 

Guggulu (Commiphora mukul Engl.) 

Guggulu is slimy in touch. But it has a non-slimy 
(visada) effect on the body when used. It is sweet, pungent, 
bitter and astringent in taste. It is rasayana (rejuvenating), vamya 
(promoter of complexion), svarya (promoter of good voice), 
katuvaka (pungent in vipaka), ruksa (ununctuous), slaksna. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 29 

(smooth) and agnidfpana (promoter of digestive power). It 
alleviates kleda (sticky material in the body), medas (fat), 
vitiated vdyu and kapha, ganda (goitre), tneha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes), apacl (cervical adenitis), kfmi 
(parasitic infection), pidaka (pimples), granthi (adenitis), sotha 
(oedema) and arsas (piles). It is hot, sramsana (laxative) 
and light. 

Fresh guggulu is brmhana (nourishing) and vrsya (aphro- 
disiac). Old guggulu is extremely depleting (karsana). 

34 35 


tr^pftarg; few*: *sRr*Tsr*n?rerar: u ^ ii 


" 38 

There are five varieties of guggulu. They are mahisakga, 
mahanlla, kumuda, padma and hiranya. Mahisaksa variety has 
the colour of either bhrnga or ahjana. Mahanlla is extremely 
blue in colour. Kumuda variety has the colour of a kumuda 
flower i.e. white. Padma variety of guggulu looks red like 
flesh. Hiranaksa looks like gold. Thus all the five varieties 
of guggulu are illustrated. 


iTfl^rat ^pfr^fr irSFsmi ffrn^ i 


j%%^jt *r<prT<nf ^p^pf; qfi^rfrlcr: I 

30 Materia Medica 


Mahisakga and mahariila- — these two varieties of guggulu 
are useful in the treatment of elephants. Kumuda and padma 
varieties are useful in the treatment of horses. Kanaka variety 
is specifically indicated for human beings. According to some 
scholars mahisaksa is also useful for the treatment of human 


Guggulu is visada (non-slimy), tikta (bitter) and uma virya 
(hot in potency). It aggravates pitta. It is laxative and astringent 
in taste. It is pungent in vipaka as also in taste. It is ununctuous 
and extremely light. It heals fracture of bones. It is vrsya 
(aphrodisiac), suksma (subtle), svarya (promoter of voice), rasa- 
yana (rejuvenator), dip'ana (digestive stimulant), picchila (slimy) 
and balya (promoter of strength). It alleviates aggravated 
kapha and vata. It cures vrana (ulcer), apaci (cervical adenitis), 
meda (adiposity), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes), vatdsra (gout), kleda (appearance of sticky material in 
excess in the body), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), ama maruta (rheumatism), pidika (pimples), granthi 
(adenitis), sopha (oedema), arsas (piles), gandamala (enlarged 
cervical glands) and krmi (parasitic infection). 

«TT§ irr^r^STtf 5frq7JTc3T^T fa^T I 

[ttftspfpst: ysfems: defter ^'TTfoenf ^ — v?] 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 31 

Because of its sweet taste it alleviates vata. Pitta is 

alleviated by its astringent taste. It alleviates kapha because 

of its bitter taste. Thus, all the three dosas are alleviated by 

W*ft T*l% : ^> : fri^r ^3 fq-f^sw: i 

3TFT: tf- 5 fwff ^T^T^fe I 

Fresh guggulu is bfmhana (nourishing) and vrsya (aphro- 
disiac). Old guggulu is extremely depleting Qekhdna). 

Fresh guggulu is unctuous. It is golden in colour and it 
looks like a ripe fruit of jambu. It has fragrance and it is 
slimy. Old guggulu on the other hand emits a foul smell and 
it is devoid of its natural colour. Old guggulu does not pos- 
sess the required potency. 

*rsr fr*f ^%<:sf*pf *T*rr«ff 3^r^: i 

The patient who is using guggulu should refrain from 
sour things, sharp things, things that are indigestible, sexual 
act, exhaustion, exposure to sun, alcoholic drinks and anger 
if he desires to have the prescribed therapeutic effects of this 


32 Materia Medica 

Snv&sa (Pinus roxburghii Sargent) 

Srlvasa is sweet and bitter in taste, unctuous, hot, saline and 
laxative. It aggravates pitta. It cures aggravated vata, diseases 
of head, eyes and voice, aggravated kapha, pinasa (chronic 
sinusitis), attacks by evil spirits (raksas), unauspiciousness, 
excessive sweating, foul smell of the body, lice (yuka), itching 
and ulcer. 

CRT 3Rfrs?3P? fa?f : ST T*rfa> STT^^Tfe II V9K It 


5TT^T spqTO sf^ft *TFTTt ST^T: *^: II U>£ II 

^r 3 t*|t. sfrwr Ts^^rfefa: i 

Rasona (Allium sativum Linn.) 

When Garuda took amfta from /ndhz, then a drop of it 
fell down on the earth and rasona came out of it. According to 
scholars who are experts in the determination of various aspects 
of drugs, it is called 'rasona' because it has five rasas (tastes) 
and it is devoid (una) of one rasa (taste) i.e. amla (sour). 
Pungent taste resides in its root (bulb); bitter taste in the leaf, 
astringent taste in the stem, saline taste at the top of the stem 
and sweet taste in the seed. 

Trfnfr sf^qft to f^N^r: q-rrre: sre: u «<? n 

V^^^Wt&zft tr: ftrara*ffc*: II vss. I 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 33 

Rasona is brmhana (nourishing), vrsya (aphrodisiac), 
unctuous, hot, carminative and laxative. In taste and vfpdka 
it is pungent. It is sharp in property and sweet. It helps 
in the healing of fracture. It is good for throat and heavy. 
It aggravates pitta and blood. It promotes strength, comp- 
lexion, intellect and eyesight. It is rejuvenating. • It cures 
hrdroga (heart disease), jirna jvara (chronic fever), kuksi sula 
(colic pain in the pelvic region), vibandha (constipation), gulma 
(phantom tumour), aruci (anorexia), kasa (coughing), sopha 
(oedema), durndman (piles), kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), anala sada (suppression of the power of 
digestion), jantu (parasitic infection), samlrana (aggravated 
vayu), svdsa (asthma) and aggravated kapha. 


WWW ^ fsjcf ST3pI%i%*r: II *? II 


Alcoholic drink, meat and sour things are useful for a 
person using rasona. 


TfftaTreq-^ ^w?;^^^^^^'' ii ^ ii 


A person using rasona should avoid exercise, exposure 
to sun, anger, water in excess, milk and guda (jaggery). 

34 Materia Medica 


Its leaf is alkaline and sweet; its stem is sweet and slimy 
and its bulb is sharp, hot, pungent both in taste and vipaka 
and laxative. Lasuna is hrdya (cardiac tonic), kesya (promoter 
of hair), heavy, vrsya (aphrodisiac), unctuous, dipana (digestive 
stimulant), rocana (appetiser), bhagna sandhana krt (healer of 
fracture) and balya (strength promoting). It vitiates blood and 
pitta. It cures kildsa (leucoderma), kus{ha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), gulma (phantom tumour), arsas 
(piles), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), 
krmi (parasitic infection), aggravated kapha and vayu, hidhmd 
(hiccup), pinasa (chronic sinusitis), svdsa (asthma) and kdsa 
(coughing). It is rasdyana (rejuvenating). 

49 50 

Spjsur: 3rep& [IT] ?f ^TfTFF-^fr 3T%' \\^\\\ 

Palandu (Allium cepa Linn.) 

Paldndu has properties similar to those of rasona. It 
alleviates kapha but does not aggravate pitta in excess. It is 
not very hot. It alleviates vata (which is not combined with 
other aggravated dosas). It is sweet in vipaka and taste. 

'wiTjfsrTT fssr: wz ftfFSTTsfjferFrs: I 

51 52 

[irrsRSSiFIir: fgrfa^fsrcpt *°] 

Paldndu is sweet, aphrodisiac, pungent and unctuous. It 
alleviates vayu. It promotes strength and does not aggravate 
pitta. It alleviates kapha. It is an appetiser and heavy. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 35 


Grnjanaka (Daucus carota Linn.) 

Grnjanaka is sharp and constipative. It cures graham 
(sprue syndrome) and arsas (piles). Its flowers and fruits 
alleviate kapha and vdta. 

^SCTf ft^ ^ far ^rts'^ ^tr' ii «£ ii 

Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Rose.) 

Ardrdka alleviates kapha and vayu. It promotes good 
voice. It cures vibandha (constipation), anaha (obstruction to 
the movement of wind in the stomach) and sula (colic pain). 
It is pungent, hot, appetiser, aphrodisiac and cardiac tonic. 


The juice of ardraka is indicated in constipation caused 
by vayu and kapha. 

mfem fcrgpr^rr **wt Tcfifqrrfq; u 5.0 n 

Ardrikd (small variety of ardraka) is bitter and sweet in 
taste. It is mutrala (diuretic) and it cures raktapitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body). 

Guda (jaggery) and ardraka, taken together, alleviate 
vayu. It promotes eye sight and alleviates pitta. It is ksata- 
ghna (cures consumption), v?sya (aphrodisiac), purgative and 
kaphdpaha (alleviator of kapha). 

=cf§Tar fr^f FHT' faTT% T^T *TC^ » 

38 Materia Medica 

The root of pippall is purgative, and digestive stimulant. 
It cures krmi (parasitic infection). 


Marica (Piper nigrum Linn.) 

Marica aggravates pitta. It is sharp, hot, ununctuous, 
digestive stimulant and carminative. It is pungent both in 
taste and vipaka. It alleviates kapha and vayu and is light. 

*?T% TFPrrsfTf^f %^ #PSTT5T^rf% ^ II ? o ? || 

Green marica is sweet in vipaka and heavy. It eliminates 

'sTRgrof TTfirefaf ^ ^T5T> *ft* few?' I 

White variety of marica is neither hot nor cold in 


ft^TlffaR ^^'f^RTrraETe'TcTnTf'T II ?°3 II 


Sunthi, pippall and marica taken together are called 
tryusarta. It is pungent, hot and light. It promotes eye sight. 
It is not an aphrodisiac. It alleviates kapha and vata. It cures 
kasa (coughing), medas (adiposity), meha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes), kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy) and tvagdmaya (skin diseases). It is diges- 
tive stimulant. It also cures gulma (phantom tumour), pipasd 
(morbid thirst) and agvyalpata (suppression of the power of 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Tofarananda $$ 

Cavika & Gajapippall (Piper chaba Hunter & Scindapsus 
officinalis Schott.) 

Cavika. and £q/a pippall are like the root of pippall in 
their properties. Cro/a pippall is more expectorant than cavika. 

*rir^r f^r ?r^ wsq^ftfenr 11 \°% it 

Pancakola and §adusana 

Pippall, pippall inula, cavika, citraka and nagara — these 
five drugs taken together are called pancakola. It cures aggra- 
vated kapha, anaha (obstruction to the movement of wind 
in the stomach), gulma (phantom tumour), sula (colic pain) 
and arucl (anorexia). 

These above mentioned five drugs along with marica are 
called sadu§ana. 



Jala pippall (Lippia nodiflora Mich.) 

Jala pippall is hrdya (cardiac tonic), caksusya (promoter 
of eyesight), hikrala (spermatopoetic), laghu (light) samgrahini 
(constipative), hima (cooling) and ruksa (ununctuous). It cures 
raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body) and para (fever). 



f^rnr eftw ^ T # ^r^tffw^C u?°««i 

[qsr/T: ^ *S : RR*] 


40 Materia Medica 

69 70 

Hingu (Ferula foetida Regel.) 

Hingu is light, hot, carminative and digestive stimulant. 
It alleviates kapha and vdta. It is unctuous, sharp and pun- 
gent in taste. It cures colic pain, indigestion, constipation, 
kftni (parasitic infection), gulma (phantom tumour), udara 
(obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis) and anaha (obs- 
truction to the movement of wind in abdomen). It is pungent 
in vipdka and appetiser. It aggravates pitta. 

"mfk i&st if^T g-czf =5T£TC3T ^f^TTeT^r I 


Jiraka (Cuminnm cyminum Linn.) 

Both the types of jird are pungent. They alleviate kapha 
and vayu. They are full of aroma. They are constipative, 
ununctuous, promoter of memory, aphrodisiac and promoter of 
eyesight. They cure chardi (vomiting), gulma (phantom tumour) 
and ddhmdna (tymphanitis). They are carminative and they 
help in the cleansing of the uterus. 

Karavi and Upakuncikd (Carum carvi Linn, and Nigella 
sativum Linn.) 

KdravT alleviates kapha and vdta. Upakuncikd has similar 

Vdspikd (Carum bulbocastanum Koch) 

Vdspikd is pungent, sharp and hot. It cures krmi para- 
sitic infection) and aggravated kapha. It is laxative. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 41 

Rajika (Brassica nigra Koch). 

Similarly rajika is appetiser and digestive stimulant. It 
cures colic pain in the abdomen. 


Yavani (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) 

Yavani aggravates pitta. It cures kusfha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), krmi (parasitic infection) and 
aggravated vayu as well as kapha. 



Chichika is cooling. It cures kusfha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), krmi (parasitic infection) and 
aggravated vata as well as kapha. 


Bhustrna (Cymbopogon martini Wats.) 

Bhustrna causes impotency. It is pungent, sharp and hot. 
It cleanses the mouth. 


Kharahva (Apium graveolens Linn.) 

Kharahva alleviates kapha and vayu. It alleviates diseases 
of the bladder and pain. 

Vm fcTTfiT^C flf ^q-^t^TTT II \\V II 

Dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum Linn.) 

Dhanyaka is astringent, bitter and sweet in taste, cardiac 
tonic, digestive stimulant and carminative. It cures kasa 
(coughing), tit (morbid thirst) and chardi (vomiting). It is 
useful for eyes. 

42 Materia Medica 


Green kustumbari (dhanyaka), when used in different 
ways, imparts good taste, fragrance and cardiac tonic property 
to various excellent types of eatables. 


The dried kustumbari is sweet in vipdka and unctuous. It 
cures trt (morbid thirst), daha (burning syndrome) and aggra- 
vated dosas. It is slightly pungent and bitter. It cleanses the 
channels of circulation. 

WwftT: TT^T5FrfhFir: fif^ncTSFBTTf: II ? ?S II 

Jambira (Citrus limon Burm.f) 

Jambira is carminative and sharp. It cures krmi (parasitic 
infection) and aggravated vata and kapha. 


^uftOTrT fq-=cr^r tftf m%&fte<?faift' 1 1 ? \ «? 1 1 

[^«FcTftf?!W: If 'TTfe 5r*PT*nr ? 3 ?] 

Bhanga (Cannabis sativa Linn.) 

Bhanga alleviates kapha. It is bitter, constipative, digestive 
stimulant, light, sharp and hot. It aggravates pitta. It causes 
unconsciousness, intoxication and talkativeness. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 43 


Surabhi is digestive stimulant and appetiser. It causes 
non-sliminess (freshness) in mouth. It cures parsva sula (pain 
in the sides of chest), aruci (anorexia), svasa (asthma), kasa 
(coughing) and aggravated vdyu. 

Tumburu (Zanthoxylum alarum Roxb ) 

Tumburu aggravates pitta. It alleviates aggravated vdyu. 
It cures krmi (parasitic infection) and daurgandhya (foul smell 
coming out of the body). 


fq-fr# *Fj>^T?rra^^fTTfe<m^ i' 


Three varieties of varvari are ununctuous, laxative, pun- 
gent, vidahi (causing burning sensation). They aggravate pitta 
and alleviate kapha, vdta as well as vitiated blood. They cure 
dadru (ring worm), krmi (parasitic infection) and visa 

^Tf^fspT¥E?fV fnaFTJErr .FfirqfT II \^\ II 
Krsriagandha (a variety of Sigru) 

Krsnagandiia cures sotha, (oedema), vidradhi (abscess) and 
ganda (goitre). It alleviates kapha. 


Sigru (Moringa pterigosperma Gaertn.) 

Sigru is sharp, light, constipative and digestive stimulant. 
It alleviates kapha and vdta. 

TTsrfer: SRfWrE: 5ft*rsfr ^TfT: WkT: II ?^^ \\ 

Madhu sigru (a variety of Sigru) 

Madhu sigru is laxative and bitter (?). It alleviates sotha 
(oedema) and stimulates digestion. It is pungent. 

44 Materia Medica 

Varuna (Crataeva nurvula Buch. Ham.) 

Varuna is hot. It cures asmari (stone in urinary tract), 
It is purgative. It alleviates aggravated vayu and sula (colic 

Paribhadra (Erythrina variegata Linn.) 

Paribhadra cures aggravated vayu and kapha, sotha 
(oedema), meha (obstinate urinary diseases including diabetes) 
and krmi (parasitic infection). 

Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.) 

The root of bilva alleviates vayu and kapha. It cures 
chardi (vomiting)- and it does not aggravate pitta. 


Patala (Stereospermum suaveolens DC.) 

Patala alleviates kapha and vata. It is slightly pungent. 
It is constipative and digestive stimulant. 

WRIT TSRT f^frFr *trre*TCt ^ ^WTfT I 

Kasmari (Gmelina arborea Linn.) 

Kasmarl is astringent, sweet and bitter. It alleviates 

Vahnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn, f.) 

Vahnimantha alleviates sotha (oedema) and it is useful for 
patients suffering from diseases caused by vayu. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 45 

Eranda (Ricinns communis Linn.) 

The root of eranda cures sula (colic pain). It is aphrodisiac 
and is an excellent alleviator of vayu. 

Trikanfaka (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) 

Trikanfaka is aphrodisiac, strength promoter and 
alleviator of vayu. It cures mutrakrcchra (dysuria). 

Kanfakdrikd (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendle.) 

Kanfakdrikd is hot. It alleviates vayu and kapha. It cures 
svdsa (asthma) and kdsa (bronchitis). 

«nf*Fft xrtfjp^t tfrm *m&ft sr^tfr cnqr n?^\sii 

Brhati (Solanum indicum Linn,) 

Brhati is carminative, constipative, hot, and alleviator of 

TnT¥ft5Ff^^T% 5T*if^ ^^WTPT II {R*z II 

Prsniparnl and Sthira (Uraria picta Desv. & Desmodium 
gangeticum DC.) 

Prsniparnl and sthira are very useful for patients suffering 
from diarrhoea caused by pitta and kapha and for patients 
dominated by vitiated vdta. Their food and drinks should be 
boiled along with these two drugs. 


JiAgim (Lannea grandis Engl.) 

Jingini cures vrana (ulcer), hrdroga (heart disease), aggra- 
vated vayu and atisdra (diarrhoea). It is pungent. 

^wRiRTRg firnWr Temrnparans: itH5.n 
The gum resin extracted from this plant is hot. If this is 

46 Materia Medica 

given for inhalation (nasyd), then it cures pain in the arm. 
3TcrfqYrTT^ Trf? ^ srezj srstrsrw 1 

Bald. (Sida cordifolia Linn.) 

There are three varieties of bald. They alleviate vdyu 
and pitta. They are constipative and aphrodisiac. 


Mahabala (Sida rhombifolia Linn.) 

Mahabala is unctuous, sweet and promoter of longevity. 
It cures mutrakrcchra (dysuria). 

Nagabala (Grewia populifolia Vahl.) 

Ndgabald is specially useful for patients suffering from 
ksata ksina (consumption). It promotes longevity and is 

Asvagan.dha (Withania somnifera Dunal.) 

Asvagandhd promotes strength, and alleviates vdyu. It is 
useful in kdsa (bronchitis), ivdsa (asthma) and ksaya (phthisis). 

TTTtraoff *TfPT**TT ^srwjT TT5TTfw^T I 

Mdsaparni & Mudga parni (Teramnus labialis Spreng. & Phaseo- 
lus trilobus Ait.) 

Mdsa parni "is exceedingly aphrodisiac. Mudga parni 
promotes eye sight. 


Rddhi promotes strength. It alleviates all the three dosas. 
It is spermatopoetic (iukrala), sweet and heavy. 

'rf^'f'fsreT #3T TOT <flTO«SPrPTCT I 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 47 


Vrddhi helps in conception (garbhaprada). It is cooling 
and aphrodisiac. It cures kdsa ^bronchitis), and ksaya 


Kakoli has two varieties. Both of them are cooling, 
spermatopoetic (sukrala), sweet and heavy. They cure aggra- 
vated vapu, daha (burning syndrome), asrapitta (a disease chara- 
cterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), sosa 
(consumption), visa (poisoning) and jvara (fever). 


There are two varieties of medd. They are heavy, sweet, 
aphrodisiac and stanya (galactogogue). They alleviate kapha. 
They are brmhana (nourishing) and cooling. They alleviate pitta, 
blood, ksaya (consumption) and vayu. 

^m: Frerei n m * ivftitaran^V i 

Jfvaka & Rsabhaka 

Jivaka and rsabhaka are strength promoting, cooling and 
spermatopoetic. They aggravate kapha. They cure aggra- 
vated pitta, daha (burning syndrome), vitiated blood, kdrsya 
(emaciation), Sosa (consumption) and ksaya (phthisis). 


f "f°T: f"TtKTfT5T — 5ft<spsr ScRT*nf^T I 


Rddhi, brddhi, kakoli, ksfra kakoli, medd, mahdmeda, 

48 Materia Medica 

jivaka and rsabhaka — these eight drugs, taken together, are 
known as asfavarga. It is cooling, exceedingly spermatopoetic 
and nourishing. It alleviates aggravated pitta, daha (burning 
syndrome), asra (vitiated blood) and iosa (consumption). It 
promotes lactation and conception. 

fsrsrmT ^B^ra^ft" tffsSf^ *RT II \\M II 

Visala (Trichosanthes bracteata Voigt) 

Visala alleviates kapha and vata. It cures meha (obstinate 
urinary disorders including diabetes) and kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy). It is laxative. 

Sdriva (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) 

Sdriva alleviates vata, pitta and blood. It cures visama 
para (malarial fever). 

*TWT3?ft c^F5ft*n*fr Sffai -J<s5?pir TT5T 1 1 ? 3 «? 1 1 


Gavadani cures tvak Sosa (emaciation or dryness of skin), 
sopha (oedema), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy) and vrana (ulcer). 

*Rm sTf^fr ^Rfq-TrsrspT^f)" ffR7 i 

Ananta. (Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. and Scholt.) 

Ananta is constipative. It cures raktapitta (a disease characte- 
rised by bleeding from different parts of the body). It is 


Gundrd (Typha elephantina Roxb.) 

Gundra promotes eyesight. It cures mutrakfcchra 
(dysuria), aggravated pitta and blood and daha (burning 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 49 

Lodhra (Symplocos crataegoides Buch. — Ham.) 

Lodhra alleviates vitiated blood, kapha and pitta. It 
promotes eyesight and cures sotha (oedema). It is laxative. 

Savara Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.) 

Savara lodhra shares the properties of lodhra. Besides, 
it promotes eyesight and is a mild purgative. 


Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) 

Madhuka cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body). It cleanses and 
heals the ulcer (yrana). It is heavy, sweet, cooling, aphro- 
disiac and promoter of eyesight, voice and complexion. 


Prapaundrika promotes eye sight. It is cooling and it 
heals ulcer. 

**faps5T f^s^rf^ft^r^ft snfeT tt*t i i \ *r 1 1 

Mafijisfha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.) 

Manjistha cures kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), visarpa (erysipelas) and sotha (oedema). It is an exce- 
llent drug for the promotion of complexion. 

SCTSTT ?T^far?rT5fV sr<nrf ^T^tRTfJSpflr 1 

Laksa (Lac) 

Laksa helps in the healing of fracture. It cures visarpa 
(erysipelas). It promotes complexion and cures skin diseases. 


50 Materia Medica 

Musall (Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker) 

Musali is sweet, aphrodisiac, hot in potency, brmhani 
(nourishing), heavy, bitter and rejuvenating. It cures gudaja 
(piles) and aggravated vayu. 

fgsrr srcusrcV #zrr ^^4xwCtxrt. ii*vyii 


ficrrq-frf^^sr^ft ^faffasp-rf^ft i 

Satavari (Asparagus racemosus WilJd.) 

Satdvarl is of two varieties. One variety has thorns below 
and the other has thorns above. Both of them are therapeutically 
useful and there should be no doubt about it. It is cooling, 
astringent, sweet, wholesome (pathya), aphrodisiac and reju- 
venating. It cures aggravated vayu and pitta as well as consti- 
pation. It promotes complexion, ojas (vital fluid?) and strength. 


«qrr«f: w: sr£ ?f# T^cn^^TpJt: ii ?vs u 

Partha (Terminalia arjuna W. & A.) 

Partha is useful in ksata (phthisis), bhagna (fracture) and 
raktastambhana (coagulation of blood). 

srf^^rsftsrri^rrt fipft ^ftsfsrssTq^: i 

Asthi sarhhara (Cissus quadrangularis Linn.) 

Asthi sarhhara is useful in asthi bhagna (fracture of bone). 
It promotes strength and alleviates vayu. 

Mnrkava (Eclipta alba Hassk.) 

Markava promotes eye sight and hair growth. It cures 
vitiation of kapha and pantfu (anemia). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 51 

Dronapuspika (Leucas cephalotes Spreng.) 

Dronapuspika cures aggravated kapha, ama, kcimala 
(jaundice), sotha (oedema) and kj-mi (parasitic infection). 

^ftcr^rft fcnsrsrr ?ns*n fecpsft ftrf^pfwr 1 1 % v=; n 

Girikarnika (Clitoria ternatea linn.) 

Girikarnika cures sosa (consumption). It is visada (non- 
slimy). It is useful for throat and it cures visa (poisoning). 

Vrscikall (Pergularia extensa N. E. Br.) 

Vrscikall cures kasa (bronchitis), aggravated vayu and 
visa (poisoning). 

§f?srspfairT ^^Ezrr crr<r<?rT Tr^rfrifV lt?V£ll 


Dugdhika (Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.) 

Dugdhika is hot, heavy and aphrodisiac. It aggravates 
vayu and promotes conception. It is sweet and constipative. 
It cures aggravated kapha, kustha (obstinate skin diseases in- 
cluding leprosy) and krmi (parasitic infection). 

srf^rT f^wrq^ft <re*p>fa gssfrrr u?Koii 

Ahimsra & Sudarsana (Copparis sepiarin Linn. & Crinum) 
asiaticum Linn.) 

Ahimsra cures visa (poisoning) and sotha (oedema). 
Sudarsana has similar properties. 


Bhargi & Gujna (Clerodendrnm serrapim Moon &- K Abfns 
precatorius Linn.) 

Bhargi cures kasa (bronchitis) and |v<^fejfei£hifti&. 

Qunja cures kustha (obstinate sIi'!flr»c^!ei8fes'W^S«fefl 

52 Materia Medica 

leprosy) and vrana (ulcer). 

Jayantl & Sairlya (Sesbania sesban Merr. & Barleria cristata 

Jayanti cures visadosa (poisoning). Sairiya alleviates kapha 
and vata. 

Prasarini (Paederia foetida Linn.) 

Prasarini cures vata rakta (gout). It is hot, aphrodisiac 
and strength promoting. 

Kokilaksa & Kulahata (Astercantha longifolia Nees & Blumea 
balsamifera DC.) 

Kokilaksa and Kuldhala cure dmavata (rheumatism) and 
anilasra (gout). 


Dhuttura (Datura stramonium Linn.) 

Dhuttura produces mada (intoxication), rarna (complexion), 
agni (digestive power) and vanti (vomiting). It cures para (fever) 
and knsfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). It is 
hot and heavy, It also cures vrana (ulcer), aggravated kapha, 
kandu (itching), krmi (parasitic infection) and visa (poisoning). 


?[fHJft-^:^ft 1 §p5?T3;;=prrpiffi- i 

HalinT and Karaivlra (Gloriosa superba Linn. & Nerium indicum 

HalinT and karavira cure kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy) and dusfa vrana (obstinate type of ulcer). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 53 

Kvartaki (Helicteres isora Linn.) 

Avartdkl cures aggrevated kapha and pitta both from 
upper and lower parts of the body. It also cures kusfha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). 

Kosdtaki (Luffa acutangula Roxb.) 

Koiataki cures aggravated kapha and arsas (piles). It 
cleanses both the pakvasaya (colon) and amasaya (stomach 
including small intestine). 

tparr 3iftf?r<arcft <fteurr w^%FEte?rrf?iRt 1 1 \ % % \ i 

Jyotismati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) 

Jyotismati promotes intellect. It is sharp and it cures vrana 
(ulcer) and visphota (pustular eruptions). 

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Pennell) 

Brahmi prevents aging. It promotes intellect, longevity 
and memory. 

97 98 

Vaca (Acorus calamus Linn.) 

Vacd cures aggravated kapha, vata as well as blood and 
attacks by evil spirits {bhuta). It promotes longevity, memory 
and intellect. 



Kukkunmda is pungent and bitter. It cures fever and 
vitiated blood and kapha. 

Saiikhapuspl (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois) 

Sankha puspl is laxative and bitter. It promotes medhS 

54 Materia Medica 

(intellect) and cures kpni (parasitic infection) and visa 

'SrHfUfrfPr. ^cTT ff'rr Xr&n> ( ? )WWT?r 1 

Hamsa pad! (Adian turn lunulatum Burm.) 

Hamsa padi is heavy and cooling. It alleviates vitiated 
blood and cures serious type (guru) of vrana. 


%'cjrr Tr"¥Fp€tfi^^fTT3Tt5 : JTf%q"TTg , ?r?r i' 

Mundi (Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.) 

Mundi is bitter in taste and pungent in vipdka. It is hot 
in potency, sweet and laghu. It promotes intellect (medha) and 
cures ganda (goitre), apart (cervical adenitis), krcchra (dysuria), 
krmi (parasitic infection), yonyarti (pain in female genital tract) 
as well as pandu (anemia). 

Malati (Aganosma dichotoma K. Schnm.) 

Malati cures aggravated kapha, pitta and blood, ruk (pain), 
vrana (ulcer), krmi (parasitic infection) and kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy). 

Its bud (mukuld) promotes eyesight. Its flowers alleviate 
kapha and pitta. 

Nagadamani (Artemisia vulgaris Linn.) 

Nagadamani promotes complexion and cures poisoning 
by luta (venomous spider) and sarpa (snake). 

Sirisa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth.) 

$irisa cures visa (poisoning), visarpa (erysipelas), sveda 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 55 

(profuse sweating), daurgandhya (foul smell of body), tvagdosa 
(skin diseases) and sotha (oedema). 


Sikthaka is an excellent cure for vrana (ulcer), visarpa 
(erysipelas), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) 
and vatasra (gout). 

arrow sfcmf ^Tfr s%*:in*f ^rafT^r^r i 

Aphuka (Papaver somniferam Linn.) 

Aphuka (opium) is iosana (drying) and grahi (constipa- 
tive). It alleviates kapha and aggravates vata as well as pitta, 

craft «f*t: "GRTf^T: -^cspfr sr ?&&&&■ II ?v>n 

Khasa tila (seeds inside the poppy pod) is aphrodisiac and 
strength promoting. Tt aggravates kapha and alleviates vayu. 
It is heavy. 

cT^sr^wt^flxft wt mit fwsfteor: i 

The valkala (outer layer) of the poppy pod is ununctuous, 
grahi (constipative) and visosana (excessively drying). 

Diirva (Cynodon dactylon Pers.) 

Diirva cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleed- 
ing from different parts of the body), kandu (itching) and 
tvagdosa (skin disease). 


q-Tf%fT"7 : ^ypT?^c^3it'q"i>f : tTf^f?Rn i 

sFfJpTrTfd 5ft«r^¥fq55roT>T^T II? V*U 

Niia (Curcuma longa Linn.) 

Nisa cures pandu (anemia), meha (obstinate urinary dis- 
orders including diabetes), apart (cervical adenitis), pilla 

$6 Materia Medica 

type of eye disease), tvagdosa (skin disease) and kpni (parasitic 
infection). It alleviates kapha and pitta and cures sotha 
(oedema), karidu (itching), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases inclu- 
ding leprosy) and vrana (ulcer). 

Darvf (Berberis aristata DC.) 

Darvi shares the properties of nisa. It is specially useful 
for curing abhisyanda (conjunctivitis) caused by kapha. 

Avalguja (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.) 

The fi uit of avalguja cures tvagdosa (skin disease), aggra- 
vated vayu and kapha and vfca (poisoning). 

Prapunnada (Cassia tora Linn.) 

Prapunnada shares the properties of avalguja. Moreover, 
it cures kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), 
gulma (phantom tumour), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases 
including ascitis) and arsas (piles). It is pungent in vipaka. 

• P- r~ . 102 

Karanja, kirhiuka & Arista (Pongamia pinnata Merr., Butea 
monosperma Kuntze and Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.) 

The fruits of karanja, kirhsuka and arista cure jantu 
(parasitic infection) and prameha (obstinate urinary disorders 
including diabetes). They are ununctuous, hot, pungent in 
vipaka and light. They alleviate vata and kapha, 

Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm. f.) 

Vidanga is slightly bitter. It is useful in the treatment 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 51 

of poisoning and it cures krmi (parasitic infection). 

103 104 

Asphota & Tinisa (Vallaris solanacea O. Ktze. & Ougeinia 
dalbergioides Benth.) 

Asphota cures visa (poisoning) and kustha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy). 

Tinisa cures daha (burning syndrome) and aggravated 


Asana and Simsapd (Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. & Dalbergia 
sissoo Roxb.) 

Asana alleviates kapha and pitta. Simsapa cures daha 
(burning syndrome) and sotha (oedema). 

STrawl TrEfTrTsfr sp<*ft ??^T53TfKr II ?^S.II 

Dhdtaki & Kadara (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. & Acacia suma 
Bach. — Ham.) 

Dhdtaki cures raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleed- 
ing from different parts of the body). 

Kadara makes teeth strongly embedded in the gums (danta 
ddrdhya krt). 

Apamdrga and Sinduvara (Achyranthes aspera linn. & Vitex 
trifolia Linn.) 

Apamdrga stimulates digestion and it is sharp. 

Sindtfvdra alleviates vdyu. 


58 Materia Medica 

Lajjalu (Mimosa pudica Linn.) 

Lajjalu is cooling, bitter and astringent. It alleviates 
kapha and pitta. It cures raktapitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body), atisara (diarrhoea) 
and yonidosa (diseases of the female genital tract). 

108 109 

«faft WPSRffprr $r^: ^t^nor: II ?\s? II 

Varhsa (Bambusa bambos Druce) 

Vamsa cures vrana (ulcer) and vitiated blood. It is 
purgative and it cures sotha (oedema). 

Rohitaka (Tecomella undulata Seem.) 

Rohitaka cures diseases of yak rt and plihan, gulma (phan- 
tom tumour) and udara (obstinate diseases of the abdomen 
including ascitis). It is laxative. 


Vrhaddara (Argyreia speciosa Sweet) 

Vrhaddara cures sotha (oedema), ama and aggravated 
kapha as well as vdta. It is lejuvenating. 


Tagara (Valeriana wallichii DC.) 

Tagara shares the properties of kustha. It is specifically 
useful in curing vrana (ulcer) and vitiated kapha as well as 

KauntT (Vitex agnus-costus Linn.) 

Kawiti alleviates kapha and vata. It stimulates digestive 
power. It does not aggravate pitta. 

112 113 

gw' fafFF *4«t*i *i*&[ srsffaTT 5n!m u ?^vu 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 59 

Srivasa (Pinus roxburghii Sargent) etc. 

Srivasa, sarala, bola, kunduru, granthiparna, turuska, 
silhaka, sprkkd, gundrd, sarja, murd and nakha — all these drugs 
cure aggravated vdyu, alaksml (inauspiciousness), raksa (afflic- 
tions by raksas) and jvara (fever). They are sweet and bitter 
in taste. They promote longevity. They cure svedadaurgandhya 
(foul smell because of excessive sweating). 

*T5*ft%^*T<frTOr^<nft*iT:' II \^\ II 


Raid is cooling, heavy, bitter, and astringent. It cures 
graham (sprue syndrome), graha (affliction by unfavourably 
situated planets), samsveda (excessive sweating), vlsarpa (erysi- 
pelas), jvara (fever), vrana (ulcer) and vipadika (cracking of the 
sole of the feet). 

ft *N ^- •* S 


Candana (Sveta and Rakta) (Santalum album Linn. & Pterocarpus 
santalinus Linn, f.) 

Both the varieties of candana cure vitiated pitta and 
blood, visa (poisoning), trt (morbid thirst), ddha (burning 
syndrome) and krmi (parasitic infection). They are heavy, 
ununctuous, bitter, sweet and exceedingly cooling. 

*pftef ^^ 5%?T TrBpRTf^TW^ I 

Sveta candana is manojna (pleasing to the mind) and it 
cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from 
different parts of the body) and visa (poisoning). It is hrdya 

60 Materia Medica 

(cardiac tonic), prahladamya (which gives comfort), bitter and 
exceedingly cooling. 

Lohita candana promotes eyesight. It cures rakta pitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body). It is useful in the treatment of ulcers (yranyd). 

116 117 118 

Patanga (CaesaJpinia sappan Linn.) 

Patanga is bitter and sweet. It is vranya (useful in the 
treatment of ulcer). It alleviates pitta, kapha and blood. 


Padmaka (Prunus cerasoides D. Don.) 

Padmaka cures kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), visphofa (pustular eruption), jvara (fever), daha (burn- 
ing syndrome) and vrana (ulcer). 

%&* f^l^P^^Tf^re^T^HT ll?t;on 

Sevya (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash) 

Sevya alleviates pitta and blood. It cures sveda (excessive 
sweating), daha (burning syndrome) and daurgandhya (foul 
smell of body)., 


Kumkuma (Crocus sativus Linn.) 

KiXmkuma alleviates vayu. It is hot. It promotes strength 
and cures tvagdosa (skin disease). 

Kasturi (musk) 

Kasturl cures chardi (vomiting), daurgandhya (foul smell 
of the body), aggravated vayu, alaksml (inauspiciousness) and 
rnala (excessive excretion of waste products). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 61 

Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) 

Aguru is pungent, bitter, hot and unctuous. It alleviates 
vdyu and kapha. 

Suradaru (Cedrus deodara Loud.) 

Suradaru is unctuous, hot and pungent in vipdka. It 
alleviates vdyu. 

Kattrna (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) 

Kattrna is bitter and sweet. It alleviates vdyu and kapha, 
and cures viga (poisoning). 

Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke.) 

Kustha is bitter and sweet. It alleviates vdyu and kapha, 
and cures visa (poisoning). 


SatT (Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex. Smith.) 

SatT alleviates vdyu and kapha. It cures svdsa (asthma), 
kdsa (bronchitis) and para (fever). 

q*rf;sr. sp«£spT f "sr: ^"ta - : spBwrafsRT 1 1 ? «;vi i 

Kankola (Piper cubeba Linn, f.) 

Kankola is fragrant, pungent and cardiac tonic. It alleviates 
kapha and vafa. 


Jdtiphala (Myrstica fragrans Houtt.) 

Jdtiphala shares the properties of kankola. In addition it 
causes bhranta (giddiness) and aggravates pitta. 

62 Materia Medica 



Jdtikosa is light and bitter. It cures kleda and daurgandhya 
(foul smell of the body). 

gfcTrF). WZ%^.^ ^-mm f^RT^R: I 

Karpura (Cinnamomum camphora Nees. & Eberm) 

Karpura is bitter and pungent. It alleviates kapha. It is 
cooling in vipaka (?). It promotes eyesight and is an 

CN « O > 

zmfa ?to^s ^fe^w g'lTT^'T ii?=^ii 

Apakva karpura is better than pa/cva karpura, There, also, 
karpura which is not in small pieces and which is like crystal is 
the best. 

^f*R-nrfq-?r %f?r<Tcrffcr ^TrnFcRr: u?=;j;ii 

Pakva karpura which is in pieces (sadala), which is 
unctuous and which has greenish tinge is the best provided 
granules (even in small quantity) do not fall out of it when 
broken into pieces. 


It cures daha (burning syndrome), asya vairasya (distaste 
in mouth), medas (adiposity), Sotha (oedema) and visa 


W^^^^TW*rfeqrf<?w: l' 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 63 

Rasna (Plachea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern.) 

Rasna is cooling, heavy, bitter, astringent and constipative. 
It cures graha (afflictions by evil spirits), vitiated blood, sveda 
(excessive sweating), visarpa (erysipelas), jvara (fever), vraria 
(ulcer) and vipadikd (cracking of the soul of the feet.) 


Ela (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) 

Ela cures trt (morbid thirst), ckardi (vomiting), hrllasa 
(nausea), kandu (itches) and aggravatejlptfta as well as kapha. 

Suksmaila (Elettaria cardamom um Maton.) 

Suksmaila is useful in mutrakrcchra (dysuria), arsas (piles), 
svasa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis) and aggravation of kapha, 

Lavanga (Syzyginm aromaticnm Merr. & L.M.) 

Lavanga cures vibandha (constipation), anaha (flatulence) 
and sula (colic pain). It helps in the digestion of food. 

won **r^rsffr ?r?TT^Tf^T finrr I 

Lata kasturika (Hibiscus abelmoschus Linn.) 

Lata kasturika promotes eye sight and cures diseases of 
mouth. Tt is cooling. 


Katphala (Myrica nagi Thunb.) 

Katphala cures diseases of mouth, kdsa (bronchitis), svasa 
(asthma) and ksaya (consumption). 

*T3T5ft mm: f?rfR sfrzfWT sra?ft ^w: i 

64 Materia Medico 

Madana (Randia dumetornm Lam.) 

Madana is emetic, bitter, hot in potency, lekhana 
(scraping), light and ununctuous. It cures kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy,) aggravated kapha, anaha 
(flatulence), sopha (oedema), gulma (phantom tumour) and 
vrana (ulcer). 

VFgrj Tt-STfft 5TEqT 3Tf rf^fq-TTHTf%?ft 1 1 ? 5. V 1 1 

Satahva (Foeniculum voUwre Mill.) 

Satahva cures aggravated vayu, daha (burning syndrome), 
vitiated blood, Sula (colic pain), trt (morbid thirst) and chardi 
(vomiting). It is sweet, rocana (appetiser) and aphrodisiac. It 

alleviates pitta. 

PhalinT (Prunus mahaleb Linn.) 

Phalinf removes gdtra daurgandhya (foul smell of the 
body) and cures rdkta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the body) and para (fever). 


stcctt ^ftfircrfTTrTfg-ift^ ir?«rfw[*fT 11 ?ex n 

Gandha priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl) 

Gandha priyangu is useful in the acute form of sonita 
pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts 
of the body). 

^j>srT jftTift faw ^rprr ^xt *p: i 


Hapusa (Juniper communis Linn.) 

Hapusa is digestive stimulant, bitter, pungent, hot, saline 
and heavy. It cures aggravated pitta, iidara (obstinate abdomi- 
nal diseases including ascitis), aggravated vayu, arias (piles), 
graham (sprue syndrome), gulma (phantom tumour) and Ma 
(colic pain). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 65 

131 132 

'TTOTftGWT wra^JT'rg'TcrwraTiTirr^ sr^r i 

Rasna (Alpinia gulanga Willd.) 

Rasna is hot. It cures aggravated vdyu, sotha (oedema), 
dmavata (rheumatism) and vdtdmaya (diseases caused by the 
vitiation of vdyu). 

Pauskara (Inula racemosa Hook, f.) 

Pauskara cures parsvaruk (pain in the sides of chest), 
svasa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis), hikka (hiccup) and jvara 


Srngl (Pistacia integerrmia Stew, ex Brandis) 

Sirngi cures aggravated kapha as well as vdyu, svasa 
(asthma), kasa (bronchitis), hikka (hiccup) and fever ( jvard). 


Vardnga (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume.) 

Vardnga alleviates kapha and reduces semen. It cures 
dmavata (rheumatism). It is sweet and pungent. It cures visa 
(poisoning), trf (morbid thirst), chardi (vomiting), hjlldsa 
(nausea), aggravated kapha as well as pitta and visarpa 


c^^t^^Fsqmspft H T PT %<ere ; || ?$.§. || 

Ndgakesara (Mesua ferrea Linn.) 

Ndgakesara cures tvagdosa (skin diseases), sveda (excessive 
sweating) and daurgandhya (foul smell of the body). 

TTSP ^ «B3!'Ta"l Sfff ?o\ W I O^T T^T 

66 Materia Medica 

Patraka (Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm.) 

Patraka alleviates kapha and vata and cures arsas (piles), 
hrllasa (nausea) and arocaka (anoxeria). 


Talisa patra (Abies webbiana Lindl.) 

Talisa patra is sharp and hot. It alleviates kapha and 
vata. It cures ksaya (consumption). It aggravates pitta. It is 
laxative (sramsana). It promotes good voice and digestive 
power. It also cleanses mouth. 


sp[T9T SrsTTT WW m^^t W5ITNRT \\Ro% II 

Vamsa rocand (Bamboo manna.) 

Vamsa rocand is astringent, sweet and ununctuous. It 
cures kdsa (bronchitis), 


TugaksirT cures ksaya (consumption), svdsa (asthma) and 
kdsa (bronchitis). It is sweet and cooling. 

1 39 1 40 

Vdsaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees) 

Vdsaka cures kdsa (bronchitis), vaisvarya (impairment of 
voice), raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from 
different parts of the body), aggravated kapha, trsd (morbid 
thirst), svdsa (asthma), jvara (fever), chardi (vomiting), meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), kustha (obsti- 
nate skin diseases including leprosy) and ksaya (consumption). 

*j>m^ %*fft stftar im^ft^n^TT^ IR°3ll 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 67 

KumarT (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) 

Kumdri is bhedana (purgative) and cooling. It cures yakrt 
(diseases of liver), plihan (diseases of spleen), aggravated kapha, 
para (fever), vahni visphota (carbuncle), aggravated pitta as well 
as rakta and tvagdmaya (diseases of skin). 


Atnrta (Tinospora cordifolia Miers) 

Amrta promotes strength. It alleviates all the three 
dosas. It is grain (constipative), hot, rejuvenating and digestive 
stimulant. It cures trt (morbid thtrst), jvara (fever), chardi 
(vomiting), kdmala (jaundice) and rata rakta (gout). It is 
pungent, bitter, sweet in vipaka and light. It also cures daha 
(burning syndrome), dma and kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy). 

^ra'fqrfff"?: w*v f??fto: it^^tctsft ir°sii 


SdliparnT, prsni parni, bfhatl, kan^akdri and goksura — these 
five drugs taken together, are called kanlyas paficamula. It 
alleviates vdyu and pitta and it is aphrodisiac. 


SsfrfTT^: T3=?ffT5#T: <P*W?T *T^TtnT |Ro\s||] 

Sriphala, sarvato bhadra, pdfald, ganikdrikd and syondka — 
these five drugs taken together are called mahat pancamiila. 

rrFTTTirr q^^i^n" issnT^nrerf^nr I 

68 Materia Medica 

All these ten drugs included both in kaniyas pancamula 
and mahat pancamula taken together are called daiamula. It 
cures dosa traya (aggravated vayu, pitta and kapha), svasa 
(asthma), k asa (bronchitis), sirah pida (headache), apatantraka 
(convulsion), tandrT (drowsiness), §otha (oedema), para (fever). 
anaha (tymphanitis), aruci (anorexia) and parsva ruk (pain in 
the sides of the chest). 

Decoction of these ten drugs belonging to the group of 
daiamula or the decoction of harltaki, bibhitaka and amalaki 
(triphala) along with these ten drugs belonging to dafamula 
group cures diseases of manya (sternomastoid region), hanu 
(mandibles), sravana (ears), locana (eyes), nasika (nose), asya 
(mouth), bhrii (eye brows), sankha (temporal region), danta 
(teeth), gala (throat), talu (palate) and siras (head). It also cures 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). 

e *s k * 

Panca ksTri vrksa and Panca valkala 

Nyagrodha, udumbara, asvattha, parisa and plaksa — these 
five are called ksiri vrksas (trees having milky latex). Barks of 
all these five trees taken together are called panca valkala. 


Some physicians use sirlsa and some others use vetasa in 
the place of parisa included m this group of drugs. 

§ftfTS[5TT: f^TT: ^prarf: jfrfHsfagTPTI T: I R \ ? 1 1 

wm: ^mm: iftft^n #ter<riwrreRT: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 69 

KsTri vrksas are cooling. They promote complexion 
(varnya) and cure yoni dosa (ailments of the female genital tract) 
and vrana (ulcer). They are ununctuous, and astringent. They 
cure medas (adiposity), visarpa (erysipelas), sotha (oedema) and 
vitiated pitta, kapha as well as blood. They promote lactation 
and help in the union of fractured bones. 

Panca valkala is cooling and constipative. It cures vrana 
(ulcer), sotha (oedema) and visarpa (erysipelas). 


Properties of Dhdtu, Upadhatu, Rasa, Uparasa, Ratna, Uparatna, 
Visa and Upavisa. 

Description of Dhatus 
Svarna (gold), tara (silver), tamra (copper) vaitga (tin), 
naga (lead), ritika (bell metal), kamsya (brass), loha (iron) 
— these eight are called dhatus. 


They are called dhatus because they sustain (dadhati) the 
body of human beings by curing vail (premature wrinkles), 
palita (premature graying of hair), khalitya (baldness), karsya 
(emaciation), abalya (weakness), jara (old age) and amaya 

70 Materia Medica 

qfcTcT if^^T'TCs 

^f^rrs^rfq- refer 

Origin and description of Gold 


In the days of yore, Jdtavedas (Agni or Fire god) became 
passionately excited when he saw the extremely beautiful, 
auspicious and youthful wives of the self controlled seven 
sages (Saptarsis) in their hermitages. The semen he, thus, 
ejaculated fell upon the earth which became gold. Gold is 
also prepared artificially by the vedhana (a specific method of 
processing) of mercury. 


stI ~m firer %fc ft^r f^rsnnj; n ^?vs n 

149 " ~150 

Good quality 

The gold which becomes red when burnt, white when cut 
and like saffron when rubbed over nikasa (a specific type of 
stone used for testing the genuineness of gold), which is prepared 
out of silver or copper and which is unctuous, soft and heavy is 
the best. 

151 152 

5%cff*T ^foff ^§T fespjf" ?TR?f 5*PT II ^\^ II 


snt %i^sr%cf 3%cf m^z srsr czt%cT i 

Bad quality 

The gold which is partially white, hard, ununctuous and 
discoloured, which is associated with impurities, which has 
pieces like leaves, which becomes black in burning or cutting, 
which does not produce clear colour when rubbed over nikasa 
and which is light should not be uspd in medicine. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarii of Todarananda 71 



f^^JT^^rr^f^TT^^T^fecT II '=-? II 


Gold is cooling, aphrodisiac, strength promoting, heavy, 
rejuvenating, sweet in vipdka and taste, bitter, cardiac tonic 
exceedingly depleting {vara lekhana), pavitra (remover of sins), 
nourishing and promoter of eye sight. It purifies intellect and 
memory, and promotes longevity. It also purifies complexion 
and voice. It causes steadiness. It cures both the types of 
visa (poisoning), ksaya (consumption), unmada (insanity), 
vitiation of all the three dosas, jvara (fever) and sosa (phthisis). 


sprfasRJTq - ' ^ srtsr trrr^ *rafT«r w?*r ^ftfir ii \w ii 

Adverse effects 

When gold is used without proper processing, it takes away 
strength and energy, helps manifestation of several diseases, 
causes discomfort and because of its toxicity even causes death. 

ffTTj-srqTJnsr ftnr. m^m <rf"jfrrr n "3 u 


rrc^TSjf: fnrvr^^RT %^ s^pt^ ii ?^vn 

% Materia Medica 




When lord &wz, full of anger, looked without twinkling 
of eyes for killing the demon Tripura, then from one of his eyes 
a meteor (ulka) fell down which gave birth to Rudra who was 
dazzling like fire. From the left eye drops of tears fell down 
which gave birth to silver and this is used for all different 


It is also prepared artificially by adding vanga (tin) etc., 
to processed mercury. 


Good quality 

Heaviness, ununctuousness, softness, white colour, power 
to stand burning, cutting and pressure (ghana), good colour, 
pure appearance like moon — these are the nine qualities of good 

Bad quality 

Hardness, artificial preparation, ununctuousness, redness, 
yellowness, fragility (dala), lightness and getting destroyed by 
burning, cutting or pressure (ghana) — these are the ten defects 
in silver. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 73 



Silver is cooling, astringent and sour in taste, sweet both in 
vipaka and taste, and laxative. It prevents aging. It is unctuous 
and lekhana (depleting). It alleviates vata and pitta. It certainly 
cures diseases like prameha (obstinate urinary disorders includ- 
ing diabetes). 


SqT£5=f ^"JT^f f%f% ?iF^T?f t M q dl ^ ^4-W IR3°II 

Adverse effects 

Asuddha (not propeily processed) silver produces excessive 
heat (tdpd) in the body and causes its destruction. It destroys 
semen, efficiency, energy and strength. It gives rise to many 
serious diseases (mahdgada). 


3T^" qWTftj%*rcq ifclcf SRufldSl I 

^TT^cTce-^^cf arsmrf: s^Tfe:?: iR3?n 

Tamra (Copper) 


According to scholars well versed in the purdtias, the 
semen of Kdrtikeya which fell on the earth gave rise to tamra 



Bad quality 

Black colour, ununctuousness, excessive compactness, 
white colour, inability to tolerate pressure (ghana), mixture of 

74 Materia MeaHca 

iron and lead — these are the seven defects in copper of bad 

?rrsT* *&m ^%i srf%TR" ^Tsrwif % 'iw*r?<r%sr i r ^ 1 1 


Copper is astringent, sweet and hitter. It is ropana (healer 
of ulcers) and slightly brmhapa (nourishing). It cures aggra- 
vated pitta, udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including 
ascitis), arsas (piles), krmi (parasitic infection), kustha (obsti- 
nate skm diseases including leprosy), pinasa (chronic rhinitis), 
aggravated kapha, ksaya (consumption), para (fever) and sula 
(colic pain). It is cooling. 

q^t ^*r> M a«rar am ^spix spflffirerr i 

Adverse effects 

Poison is not the real poison. It is copper (not processed 
properly) which is the real poison. Poisons have only one 
adverse effect whereas copper (which is not processed properly) 
has eight types of adverse effects. These are bhrama (giddiness), 
murccha (fainting), vidaha (burning sensation), sveda (excessive 
sweating), utkledana (production of stickiness in the body), 
vanti (vomiting), aruci (anorexia), citta santapa (excessive 
discomfort in mind)— these are the eight types of adverse 
effects which are like poisoning effects. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 75 

Vanga (Tin) 


Vanga is of two types. They are called khuraka and 
misraka. Of these two, khuraka type of vanga is very useful in 
therapeutics whereas the misraka type is harmful. 




Vanga is light, laxative, ununctuous and hot. It cures 
meha (obstinate urinary diseases including diabetes), kapha,' 
kfrni (parasitic infection), pdndu (anemia) and svdsa (asthma). 
It is good for eye sight and it slightly aggravates pitta. 



[?rpm<?5prrer v?K?] 

As a lion kills a horde of elephants, similarly, vanga cures 
all types of meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes). It causes happiness of the body and promotes the 
strength of sense organs. It nourishes an emaciated person, 

^T3f sfTrT^rfr HT*T: SRTtnTq-ft JTTPT I 

[srrw<iy4>i^i 3:?=;v] 
iVaga (Lead) 


The semen ejaculated by Vdsuki after seeing the beautiful 
daughter of Bhogi gave rise to ndga (lead). It cures all diseases 
of human beings. 

76 Materia Medica 


Naga shares all the properties of vanga. However, the 
former specifically cures meha (obstinate urinary disorders 
including diabetes). 

JTTsg; 5TT»T5irar§iFTsp5f confer 

Naga (Lead) endows a person with the strength of one 
hundred nagas (cobras), cures diseases, promotes longevity, 
stimulates digestion, increases the strength for sexual act and 
prevents death if used constantly. 

§>K5rf?r tow crsrTsfcif^5T?r irhii 

Adverse effects 

Use of ra5g<z (lead) and vanga (tin) without proper process- 
ing causes kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), 
gulma (phantom tumour), atikusfha (?), pandit (anemia), prameha 
(obstinate "urinary disorders including diabetes), sopha 
(oedema) caused by vdyu, bhagandara (flstula-in-ano), svitra 
(leucoderma), kilasa (a type of leucoderma) and sula (colic 
pain). They are like poisons and cause rdkta vikara (diseases 
9aused by the vitiation of blood), ksaya (consumption), kjrcchra 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 77 

(dysuria), aggravation of kapha, jvara (fever), asmari (stone in 
urinary tract), vidradhi (abscess), mukharoga (diseases of mouth), 
arti (pain) and nitya abalatva (progressive weakness). 

#?f?tt *if*i3> feRrr mwmr <tf5P?>T wr iRV*n 

t^r ^ m*fc w**n =hi+^1fcr ft t?tt i 

.RJf /&a (Bell metal) 


This is of two types viz., ritika and kakatundi. If the 
metal is heated and dipped into kahji (vinegar) and it becomes 
copper-coloured then it should be known as ritika. If it 
becomes black in colour, then it is kakatundi. 

Good quality 

Ritika which is heavy, soft, yellowish in colour, dazzling 
(spharangi), trotanaksama (difficult to break), unctuous and 
smooth is of good quality. 

^SfT Wm mXl ^WT TTfiTtfte spTTCTfT U^ll 


Bad quality 

Ritika. which is stabdha (compact), ununctuous, rough, 
white, excessively red, ghanasaha (intolerant of pressure), putaga 
(having layers) and associated with impurity (mala) is not 


[^TRsr^T^" 'jwis - : ^TOTpFT «;:«*(] 

78 Materia Medica 


Both the types of ritika are suksma (subtle), bitter and 
saline in taste and cleansing. They cure pandu (anemia) and 
krmi (parasitic infection). It is not a depletive (lekhana) in 

Kamsya (Brass) 

Kamsya is astringent, bitter, hot, lekhana (depletive), 
visada (non-slimy), laxative, ununctuous and heavy. It promotes 
eye sight and alleviates kapha and pitta. 



Loha (Iron) 


In the days of yore, different types of lohas came out from 
the bodies of the lomila daityas (a group of demons) when they 
were killed during their war with the gods. 

¥«ff STOW TSfHf %^pf *CTW?f 5T^T lRV\9lt 


Loha is bitter, laxative, cooling, astringent, sweet, heavy, 
ununctuous, vayasya (promoter of longevity) and caksu$ya (pro- 
moter of eye sight). It aggravates vayu and alleviates kapha and 
pitta. It cures gam (poisoning), sula (colic pain), sopha 

Ayurveda Sdukhyam of Todarananda ?9 

(oedema), arsas (piles), plihan (splenic disorder), panduta (ane- 
mia), tnedas (adiposity), meha (obstinate urinary disorders 
including diabetes), krmi (parasitic infection) and kusfha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). 

Its kitta which is called mandura (rust of iron) shares all 
the properties of iron. 

mtviW: 5g^«ft 5>fT: ^rtptctft *r wry in 

Bad quality 

Guruta (heaviness), drdhata (sturdiness), utkleda (stickiness), 
kasmala (impurity), dahakarita (producing burning sensation), 
asmadosa (adulteration with stone ?) sudurgandha (foul smell) — 
these are the seven defects of iron. 

Adverse effects 

Loha, which is not properly processed, causes sandatva 
(impotency), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), 
mrtyu (death), hrdroga (heart disease), sula (colic pain), asmari 
(stone in urinary tract), aggravation of different types of pain 
and hrllasa (nausea). 


[3rr^sr?FP5r v^-w] 

If loha which xs not properly processed is taken then it 
takes away the life, produces intoxication, does not produce 
energy in the body and causes acute pain in the heart. 

80 Materia Medica 



Persons using /o/w should give up- kusmanda, til oil, 
/««£«*, rajika, madya (alcoholic drinks) and amla rasa (things 
having sour taste). 


smr^f^^FPRiw?^ [?in%r^f^r] ir«.3ii 

Sara /o/jo 

.S^ra loha is the best among irons. It is ksamabhrt (stands 
to pressure) and sikharakata (tapering in shape). When tri- 
turated with sour juice it leaves small dust-like particles. 

ssTwrfasf ^rt ^ ^ "TRumr^ i 


Sara lauha immediately cures grahani (sprue syndrome), 
atisara (diarrhoea), aggravation of vayu in half of the body or 
all over the body, parindmaja sula (colic pain which appears 
during the process of digestion of food), chardi (vomiting), 
pinasa (chronic rhinitis), aggravated pitta and svdsa (asthma). 

■wi* * kit* i* *rf*$ *i* i 

182 183 

f^iphvf cirgr% ^ fsraf ftrcRrt forces n w ii 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 81 

Kanta loha 

In a pot of kanta loha containing hot water if a drop of 
oil is put then the oil does not spread. Hingu (asafoetida) loses 
its foul smell and the paste of nimba loses its bitterness when 
put in such a pot. If milk is boiled in this pot, then it goes up 
in the form of a sikhara (pyramid) but does not fall down. It 
becomes black when canakamla (sajala canaka) is kept in this 


SPTfa TTTTTfHsriFr ?RT^i ^ wstm I 


Kanta loha cures gulma (phantom tumour), udara (obsti- 
nate abdominal diseases including ascitis), artas (piles), sula, 
(colic pain), ama, amavata (rheumatism), bhagandara (fistula-in- 
ano), kamala (jaundice), sopha (oedema), kusfha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), ksaya (consumption) and ruk (pain). 
It gives nourishment to the body and promotes strength and 
stability. It helps in the procreation of children. It alleviates 
vitiation of blood, pllhan (diseases of spleen), amla pitta (hyper 
acidity of stomach) and siroruk (headache). Kanta loha cures 
all these diseases undoubtedly. 



3HPT qfe^nlfq- cRTT Wfa fecffaim II R\° "ll 

Loha kitta (Rust of Iron) 

Loha kitta which is one hundred years old is the best, 
eighty years old is mediocre and sixty years old is inferior. 
Rust of iron which is less than sixty years old is like poison. 

82 Materia Medica 

In the place of fo/ja, its mala (rust) can be used in all 
diseases because the latter shares all the properties of the 
former. Moreover, its mala (rust) is specifically indicated in 
the treatment of pandu (anemia). 

From kitta (mandura or rust of iron) mutjda loha is ten 
times effective, from munda loha, tlksna loha is hundred times 
effective and from tlksna loha, kanta is one lakh times effective 
in producing strength. 

stspp *nf«w hth fsrsn fffcrfsH ^wr > 

Abhraka, maksika, tala, Mia, nllanjana, tutthaka and 
rasafcc — these seven are known as upadhatus. 



Abhraka (Mica) 


In the days of yore, when Vajri (Indra) took out the vajra 
to kill the demon Vrtra, then visphulihgas (fire particles) from 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 83 

that vajra spread over the sky and because of the thundering 
sound of the clouds fell on the tops of mountains. Thus, 
abhraka took birth in those mountains. 

^ifHq^artsiH rPSsrpf spm^RviT II ?.£* II 

Once upon a time, the goddess Girijd saw the extremely 
handsome Hara. The genital fluid (ovum) she then ejaculated 
gave rise to pure abhraka. 


Abhraka which is available in the southern mountains is 
inferior in quality because it gets dried by the strong heat of 
the sun. It produces less of sattva. However, this sattva is 
therapeutically useful. 

Abhraka which is available in northern mountains con- 
tains more of sattva and is therefore superior in quality. 

189 190 

*FFTT?q-facf ^^T^^T^T ^ <TcfT TcTTT I 


It is called vajra because of its origin from thunder (yajra). 
It is called abhra because it is produced with the help of the 
cloud {abhra). Since it has fallen from the sky (gagana), it is 
called gagana. 

^wn^ %cf t^b* <fW w^ ^ ^iw i 

84 Materia Medica 


'ffrcf |tPt f^if cj 5T^tr srer^sfq ^ i 


It is of four types viz., vipra, ksatriya, vit and sudra and 
they are white, red, yellow and black respectively. The white 
variety is useful in the preparation of silver, red variety for 
rejuvenation therapy, yellow variety in the preparation of gold 
and the blackf variety for the treatment of diseases as well as 
for druti kriya, 

fqrTFP^T tut *rw %fer ^fwr \\\\s\\\ 
srarjn^ vsm ?n& *r? v% *ss&w*&{ i r^r 1 1 

[mwsRn-^r: ^q-Brtg^f ^HK-?^] 
a^vrfsTcPT^ref 5 feresnfcr w=sncT ir^vh 


It is also classified in four, different ways viz., pinaka, 
dardura, naga and vajra. When placed on fire, the pinaka variety 
of abhraka gives up leaves, and if because of ignorance, it is 
used, then it causes serious types of kustha (obstinate skm 
diseases including leprosy). The dardura variety of abhraka 
when placed on fire produces sound like a frog. It produces 
many gelakas (abscesses?) and thus leads to death. The naga 
variety of abhraka produces hissing (phutkdra) sound like that 
of a cobra, when placed on fire. This, when used, certainly 
produces bhagandara (fistula-in-ano). The vajra variety of 
abhraka stands on the fire like a vajra (thunder) without under? 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 85 

going any change. Amongst all these varieties, the vajra type 
of abhraka is the best and it overcomes diseases, old age and 
even death. 


Abhraka is astringent, sweet, exceedingly cooling and 
promoter of longevity and dhatus (tissue elements of the body). 
It alleviates all the three dosas and cures vrana (ulcer), tneha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), ku§fha 
obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), plihan (splenic dis- 
orders), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), 
granthi (adenitis), visa (poisoning) and' krmi (parasitic 

ctisoifis^ x*mfh: ^t<t zftfafrt f?r?ir^ n^vdisii 


Abhraka, when used in bhasma form, cures diseases, 
produces sturdiness of the body and increases semen. It 
produces youthfulness because of winch a person can enjoy 
sex with one hundred ladies daily. It helps in the procreation 
of children endowed with longevity and strength like a lion. It 
takes away the fear of untimely death for ever. 

"fr§t f^srw faf%«rr ^-vm 3*5 ?w tt"*|»r ^ sft^nr i 

[m^rsr^T^r: ^rr^m^'t =;-!'o-^5 i ^v-?^] 


Ipq-mqtst =sr ^fn^sp-jm ^^s *reTrrc Finer i 

Adverse eifect 

Abhraka, which is not properly processed, produces 

86 Materia Medica 

different types of pain, kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), Ksaya (consumption), pandu (anemia), sopha (oedema), 
hrt pida (pain in cardiac region), pdrsva pida (pain in the sides 
of the chest) and serious type of burning sensation in the body 
of human beings. 

Maksika (Copper pyrite) 


Maksika is of two types viz., yellow and white. The 
golden colour (yellow) maksika is considered to be the better. 

'TTfSFPF W< faffi FPf ^W TflTiRfr IRS ° II 


198 '1 99 

fRT : Sfte SPT ^ f?Khsf ^ f^r^^fcT I R S ? 1 1 

[srr^sr^RT «:.§.-? o] 


Maksika is sweet, bitter, promoter of good voice, 
aphrodisiac and rejuvenating. It promotes eye sight and cures 
vastiruk (pain in bladder), kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), pandu (anemia), mcha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes), visa (poisoning^), udara (obstinate 
abdominal diseases including ascitis), arsas (piles), sopha 
(oedema), ksaya (consumption), kandu (itching) and all the 
three aggravated dosas. 


spfrfer *nrat ^^^ *% ^prrfefto w% TifspF ^ ir=ru 

Adverse effect 

If maksika is used without proper processing then it 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda $1 

causes indigestion, extreme loss of strength, constipation, 
diseases of the eye, kustfia (obstinate skm diseases including 
leprosy), mala (cervical adenitis) and vratia (ulcer). 


Haritala (Yellow arsenic) 


Haritala is pungent, unctuous, astringent and hot. It 
cures visa (poisoning), kandu (itching) kustha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), asyaroga (diseases of the mouth), 
vitiated blood, kapha and pitta, kaca (diseases of hair) and 
vratja (ulcer). 



faarcftr ^B^Tcrnr FTrpfm wrf\fo i 

^^flTf^^T^Sn'TT^ %*1T5T u '=;«. it 

Adverse effect 

Haritala (which normally works as a nectar), when used 
without proper processing, takes away the beauty of the body 
and produces excessive heat, meha (obstinate urinary diseases 
including diabetes), krcchra (dysuria), asma (stone in the urinary 
tract) and pidd (pain). It aggravates kapha and vdta, dries up 
snayu (tendons and ligaments), and produces kustharoga (obsti- 
nate skin diseases including leprosy). 


tr^w i"?^" firsr ^Tt«r sm4r fp^? ^ gpfcr ir^ii 

88 Materia Medica 

ManahMa (Realgar) 

Adverse effect 

Manahsila used without sodhana (processing) certainly 
causes weakness, constipation, obstruction to micturation, 
sarkara (gravels in the urinary tract) and krcchra (dysuria). 

TtfTZFF pW ^TTf^^TT^T n «s\s II 


It cures serious types of adhmana (flatulence) and visama 
jvara (malarial fever). It is rejuvenating. It is suvarnaghna (which 
reduces gold into bhasma form) and lohamurdava karaka (which 
causes softness in iron). 

mwzrzx. ^ sfiwr ^rs^ *rrr*r i 
Nilanjana (Lead sulphide) 
Nilanjana cures eye diseases. It is cardiac tonic and hot. 

205 206 

f^rnrfcs^erf cr^pr >sr<fc: ^cnr ir=;§.ii 

Tutthaka and Kharpara (Copper sulphate and Zinc ore) 

Tutthaka is pungent, alkaline, astringent, emetic, laghu, 
lekhana (depleting), purgative and cooling. It promotes eye 
sight and cures kapha as well as pitta. Is cures visa (poisoning), 
ama, kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and 
kanau (itching). 

Kharpara shares the properties of tuttha. 

% TTiTmjc*l% 5fttF;T*cr TriTT: <*3% TTcTT: I 
Rasaka has the same properties as those of tuttha. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 89 

Parada (Mercury) 


It is called rasa because persons desirous of rejuvenation 
commonly use (rasyate) it. It is also called 'dhdtu\ 

fW^rffTTcf tt: Tfarf SRift g% IRS.? II 



It was pioduced from the tejas (semen) of Lord Siva 
which fell on the earth because of which it is white in colour. 

?pr$r^r f^RT^f ftrsNW ^5f%«nr ir$.^u 


5*%?f tcr" pprr *flrar ^wf *? >prffT SFn<r i 

^TTfrw: ^rf^r^ft f^T: ?T5^" ^ srrfcTcr: IR&3II 


Depending upon the nature of the earth on which it was 
produced it is of four types viz., white, red, yellow and black. 
They are called biahmana, ksatriya, vaifya and sudra 

?m m€ wt Trer -^ f*p*r t^ft^i 

[^NM+iy: W r rsjTcpr'f =;:=^-t;§,] 

The white variety is useful in curing diseases. Red variety 
is used in rejuvenation. For dhatuvada (preparing gold out of 
ordinary metals) yellow variety is used. Black variety is used 
for khe gati (moving in the sky). 

90 Materia Medica 


*spf ^Eft *r%^^T *r5?cZ3 SRT^r: I 


Parada itself is Brahma and after baddha (a special process 
by which mercury is made to stand strong heat without vapori- 
sation), it is Jandrdana, After lanjana and kramana samskaras 
(processes), the mercury becomes Mahesvara himself. 


[^rresr^rer: srTrjq-srTg^'f =; : ^VT*] 

After murchana samskara, parada cures diseases. After 
bandhana samskara it enables a person to move in sky. After 
marana (lit. death) samskara it prevents death. In view of the 
above, who else (other than parada) is more blissful ? 


Parada has six rasas (tastes). It is unctuous. It alleviates 
all the three dosas. It is rejuvenating, yogavahin (which enhances 
the efficacy of other drugs when mixed) and exceedingly aphro- 
disiac. It always promotes eye sight and stiength. It cures all 
diseases. It has special curative property for all types of 
kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). 


*W fa^f srffffirfcRTTSf , 


ifcrffar stq^srffcr ?r£ i 


217 218 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 91 

Dosas and adverse effects 

Mala, visa, vahni, giri and capata-these are the naisargika 
(natural) dosas (defects) in parada. It has two other dosas called 
trapu and ndga which are artificial (upadhijd). 

*T%qr W&3T JTTuf W^ 



Mala dosa causes murcchu (fainting), visa dosa causes 
death, vahni dosa causes burning sensation of serious type. 
Numbness and rigidity (jadyd) appear in the body because of 
giridosa. Chapala dosa destroys semen in the man. Vanga dosa 
produces kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and 
ndga dosa produces ganda (goitre). Theiefore, it is necessary 
to make parada free from all these dosas through the process of 
sodhana before use. 


pTTsnPfnW STT^T'-Trf^ =: £?-£?, 5.VS.W, ?°°] 

If parada is used without sodhana, than the person suffers 
from man} seiious maladies like kustha resulting in death. 

t=nfr ftrfe f=*r *r form ^ronftre*., ii?o?ii 

225 ' 

92 Materia Medica 



Gandhaka, vajra, vaikrdnta, vajrabhra, talaka, Mid, 
kharpara, sikhituttha, vimald. hema maksika, kdsisa, kanta 
pdsdna, vardta, anjana, hingula, kamkusfa, samkha, bhitnaga, 
tankana and sitajatu — these are known as uparasas by persons 
well versed in the identification of drugs. 

Hingula (Cinnabar) 


Darada or hingula is of three types viz., carmara, suka 
tundaka and hamsa pdda. The latter ones are therapeutically 
better than the former ones. 

=*PT?T: spsnrof: S^T^'fta: ^g^: I 

[ WR^W- -cTT^TSITgW'f s:?°^-?oV] 

Carmara is white, sakatundaka is yellow and hamsa pdda 
is red like a flower of jap a. The last one is the best. 


Hingula is bitter, astringent and pungent. It cures eye 
diseases, aggravated kapha as well as pitta, hrllasa (nausea), 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), jvara (fever), 
kdmala (jaundice) plihan (splenic disorders), dmavdta (rheu- 
matism) and gara (poisoning). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 93 



Gandhaka (Sulphur) 


In the days of yore, in the Sveta dvipa, goddess Parvati 
was playing aquatic games in the ksira sdgara during her 
menstrual period. From her garments, the menstrual fluid 
got into the water from which gandhaka took its origin. 


=tr?jsrf ir?*^. sfNt ?rfi: <ftfT: ftpfrsfsri?: i 
xtR ^&fwnrm: «fr?re#3r TFrrznr uBoqn 

WTTf^rT^ #?r: «Tc5 freer: *g|5r*T: I 


Gandhaka is of four types viz , red, yellow, white and 
black. The red variety is used in processing (preparing) gold 
(liema kriya). The yellow variety is used in rejuvenation 
therapy. The white variety is useful in ointments for ulcers. 
The black variety which is the best is extremely rare. 


[wwr?! ^r^TSTT^wf ^:?o\s-???] 


Gandhaka is pungent, bitter, hot in potency, saline, 

94 Materia Medica 

laxative, aggravator of pitta and pungent in vipaka. It cures 
kutfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), ksaya 
(consumption) and pliJian (splenic disorders). It alleviates 
kapha and vata, and is rejuvenating. 


Adverse effect 

Use of gandhaka which is not properly processed 
(asuddha) causes kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy) and tdpa (burning sensation). It undoubtedly takes 
away happiness, complexion, strength, semen and ojas. 


Silajatu (Mineral pitch) 

The essence of stones which exudates from the mountains 
by the heat of the sun in summer is- called silajatu. 


The silajatu which comes out of stones of gold is sweet 
and bitter in taste, like the flower of japd in colour, pungent in 
vipaka and cooling. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 95 

[*IW4<!4'*'RI': Y : 5.5.-? oo] 

The silver type of silajatu is gray in colour, cooling, 
pungent in taste and sweet in vipaka. The silajatu derived 
from tumra is like the peacock throat in colour, sharp and 
hot. The silajatu derived from iron stone is like the feather of 
jatdyu in colour and bitter and saline in taste. It pungent in 
vipaka and cooling. This is the best of all varieties. 

The first variety is useful in alleviating vdyu and pitta, 
the second and third varieties alleviate kapha and the fourth 
one alleviates all the three dosav. 



[TfTFTSrspTsr ETTriq-^nj^it =;:=;o-=;V] 


It is pungent and bitter in taste, hot, pungent in vipaka 
and rejuvenating. It is chedi (depleting) and yogavaha (which en- 
hances the properties of other drugs). It cures aggravated kapha, 
meha (obstinate urinary diseases including diabetes), asma 
sarkard (stones and gravel in the urinary tract) mutra krcchra 
(dysuria), ksaya (consumption), svdsa (asthma), aggravated 
vdyu, arias (piles), pdndu (anemia), apasmdra (epilepsy), unmdda 
(insanity), sopha (oedema), kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including 
ascitis) and krmi (parasitic infection). 

96 Materia Medica 

rotvpTOT — 

^f^raqr^f ?qT^qrf^Rr?«r ^«q%ii^?5.u 

Ratna and Uparatna (Jewels & costly stones:) 


Stones like garutman and indranila are called ratnas. 
Mukta etc., are called uparatnas. Now the derivation of this 
term is being described. 

Since people desirous of wealth indulge (ramante) in 
excess in these stones, therefore scholars of linguistics call 
them ratna. 


India, paksfndra, siiryendu, niani, puspa raga, vajra, 
vaidurya, gomeda and padma raga — these are the nine ratnas. 

Mukta, vidruma, sankha etc., are called uparatnas. 


These ratnas and uparatnas are caksusya (promoter of eye 
sight), lekhana (depleting), cooling, astringent, sweet and laxa- 

Ayurveda Saukhyaih of To darananda 91 

tive. Wearing them bestows auspiciousness and destroys the evil 
effects ofgraha (planets), dusti (evil sight) and visa (poisoning). 


?rcr: ftczt srarr §r*rc cr^r n *>r*0wT: ii3R**»» 

Fwa (Poisons) 


A powerful demon, who was created by Brahma, created 
disturbance in the performance of rituals by the latter. Then 
Brahma, the abode of all the powers (tejas) became very 
angry and from his mouth the terrifying anger came out in a 
corporeal form (yigrahavan) and fell on the roaring powerful 
demon and burnt him. After his death, that flame surpri- 
singly expanded. Looking at this, the gods became exceedingly 
sad. Because of its property to cause sorrow (yisada), it is 
called visa. Then being requested by the remaining subjects, 
Isvara withdrew that flame of anger and placed it in sthavaras 
(those who do not move like vegetable kingdom, stone etc.,) 
and cara (those who move like animal kingdom). 

98 Materia Medica 

trer^cT ft-Bf w&f g^ srparpsrfg^ II^S.11 

As the rain water which has no manifested taste while 
in the sky, carries different types of tastes when it falls 
on the earth and comes in contact with different types of soil, ■ 
similarly the visa acquires the taste of the substance in which it 


All the properties of visa are super imposed by sharpness 
(tiksna). Therefore, all types of poisons aggravate all the three 


^w^tw?^7T*T: ^rearers'* sretaT: u \%\ \\ 


Kalakuta, vatsandbha, srngaka, pradipana, haldhala, 
brahmaputra, hdridra, saktuka and saurdsfraka — these are the 
nine varieties of visa. 


Kalakuta is studded with innumerable black spots. It 
was originally produced from the blood of a demon called 
Mali during the war between the gods and the demons. It is 
the exudate of a tree haying leaves like those of pippala. It is 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 99 

available in the mountains like Ahichhatra, Malaya, Konkana 
and Srngavera. 

t ?w$( u 333 II 

Vatsanabha has leaves like those of sinduvara and in shape 
it is like the umbilicus of a calf. No other tree grows near 
this plant. 


''wnpt Prof fesf srfair Sfys^' u 33*- h 

Among them, the brdhmana variety is gray (pSndurd) in 
colour, ksatriya is red, vaisya is yellow and iudra is black. The 
last variety is not useful therapeutically. The brahmana (yiprd) 
type of visa is useful in rejuvenation therapy ; ksatriya type 
is for nourishment of the body ; vaisya type is for curing 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and £idra is 
for processing dhatus. 


Visa kills a person ; but when used judiciously it gives 
life and works as a rejuvenating agent. It is an excellent yoga- 
vdhin (which enhances the properties of other drugs). It alle- 
viates kapha and vdyu, and cures sannipata (a condition created 
by the aggravation of all the three dosas). 

100 Materia Medica 

wMK ctfifK KM* *^: . 

IVrspftst ^q^rg^>^^f^>rf^rw'r =; : 'Roy.] 
Upavisa (Subsidiary poisons) 


Arka ksira, snuhikslra, langali, karaviraka, gunja, ahiphena 
and dhuttura — these are the seven upavisas (subsidiary poisons). 

f^T^t »Tfcp: ftT^r: mtW( *Tf tlf^W. I 

Gairika (Red Ochre) 

Gairika is v/iadb (non slimy), unctuous, astringent, sweet 
and cooling. 

'F^inTf^R^ crs^spr cTfe^cT: II ^« II 

A variety of it is known as svarna gairika. It shares all 
the properties of gairika. It is specially useful as a promoter 
of eyesight. 

shHteaR <(x <jnr ?r<fr: tfM^rs^q; | 

Srotonjana & SauvTrakanjana 

As a promoter of eyesight, srotonjana is better than 
svarna gairika and sauvirdkanjana is better than srotonjana. 

w^ sfissji f%xB ^fe *r>«f T*mFnr 1133ml 

Sveta marica & Pitarohini 

Sveta marica alleviates kapha. It is pungent, bitter, dep- 
leting, hot and rejuvenating. Sveta marica and pltarohini — 
both are also promoters of eyesight {caksusya). 

Ayurveda Saukhyafn of Todarattanda 101 


Vandaka alleviates kapha, vata and blood. It cures raksas 
(afflictions by evil spirits), vrana (ulcer) and visa (poison). 



Kaca is alkaline and hot in potency. It promotes eye 
sight when used as a collyrium. 

KdsTsa (Iron sulphate) 

Both the types of kasisa are sour, hot, bitter and kesyu 
(promoter of good hair). They also promote eyesight. They 
cure kand'u (itching), visa (poison), ivitra (leucoderma), sula 
(colic pain), agitata (injury) and aggravated kaplia as well as 

Sankha and Udadhimala (Conch-shell and Cuttle fish hone) 

Sankha and samudraphcm — both are cooling, astringent 
and atilekhana (exceedingly depleting). 


Laghn sankha 

Laghu sankha etc., are cooling. They cure netraruk (pain 
in eyes) and sphota (pustular eruptions). 

102 Materia Medica 

Saurasfri (Alum) 

Saurasfri cures aggravated kapha as well as pitta and visa 
(poisoning). It is vranasodhana (cleansing of ulcers). 

Panka (Mud) 

Panka alleviates pitta, vitiated blood and daha (burning 
syndrome). It is useful in bhagna (fracture)and ksaya (consump- 
tion). It is cooling. 


Hasti mada 

Hastimada is kesya (promoter of good hair). It gives 
colour to svitra (leucoderma) and cures visa (poison), aggra- 
vated pitta, apasmara (epilepsy), kustha (obstinate skin dis- 
eases including leprosy) and dusta vrana (serious type of ulcer). 
It promotes eyesight. It is pungent, sharp and hot. It also 
cures unmada (insanity) and krmi (parasitic infection). 

Gorocana (Ox bile) 

Gorocana is exceedingly propitious and it cures visa 
(poison), alaksmi (inauspiciousness) and graha (afflictions by 
evil planets). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 103 


Sindura (Red oxide of lead) 

Sindura is hot and it cures visarpa (erysipelas), kusfha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) kandu (itching) and 
visa (poisoning). It helps in the healing of fracture. It 
cleanses and heals ulcers. 


"qCTJTT^TIT«rfg' : ^Hf^ , TF^?T't'TT5R-" II 2 4% II 

Kamala (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) 

Kamala is cooling, varnya (promoter of complexion) and 
sweet. It alleviates kapha and pitta. It cures trsna (morbid 
thirst), daha (burning syndrome), asra (vitiated blood), visphota 
(pustular eruptions), visa (poisoning) and visarpa (erysipelas). 

Rol totpala (Nymphaea rubra Roxb.) 

Raktotpala shares all the properties of kamala ; but it is 
slightly inferior. 

3|*r? PrPs^r fr?Fsr tt^t -wtffe m?m iisv^n 

Kumuda (Nymphaea alba Linn.) 

Kumuda is slimy, unctuous, sweet, hladi (pleasing) and 

104 Materia Medica 

feTfts%f§^Tl%faM'$'^l «JHH fad It ^Vc; U 

Jali (Jasminum grandiflorum Linn.) 

Both the varieties of jdti are light, hot and bitter. They 
alleviate all the three dosas. They cure diseases of head, eyes, 
mouth, teeth, visa (poisoning), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), vrana (ulcer) and vitiated blood. 


The flower of karuna is slightly hot. It alleviates vayu 
and kapha. It is very fragrant and it stimulates passion. 


Mallika (Jasminum sambac Ait.) 

Mallika is hot, light, aphrodisiac, bitter and pungent. 
It alleviates vayu and pitta and cures diseases of mouth and 
heart, kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), aruci 
(anorexia), visa (poisoning) and vrana (ulcer). 


Madhavi (Hiptage benghalensis Kurz) 

Madhavi is sweet, cooling and light. It alleviates all the 
three dosas. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 105 

YUthikd (Jasminum anriculatum Vahl.) 

Both the types of yuthika are cooling, bitter, pungent, 
light, astringent, sweet and cardiac tonic. It alleviates 
pitta and aggravates kapha as well as vdyu. It cures vrana 
(ulcer), asra (vitiated blood), diseases of mouth, teeth, eyes and 
head, and visa (poisoning). 

'spra?: *p;f*r: *wrg: spTraTf^: *n:: I 


f*r<fl«ttw*ft T=?r: Bffar fxrf ^ srs^r: n 3X3 n 

[^TTWsrarRr: gwspf 4 : 37] 

Kubjaka (Rosa Moschata Herrm.) 

Kubjaka is fragment, sweet, astringent (as subsidiary taste 
or anurasa) and laxative. It alleviates all the three dosas. It is 
aphrodisiac and alleviator of cold. 


Satapatri is cooling, cardiac tonic, constipative, promoter 
of semen and light. It alleviates all the three dosas and vitiated 
blood and promotes complexion. It is pungent, bitter and 

The water (after distillation? ) of satapatri alleviates 
exhaustion, vdyu and pz'rta. It is pleasing to the mind, promoter 

106 Materia Medica 

of eye sight and remover of foul smell of the body as well as 
inauspiciousness. It cures visa (poisoning). 

%cwt 5T?f fhrf>" »RrprT$faqt«TfPr i 

Ketaki (Pandanus tectorius Soland ex Parkinson) 

Both the varieties of ketaki are bitter, pungent and sweet. 
It cures visa (poisoning). 



*F°r?% Trarclwt ars^piT mfinpV Terr i 

Naipali & Varsiki 

Naipdli is cooling, bitter and light. It alleviates all the 
three dosas. It cures the diseases of ear, eyes and mouth. 
Varsiki has similar properties. 

Campaka (Michelia champaca Linn.) 

Campaka is pungent bitter, astringent, sweet and cooling. 
It cures visa (poisoning), krmi (parasitic infection), krcchra 
(dysuria), aggravated kapha, pitta, blood and vayu. 

Raja campaka 
Raja campaka is specifically useful for eye diseases. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of TodarSnanda 107 

Bakula (Mimusops elengi Linn.) 

Bakula is astringent and ununctuous. It is pungent both 
in vipSka and rasa. It is heavy. It cures aggravated kapha as 
well as pitta, visa (poisoning), svitra (leucodermaX kjrmi (parasi- 
tic infection) and danta gada (diseases of teeth). 




Vaka is ununctuous, pungent and bitter. It cures aggra- 
vated kapha as well as pitta, visa (poisoning), yoni sula (pain in 
female genital tract), trsa (morbid thirst), daha (burning 
syndrome), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), 
sopha (oedema) and asra (vitiated blood). 

Patala (Stereospennum suaveolens Dc.) 

Patala is exceedingly cooling. It aggravates kapha and 
vdta. It cures indigestion, diseases caused by pitta as well 
kapha (?). 

Deva vallabha 

Deva vallabha alleviates vata and pitta. It is pleasing to 
the mind. 

Tf^n? *ft«T*>f»T* cT?IWP95«W U3^?tl 

Nipa & Kadamba (Adina cordifolia Benth and Hook, f and 
Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) 

The flowers of both nipa and kadamba are sacred- 

108 Materia Medica 

'S^Eft ^?^t fow fsffarT st^Ftto^ i 

ru/asf (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) 

Tulasi is pungent, bitter, cardiac tonic and hot. It causes 
daha (burning syndrome) and aggravation of pitta. It stimulates 
digestion, and cures kustfia (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), krcchra (dysuria), asra (vitiation of blood) and 
pdrsvaruk (pain in the sides of chest). It alleviates kapha and 
vdta. It also cures visa (poisoning), krmi (parasitic infection), 
vami (vomiting), svasa (asthma), durnama (piles) and aksiruk 
(pain in eyes). 




Damana is astringent, bitter, cooling, aphrodisiac and 
fragrant. It cures graham (sprue syndrome), visa (poisoning), 
kustha (obstinate skm diseases including leprosy), asra (vitiation 
of blood), kleda (stickiness), kandu (itching) and aggravation of 
all the three dosas. 

257* "* 

Phanijjhaka (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) 

fhanijjhdka stimulates digestion, It is cardiac tonic, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda i09 

bitter and hot. It aggravates pitta. It is light. It cures the 
poisoning by scorpion stings, aggravation of kapha and vdyu, 
ku§fha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and kpni 
(parasitic infection.) In vipdka and taste it is pungent. It is 
appetiser, bitter, ununctuous and fragrant. 

<jPg4tcqr«tHT$m«r WWH: H^TT: ^pT: 1 
sfrr^Tf^qror^r ^sn^renq^T: 11 ^x w 

Kwnuda & Utpala (Nymphaea alba Linn. & Nymphaea 
steUata Willd.) 

The stalk, flower and fruit of kumuda and utpala are 
cooling, sweet and astringent. They aggravate kapha and vdyu. 

Sana, Koviddra, Karbuddra & Salmali (Crotalaria juncea Linn., 

Baubinia variegata Linn., Bauhinia purpurea Linn., & 

Salmalia malabarica Schott and Endl.) 

The flowers of sana, koviddra, k arbudara and salmali are 
constipative and they are useful in rakta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), 
visa (poisoning) and ksaya (consumption). 

*nwi ^rcir5f srTgt as^r ** *rfw i 

C\ > "> «% 

Madhuka & Yuthika (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. & 
Jasminum auriculatum Yahl.) 

Madhuka and Yuthika aggravate kapha and they are 

HO Materia Medica 

Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.) 

Dhataki flower cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised 
by bleeding from different parts of the body) and atisara 
(diarrhoea). It is cooling. 

I^f* f^RtfgrsT fq-TTT^T^TT T^Tf 1 

Mucukunda (Pterospermum acerifolium Wild.) 

Mucukunda is exceedingly useful in curing headache, 
aggravation of pitta and vitiation of blood. 

fTcpsft *rf??T^T faw, TsnfV *crfa?ft wn 1 1 3 %.* 1 1 

MaUikd & Jaya (J'asminum sambac Ait & 
Sesbania sesban Merr.) 

Mallika alleviates vayu and is bitter. Japd imparts colour 
and is constipative. 

^«TfCrft?Wsft: "TOT farfi fTfT^^TT^ I 

^rq-sFT-ErTq-^ TT% *P£*P ^TcT^tq-?T¥ II ^5. II 

Visa & Agastya (Adbatoda vasica Nees & Sesbania 
grandiflora Pers) 

The flowers of vrsa and agastya are bitter and they 
alleviate pitta as well as kapha. They cure ksaya (consumption) 
and kasa (bronchitis). In vipdka, they are pungent and they 
aggravate vayu. 

Agastya is not exceedingly bitter and is useful for patients 
suffering from naktandhya (night blindness). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of TofarSnanda 111 

Brahma, Nimba, Muskaka Asana ds Kufaja (Batea monosperma 
Euntze, Azadirachta indica A. Joss., Schrebera swietenioides 
Roxb., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., & Holarrhena 
antidysenterica Wall.) 

The flowers of brahma, nimba, muskaka asana and 
kufaja alleviate kapha and pitta. They cure kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy). 

258 259 

Ketaka & Saireya (Pandanus tectorius Soland ex Parkinson & 
Barleria cristata Lina.) 

Ketaka alleviates kapha and is bitter. Saireya cures visa 

Thus ends the group of miscellaneous drugs. 


1. ^"ppr ^fcr fgrftei?^ TT3: i 

2. q^jft tJoRT st% ^csc[rrr% qrs: I 

3. ?q*sr ?Rr q'G6ip:a% tts: i 

4. ^TTT^rarr %fo fefta3?3% tts: i 

6. o^jft^tiro ^ srrcr*: to: i 

7. o^qr^o ^fa 3TT^ TIS: I 

8. csftfRS^ 3T^Tr«rT iffT 3TT^ 7T5. 

9. =t ^rarsftppnrer f fir *rn"r <ns. i 
10. ¥TBffT «rftr feft*r3*s% to: i 

112 Materia Medica 

11. ftf*r ?f% m*p\ tts: i 

12. T^'s^Tq- ^ftT33ITsfq- ^fcT ?TT^ TO: I 

13. ^narrftrcta^ *& fe?ft^3^r% its: i 

14. a«ppir^r»TFSTJn^ f^pr sr^VRrar Tistsif feft^-r^^- 

15. %^T ^^fT^^T <TTS>ST fs^tP^SJ^T^fr: 7tW# I 

16. $^<IUTT ^ftr SfTRJ^ ITS: I 

17. =#W ffir fs^ET5?tI% TTS: I 

18. : 2|^rfft ^ftr feftJij^^ qre: i 

19. ^fTxnww ^fcr fsdfaj^r tts: i 

20. ^^e?TT f fir feftJT5^cT% <TT3: I 

21. sftfft ^■firfq'Tff^'snT^ra; Tistsq- ^^^^p^ifl: 

?ftT55¥Er^ i 

22. fffafTTTfefTreR ifcT ^55^^% ^ts: I 

23. f ^ %fk 5T«TT5^a% TT5: I 

24. sp^TT^T "PT 5f?( crs33^ci% TTS: 1 

25. ftftrer TRrardapfar 7T5ter sr*w3?<T% ?f1rT5T«^r i 

26. f£3T: cW^>WT^ff%?mf3ra[ <TT5tef fs^ffatrssj^cPPift: 

27. 'snfcrfw^rainj %fa sr^fgrifag?5Rrcft: tts: i 

28. 3f>T ?fcf "T^T^c^ TT5: I 

29. *mr ff?r srapr^^ qrs: t 

30. IHtR* ff% fScftag??r% tts: I 

31 . sffcnstf ifa fcfte 5?sr% tts: i 

32. *rgt 1% feftsppcr% qrc: I 

33. tfffV *P"^ "TTSfcsT 5TWT ^nrj^T^t: TtTWV^ 1 

34. *rff ctmt ^f% rg^JT<snss5^5nRft: qrc: i 

35. ^ t *% foftinp3% TTS: I 

36. trf^^TW ¥fcr «r^53'ra% qra: i 

37. fgs: f fSPT: pnVT^nl 5TTfasFTtff«ra: ^fcf «TT^ <rre: 1 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 113 

38. q ~^Hi f*Hf*ftfV<fn if% m^k <tts: i 

39. Tlf «rTS*ft f ftr q*5$R!% TTS: I 

40. q"W ^% feffar<|'=3% TT5- I 

41. ^f^ffq-renrsr i% sjt^ <tts: i 

42. sp£ ^«ft *PT: T*: f f?T aTT^ TTS. 1 

43. f^r: wf% q-^*^ Tre i 

44. TTTsft sfcr srre^ tr- i 

45. Soinu|j *Tur%fef*T: st% 3TT^: qTS: I 

46. sr^rtrfeim wf% sn+^ tts: i 

47. *rff«n"^ft fTT?crTif qrstar sr^trqf^frj^iinft: ^>raTir% i 

48. qr^- t*tfft: ttstset fgcfrw^sg^spsfr: sfrrsyvqfr i 

49. TTcf ?% fe^zPTCSI?^^: TT5: I 

50. qw? j^TfTFPTHt sr^fT qrstsT snwf^rq^+iii: 

51. ^**sfHu|> ?fcT qfWT5RI% 7TS: I 

52. T55TC <T5 TTStej fefrsr^csj^T^ft: ^"tWWT^ I 

53. SpFTTW f% Sr«TJT^FcT% 7T3: I 

54. wi^sqfcr^snsft ffa srsrw^ ^tts: i 
55 fa^TWT^tfsr ^f^cTTTt^'T wt% arr^t ms: I 

56. *rer£3r *r*rfercPT <nstsf 5r«nrr?w^s5?cT%i * R » h*i3 i 

57. ^r?^T ?fcr ^53?^% irs: 1 

58. f^Rrsr ^Mt wqT?r% ttstsit s^fefr^Tf^rerifr: 

^"tq-^'wrfr 1 

59- ftflpsr wr^tt ureter sre^qfa'rjsa^ft: sftq*nRj% 1 

60. 5t<PT^t^nr f fir fefr*rj?<r% tts: i 

61. =*T ^^J ^n^q- ^j% 5rq?T5^l% TT5: 1 

62. wm^i f%?m qrstsf sr^^^^cr^: fftT^n^ t 

63. *&>$ ffcT T*55*cl% TTS. I 

"4 Materia Medica 

64. f^TT %fk "^555^1% qT3: 1 

65. srsrfwf^RiT "^Pft'TF^TrTfl TTStsqf WR^ ^pcP f nf t: 

«ftT*PRtt \ 

66. 4M>«wfa^r 1% arn>t tts: I 

67. ^*f farrfa4<M*j; ^far fscfteg^r «tts: I 

68. ^f*r fasrw^pr Tretsf f^ft^tf^ ^qfspfnjw*^ 1 

69. al^flwf ^r ^sm^wj^Rft: stt^: ^ tts: \ 

70. fa^frTWT*? ifcT 3TT^ TTS: I 

71. *Tf? Tflfawft^fimR TTStsf sraTRtj^j^ppft: sfh^PBl^ I 

72. ^raFft 5% 5r*r*r3*cr% qrc. 1 

73. fefe^T prRr^^fTfr TTstef ^^wr^^refr: jftq^pRT^ 1 

74. 350ft f fcr f5cft3T$*a% errs. 1 

75. <£^req- wft^ffrn^T'TIT Tistsjf <P33*3% ?T>T5nsT5lr I 

76. «W«PHl"nnft^5 f % 3TT^ TO: I 

77. spar #stfwrsnfV TOtef srwTsnrjRppJit: iftaspRiSn 

78. W^t «CT»^9[ %rCT *Tff oft <TPpft 5*W: ?fcT STT^ to: I 

79. *ft3*F**F*fSpfa«ft *% m^\ TO: 1 

80. fifr fftt Jgcfr*r3*a% TO: I 

81. *nNlt ftrorc^ Trstsr JTswTfTj^cr^Tt: fftqsrwrcri 

82. ftnr: ^TcrfsicT TTstsif ^^T^g^pft: ?ftq*rpqcr i 

83. ^f»ft 5% "^33^?r% TO: I 

84. famt %fa «T*53*5P$ TO: I 

85. ^w^fsra; i% sr*w2*cT% TO. I 

86. ^n ^fir WT3*3% to: i 

87. #*% ^fa STWpcI% TO: I 

88. iRTfoft 1% q t A^d^ to: i 

89. T^fF 5% ffcft^S3% to: 1 

90. srsrat ffcT f5^?T5^T% TO: I 

91. flpnprr -sfo ^553*9% <n3: 1 

92. iTfrw-'*Ha<i*Tqr: ^ffr feci k4* d3> to: 1 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 1 15 

93. fan- *far 5r*prg«r% Trs: i 

94. °f§5ft f fa 5T«r*T35Fcr% q-T5: I 

95. W^^3>2^f*rfai*Frf: %fa fg#JT5^T% <TT5: I 

96. qrfkfft ifa ^S3^?f% ITS: I 

97. »^lcll*H TcR)- ifa fscftirjRr^ <TTS: I 

98. sp?rFr: if?r feft^cr^ <rre: i 

99. J^f^f: ffa sr«nT3*icT% TT5: I 

100. f^rqr^ "rn^TcT qrsts* ir^qr^;^^: jAw^r* i 

101 faxr wfa s^*TT*C'T3?<r*pit. <rre: i 

102. fp5 5?$|$fad TrstSJf fe^W^^cPPzft: ^fl M ^uj d I 

103. siTFsteT ffa fir#qwr% <TT3 I 

104. fcTJfteTT ^fa ST^nT 1 ?^ TT5: I 

105. apjpir: f fa !W*m«% <TT5: I 

106. S^Tfa^fsRT ffa sr«r*T<£FS% TO- I 

107. zfrfa^faFT ffa 5nq"*PT^r% TT5: I 

108. §PJr 1% fScfhT"T!FcT% TT5: I 

109. a"H<*«?rre3reT: ^fa feftawr% to: i 
l io. saW^n^Tcr^ft ifa feforrer% <ttc: i 

111. W-fr'W Hfc' Hd ' K : ^fa feftqfFcT% TT5: I 

112. f*tr^P sfa ar«PT , T^f% <rre: i 

113. ^psrrawf^TT^^r ?fa 5r*nrcrci% mz: \ 

114. TTWT faTTfiFFr: q-RJtSJf 5r^Wi"4«rd«t>JTt: ^T5T«l% I 

1 15. %%T5R»T SfiT ^55^^% TT3: 1 

116. TTFT ^fa q-ES3^!% TTS: I 

117. *tfsFcrsr«nT3*c!%<n5: i 

*18. pTTTf^TSRvFTi f fa 9r*PT3??r% 7T3: I 

119. fq-wfa^^^^r^r^fwqTq-f sfa 5r«wg<R!% tts: i 

120. SpKf ?fa 5r^T3^!% <TT5: I 

121. sr€t ^PRfi TT^tssf 5rwr*PT3S?rer*ft: ^«r^fa i 

116 Materia Medica 

122. TOftagf ^fcr sr^5^r% <tts: i 

123. tfN^WJII ?f% 5T2nT5?cT% <TT5: 1 

124. "t^^tc^ttct: ^sr-f^^nrf: qrstszf wRWirg^Ffr: 

125. =5rrf^ft sf?r i*q-*T3fcr% tts: \ 

126. ttwt grwfeqrf^r qrstsir fs^tp^g^pft: fftMvwd i 

127. dds*R^<H W ^fTrl^^TT^T S% f%^f1-5T55FcI% TT3: I 
qe®f%fwrra-^fTTTfWTr<TfT ffcT <spS5g^T% TT5: I 

128. ^Wi(=IW^u||4I^ ffcf SapTg*?i% TT3: » 

129. T^sr^rFPFT wfa" 5r2wrcci% tts: i 

130. ^Rd ficr jtwt*^ qrs: i 

131. TF£><TT f% fg?fi-5T7!FcI% TT3' I 

132. ^TOTTTq-ra^sTFrr[^]^TrTWTdN>41H 3T^T ffcT 5T*T*PT?5i% <TT5: I 

133. ^WT^^wra^rqff ^^t^t T <t^t ^f^- $r2r*rrccr% t^ 5 ' ' 

134. cr^ wfa srspr'T^cr^' tts: i 

135. sTHl3^K: ffcT "TOf^ "TTS: I 

136. °bd< m digff ?f?r *Fsq^?r% q-TS: I 

137. ^*reTSP)T<TsHT wf% SRTTg/E^ TT5: I 

138. ^g^ft^TT ifcr q-csg^ mz. 1 

139. f^J^TTTi: ff% T<S35?cl% TT3: I 

140. q^T ^rqrTf: qrsfaif wrq^^^Eft: ?ffa<?n3i^ i 

141. qpofTrBftrcT ^fcT %cfta3?d% ITS: I 

142. «JH?y: T^TcPT <TT5tsf srr^^fr^r^rT^ Fftq-^pq-^ feftq-- 

143. f^^'=^i^^qTfi^rc 5 rerq[T^irT: % f% feffag*<f% ire: i 

144. qrPww} sfo f§Rftas*?r% ire: i 

145. iT^sq^— ^pjfespprer: 3:? 

Ayurveda Sankhyam of Todarananda 117 

146. srsTfT \i ?rirt zfH m^^J^m tts: i 

147. fow W% <?G55?gr^ TTS: I 

148. faq% sfcT 5TT^ qis: I 

149. ^esffrfrgpf ifcf m^ TT3: I 

150. |fPT^§TJTJT sftr fkcfrspj*^? TTS: I 

151. cT^lcf ?f?r 5TFPT "TT5: I 

152. Sf^T -ffcT foftaqjFT^ TTS: I 

153. 3><tcq75!T f^w ^JH"^ ^% 3TFP^ ITS. I 

154. ffefT ^fa feffTOTP^ "TO: I 

155. ?4»»]*IW:^T ?fcT fftfcTCTcT^ qT3: 1 

156. ft*r?RT?r T>t*Rft|> i% ^ftr 3tp?>^ qro: i 

157. ^TRTT^Tr^^^^Trrfg-^ft^Tra; ?f?r fg-?f)w;T% vrs: i 

158. cT?¥T^w5' ifcr srresrrftcrspnj ire: i 

159. ^Tn^srfrgrTwi^^^g t>3i%t ?f?r sjr^ qrs- i 

160. ^ TT%rrfe TfflfeWT>FT: ff?T 3TT^% ITS: I 

161. ^irfT wffT ^JT^sfTf^^m ?T5: ! 

162. ^¥T ?f?T WKSTTf^rTfrrg qTC. I 

163. ^mnr^rf%Tr? i% s?w? <rrc. t 

164. ^tf?r f^^?sFr iPt fsffl^cr^- qrs: i 

165. ^f 5P?T ytf?^ ^TS^TTfe ^fPT^Ffrq^fcT 

166. ST? 5 ? fftr ^OTPrr^ qrc- i 

167. ^n ff?r ^rFrsr^T^r tts i 

168. %*? |tj sr^rfTT^JT ?f?r srnp% its i 

169. 5TT*r%cPR[ sfT fkfftW?T% qTS i 

170. Tf ff?T 3TT^T qT5: ! 

171. =W3T PTtTW TTT^ ffFT 3TT^r <TF5: I 

172. "fiar^ isfhr 5 jot" f% 3n*tfrfcsrc»n$ «rra: 1 

173. "Tfe f^S«n% 5T3W tf?T 5TT^ qT5- I 

118 Materia Medica 

174. *r f% «r*OT*<T% qre: i 

175. fVfcFFrow #^r Treter f5-cfftnrer% jftTsnKrct I 

176. ^ftfTnr^cir^ ft^cTFr ffcram^: tts: i 

177. 3r ^f?r acn^: Tre: I 

178. ^pTf^^fKf wj*H wfcr arr^ tts: I 

179- cP^ffcT STT^ TT5: 1 

180. SRTTR5T TrSjm f fcT aTFP^ 7T3: I 

181. -zpTF^rTf*^: *rfa ^fa f?<ftw?r% qrre: i 

182. fe^*r% 1% fcftsT£:?f% tTT3: I 
^srfcf ffcT T^Sfraf% TT5: I 

183. clef ?Tt f fcT f?cffa«T?cT% ITS" I 

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l«5.«A« 7 i< r tflrm*<nsi " 

186. *rfs33r<ffa ?% srm-3; ttc: i 

187. f^wrs3T5=rrf%^:sr ffcr srra^ <rre: i 

188. 3tt ^tsrfit qT3ts^'jrsnTq3=g^gsF«ri: sfm^ct , 

189. *FHTcWfacT ^fa arT^T qT3: | 

190. im«TWf?T ^TTcTcWT^ WT ^ aprr: STT: ^fcT fgcflT W- AH tcl'fr zfr: 
<TTC: 1 

191. =5% ^cPrrsfq- ^ ffer fg-cfte<T?cT% tts: i 

192- <; TT*T 3f|ffc*TcT ^53T fr^rrc: ^fafp^fcT I 

193. %3T% fa^: %fcT?JTR; ^fcT srreS: qrs: i 

194. g^JT ^% fScftiPT^ TT5: I 
f^HTT f fcT WOTfcT% TT3: I 

195. sFd^ra-grT^ftr^T^r ?fcT f^cfVqT^T^cT^^: qrs: i 

196. 3^ifiTT%^ *WT<? ffcT 3TT^ TT5: i 

"ft "© 

197. wftcTfcT^SqTJf^fW<Tt3TT^ ?% 3TT^% RT5: I 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 119 

198. fw*r ffar mwk tts: i 

199. srfr ?tt^t ?% arn^ tts: i 

200. tmt fwsrxfsfT ^ T^r^f ^ ng^rTf^r *snsrTT%Tr<r s% 

sc&rk. TTS: I 

201. 3TCffESTfe ^fa STT^: TTS: I 

^¥f <s5T5fT>Jn¥^^tBf c rtTT^^WFr ^fcT fScftq^F?T% TTS: I 

202. =3T$cTf ifcT 3TT^: TTS: I 

203. gf ^TR^r^rTTST: i% am3: qrs: i 

204. jtwfjsfst 'irf'Tsrfrsf f t% fecftaqTa% tts: i 

205. 5 sflS/F 1% 3TT^: TTS: I 

206. f%3Tc? 1% fsdfaFR^ TTS: I 

207. ftRr^Tcsps^f %: f% 3iwt TTS: I 

208. ^wr^mir^ f f% sn^ TTS: t 

209. 5RT. ^r^ *f?r srr^: TTS: t 

210. ?w*sft ^f?r srr^ tts i 

211. TnfT^FTTfr ^f% sttt^; tts. i 

arrfT?TT f % *TGST?5ir% TTS: 1 

212. STSPftlTcfr wf?T "SFOT?^T% TTS: I 

213. ^fe«P?nre: ffcT arr^ TTS: I 

214. wf^frfrcw^Tsr wfcT str^; tts: ' 

215. TTT^^fcT ff^TT*cr% "TTS: t 

216. ^t^tttttstt fftrsrr^ tts: i 

217. t^? ^ftr srr^ tts: I 

218. ttttift: ffar *testp?t% tts: i w^f: ffcr 5Tr^: tts: i 

219. fa^T wfH" stt^ TTS: I 

220. wrT^rrs^?jmt ffa m^ tts: i 

221. T¥TT ffcT ?TT^: TTS: I 
> 222. T^"t ^frT STT^ TTS: I 

223. TTwMt*T: f % ?TT^ TTS" ! 

224. ^SFr* ^fcT T^ST^cT^ stt^: =W TTS: "I 

120 Materia Medica 

225. ^Tp;ToT?r?|Tr<?m ifa fbftwa% tts: i 

226. T?«ft ^pTTrvr^rTw^f^iwr: ^ftcftss^r^ ^spuf, 

shptSt tts. i 

227. ^rr % fir srr^ «rre- i 

228. «fk?fV^ft ?f?r *rr^ its: i 

229. *r*nm?r: wfa stt^: tts: i 

230. %cfT%cT: ff?T arre^ TTS: I 

231. TSTTZFT: ^% 3TT^ 7T5: I 

232. ^jsqsprrcsr^rer: sn^cmw^'f =;:?n i 

233. srrercr^cnr ?fcr str^: qrc: t 

234. q^srew sraWrer ¥%tf" sn^r^crcm % % fs^frirp:^ «rre: i 

235. ^5#<fo*RpfoT: ^% ff <flWcT% TTS: I 

236. ^pqfsst^f^HVqr 5% ^^ qlR >: ' 

237. *nr«fs-: ^fcT W«5^?Rj <TT5 I 

238. vrftiFT % fcr «rsOT^i% TTS: I 

239. frtuT^^tfe'SfrsfcT. lf?T ^5^3% 7T5. I 

240. sftf^asw: Wfa VTW^ <TT5: I 

241. ^fefKTsRra; f % srn^ tts:: ! 

242. ^sftqTT^T: ^2?TT: f% ?TFP^: TT3: I 

243. fft^pr^ft^rfr^apft ffa &v%\ tts: i 

244. ^ f <ssq-T0sf^q-Tq-|IT ^fcT WWt TTS" I 

245. ^W1^Tfr^faFE>sfaW^q%T5R*r ffcT 3TT^ q75: I 

246. cJCTTT WirrafsfcT TTStsq- tf^fe^Tq^qfs^rrej 

247. ^rcrfq^TTTire'Tsmfa fftr an^: 7T5: i 

248. ^T^V ^tepnrR'f T ffcT mw$; qrs; \ 

249. sncT^T fere: *r<m ^fa srr^qf^rer ire: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 121 

250. smFcft sfa m«rsnPPT tts: i (*n***r*r wvri x ■ ?3) i 

251. cT^fw a^ ^i *fa ^T^sr^Tfr tts: (TOswrcr: 

252. srarenF3*f*sj*nn ^ f?T ^^ ,TTS: l 

253. ar^ts^rwr: ffcr srr^ tts: i 

254. o^H^FTRR: I fir sfT^: TTS: I 

255. ^iR^TTfel^t f sft ifcT STT^ <TTS: I 

256. ?TfrT^ ffcT m^ TT5: » 

257. g?rfNr% ?% srresfafeTgn'g; tts: i 

258. ^a^rw-^TR'sr^T^r: <r«re*r x : ^ i 

259. vrFTWPST: TEq^^f R. : X3 t 


Lavana (Salt) 

All types of lavana are abhisyandi (which obstruct 
channels of circulation), suksma (subtle), srsfamala (which 
eliminates waste products) and alleviator of vdta. They cause 
suppuration. They are sharp, hot and appetisers. They 
aggravate kapha and pitta. 

xTSTKif "TT^T ftqrTsf wrat 

Saindhava (Rock salt) 

Saindhava is sweet, cardiac tonic, digestive stimulant, 
cooling, light, promoter of eye sight, carminative, unctuous, 
and aphrodisiac. It alleviates all the three dosas. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 123 


The gaja type of salt is laghu, alleviator of vata, extremely 
hot, purgative, aggravator of pitta, sharp, vyavayi (a substance 
whose digestion and metabolism take place after it has pervaded 
all over the body), suksma (subtle), abhisyandi (which obstructs 
the channels of circulation) and pungent in vipaka. 

rTTcqW ^TJT %fe *reTTT*rf*reTff f It V II 

Samudra (Sea salt) 

Samudra is sweet in vipaka and unctuous. It does not 
possess strong laxative effect. It is heavy. It is not very hot. 
It is digestive stimulant, purgative (?), alkaline, aviddhi (which 
does not cause burning sensation). It aggravates kapha and 
alleviates vayu. It is bitter and aruksa (not un-unctuous). 


fas [wrrj'jssrW - ^wt^t^ttpitt mil 


Vida is alkaline. It helps in the elimination of kapha as 
well as vayu both through upward and downward tracts. 


Pakya is digestive stimulant, light, sharp, hot, 
appetiser and vyavayi (which gets digested and metabolised 
after it has pervaded all over the body). It cures vibandha 
(constipation), dndha (flatulence), vistambha (impairment of the 
peristaltic movement of the colon), hrdruk (heart disease), 

124 Materia Medica 

gaurava (heaviness) and sula (colic pain). 

Tankaria ksara (Borax) 
Tankana ksara is a digestive stimulant and it is sharp. 

*gsn«rnc>sfT?reT <g?w. 5#n?V q-^ciT f^rrir. nvsii 


Sudhaksara is like fire. It is kledi (produces stickiness), 
paktd (stimulant of digestion and metabolism) and viddrana 
(which causes perforation). 


Svadamstra ksara 

The ksara of svadamsfrd is sweet, cooling and light. It 
cleanses the channels of circulation. 

spTT^raFT: «f«5: TTOTSf: ^^#5 11=; 1 1 

Paldsa ksara 

The Arscra of paldsa prevents conception and is the most 

i& « ^ 


*rer.%»rifasf %S3TT^fT^fn;T: <R*T II ?? Il' 
II ^fasTTCT: II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 125 

Other ksaras 

Ksaras prepared of putfka, naktamdla, arka, dhava, 
muskaka, pdfald, sarsapa, trapusa, ervdru, kadall, tila, stgru, 
koidtaki, indra, tarkari, Mkhari, varuna, agni and such other 
drugs cure guJma (phantom tumour), arsas (piles) and grahani 
(sprue syndrome). They are laxative and carminative. They 
cure kxmi (parasitic infection). They cause impotency. They 
cure sarkard (gravel) and aimari (stone in the urinary tract). 
They are harmful for the eyesight, hair and ojas. They cause 
rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body). 


sff^ ^T^?rrfdw5r fesn? «r% u w u 


Rucaka is an excellent appetiser, cardiac tonic, digestive 
stimulant and carminative. It is unctuous. It alleviates vdyu 
but does not aggravate pitta in excess. It is visada (non-slimy) 
and light. It cleanses udgdra (eructation). It is subtle. It 
cures vibandha (constipation), anaha (flatulence) and sula (colic 

Krsna lavana 

Krsna lavana shares all the properties of sauvarcala except 
the smell. 

T>R ifWq- ^m% Ttm; TT^cITT^T 1 


Romaka is an appetiser, digestive stimulant, sweet and 
alleviator of vdyu. 

1^6 Materia Medica 


Udbhida is bitter, pungent, alkaline and sharp. It produces 
kleda (sticky material) in the body. 


Pamsuja is bitter and hot. It cures sopha (oedema) and 
aggravation of pitta and kapha. 

1** * 4 ^ ^"H t i <^fi £ i *i T|»raTWi; ii u ii 

Yavasukaja ksara 

The Zrsara of yavasuka cures gulma (phantom tumour), 
hrdroga (heart disease), graham (sprue syndrome), pandu 
(anemia), plihan (splenic disorder), anaha (flatulence), gala- 
maya (diseases of throat), svasa (asthma), arsas (piles) and 
aggravation of kapha as well as vayu. 

^TT^TFcnTTir: srfsrensnr 53=5^11^11' 

Sarjika ksara 

Sarjika ksara is slightly inferior in property in compari- 
son with yavasWcaja ksara. 

XJsah ksara 

Usah ksara is hot, alleviator of vayu and prakledi (which 
produces sticky matter). It destroys the power of digestion. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 12? 

Pdcita ksdra 

Pdcita ksdra cures medas (adiposity). It cleanses the 
mouth and vasti (urinary bladder). It is un-unctuous. It 
aggravates vdyu, alleviates kapha and vitiates pitta. 


1. =rmfTfrrTR*iw sfcr <spOT??r% qrs: i 

2. flTSTT ffir 3rR#jft?R>T5 TT3: I 

3. Fn§PKyft ^fcT 3TT^ TT3: I 

6. *f*w ^r «r*s«rca% its: i 


[sTFres-sjjTrnr %&?$ ?:?»] 

Iksurasa (Sugarcane juice) 

The juice of iksu alleviates vayu, blood and pitta. It is 
sweet, unctuous, pleasing, nourishing, life giver, refreshing, 
aphrodisiac, cooling and laxative. 


/fc«/ (Sugarcane) 

Different types of ik§u are sweet, strength promoting, 
sweet in vipaka, laxative, and unctuous. They cause kfirii 
(parasitic infection). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 129 



Iksu is of different types viz., paundraka, bhiruka, vamsaka, 
sataporaka, kantareksu, tapaseksu, kdstheksu, suci patraka, 
naipala, dirgha patra, nilapora, and kosakrt. These are the 
varieties in general and now their properties will be described. 



sN^T: f^fesr: ST3TRV sfSTCJt ¥cT: I 

[srrewrer: ?^r"t '.-:^] 

Dirghapjra & Vamsaka 

Dlrghapora is exceedingly cooling, -sweet, unctuous, 
nourishing, aggravator of kapha and laxative. 

Vamsaka is hard and alkaline. 



Satapora is Lke vamsa. It is slightly hot and it alleviates 

Kdntdra & Tapasa 
Kdntdra and tapasa types are like vamsaka. 


130 Materia Mediea 


Kandeksu has similar properties but it aggravates vayu 
and pitta. 


Sucipatra etc. 

Sucipatra, mlapora, nepala and dirgha patraka aggravate 
vayu. They alleviate kapha and pitta. They are astringent and 
they cause burning sensation. 

sptenfrnft 5^ tftat TcfffarrsTziTTf: t 


Kosakara is heavy and cooling. It cures raktapitta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body) and ksaya (consumption). 

SRffa V?[?t rjjk W% Tf* t& ^ I 


[iTTsr^S^JTJT: fjp-if 3 : ^-5.] 

Taste of the different parts of Iksu 

The root (lower part of the stem) of iksu is extremely 
sweet. The middle portion of the stem of this plant is (moder- 
ately) sweet. The upper part of the stem bears saline taste. 

wfesT^" ^^^fr sn-crfq-xTf^tor: 1 

Juice extracted by chewing 

The juice of iksu that comes out by chewing does not 
cause any burning sensation. It aggravates kapha but alleviates 
vayu and pitta. It is nourishing to the eyes and aphrodisiac. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 131 

'3^3*%^ fwi?ft *nfepF*3 ar^RRr: i 

Juice extracted by a machine 

The juice of iksu that is extracted by a machine is heavy 
and it causes burning sensation. It is constipative. 

Boiled juice 

The boiled juice of iksu is heavy, laxative, unctuous and 
sharp. It alleviates kapha and vata. 


Phanita (Penidium) 

Phanita is heavy, abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels 
of circulation) and brmhana (nourishing). It produces more 
of kapha and semen. It alleviates vata and pitta. It relieves 
exhaustion and cleanses urine and urinary bladder. 

Phanita prepared of the flower of madhuka is un- 
unctuous. It alleviates vata and pitta. 

Guda (Molasses) 

Guda is aphrodisiac, heavy and unctuous. It alleviates 
vdyu and cleanses urine. It does not alleviate pitta in excess. 
It produces medas (adiposity), kapha, k?mi (parasitic infection) 
and strength. 

132 Materia Medico. 

[irr^s^FpJr: ^spnt 3 . ? x\ 

fen JTTift crqijft ?pr: ST-TfrTSTTCfr^ | 

Guda which is preserved for a long time (purdna) 
alleviates pitta. It is sweet and unctuous. It alleviates vayu 
and promotes blood. It is superior in therapeutic property and 
is wholesome par excellence. It is a cardiac tonic. 

Freshly collected (navd) guda reduces kapha and the power 
of digestion. 


12 13 

"^%1'fksPTTfzq- XW^ ^ cT«TT <5m" II I'i II 

Guda, matsyandika, kharida, sarkara and vimald — they are 
progressively free from impurity, cooling, unctuous, heavy, 
sweet and delicious. 


Khanda (Candied sugar) 

Khanda alleviates vayu and pitta. It is cooling, unctuous, 
cardiac tonic, delicious, promoter of eyesight, nourishing 
and strength promoting. It is an aphrodisiac par excellence. 


sftirsr?rf|s7 fair fwsrr TVpisnikT' n 1%. u 

Paundraka sarkara 
Paundraka sarkara is useful in kslna (emaciation) and 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 133 

ksata (phthisis). It is aphrodisiac and unctuous. 

Madhu sarkara 

The sarkara prepared of madhu (honey) cures chardi 
(vomiting), atisara (diarrhoea) and trsna (morbid thirst). It is 
exceedingly un-unctuous. 


Samudrikodbhava sarkara 

The samudrikodbhava sarkara is useful in the treatment of 
mutrakrcchra (dysuria), asmari (stone in the urinary tract), 
pllhan (splenic disorder), jvara (fever), asrkpitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), trt 
(morbid thirst), chardi (vomiting), moha (unconsciousness), 
murcha (fainting) and visa (poisoning). 

Sarkara in general 
All types of sarkara are like ambrosia. 

17 18 

II Sffcrersr'f: II 

Depending upon these three factors viz., (1) extraction 
from the most useful part, (2) freedom. from impurity and (3) 
freedom from alkalinity, the sarkara becomes progressively 
more potent and more cooling in potency. 

134 Materia Medic a 

Thus ends the group dealing with sugarcane and its 


1. %<TT5fT ffcT STPP^ TT3: I 

3. gsfTcfV *nr: lister fscftinmT^" jfrT^n^ i 

5. srer^ wfr^r^g; ^f?r stfft tts: i 

6. ^t%^t: sr *r ^■Rrsr^frqtrr: ^% m^ qrs- t 

7. #qwr ifa irreiPFrar qrc- i 

8. srt *f?«ic5p5fW*fr sreifr xsr tjcr =^ ^f?r sj-r^ <rre i 
9- ^q^Ttrfsrg; %fa stt^t ms: i 

10. infoi^f ^T^rfqxifsra" qrstsq 1 *nssqr^% 5fto«pp*i^ i 

11. TTTT ffa" 3TFFT 7T5: I 

12. *p5=SR^r ffa" 3TH?T ITS. I 

13. ^f ?pqT crsrr qrstsf fg?ftinTci% ?frq-?r¥3T^ i 

14. fepsf ^flcf ^t j.fb: stppt tts: i 

15. fWSFT ^i^^JT ^r^TT ffa" STPFT TT5: I 

16. ^gfffiTT 1% HTT^r TTS: i 

1 7. ; ?TTTrf?«rcrT ^fcr stT3k tts: i 

18. csra5s?ftTr ^% featem^ rrs: i 


"<ftf;=HP wmi site' srifsrar «N*>q «r i 

Madhu (Honey) 


Paittika, bhramara, ksaudra, maksika, chatra, drghya, 
auddalaka and dala — these are the eight varieties of madhu. 



Madhu is astringent in anurasa (after-taste), un-unctuous, 
cooling, sweet, a digestive stimulant, lekhana (depleting) and 
strength promoting. It cleans and heals ulcers and helps in the 
joining of fractured bones. It is light, promoter of eyesight and 
good voice, cardiac tonic and alleviator of all the three dosas. 

136 Materia Medica 


It cures chardi (vomiting), hikka (hiccup), visa (poisoning), 
svasa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis), sotha (oedema), atisara 
(diarrhoea) and raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the body)- It is constipative. It cures 
krmi (parasitic infection). It is an excellent drug for curing 
moha (unconsciousness). 


Paittika type of madhu is slimy and sweet in excess. There- 
fore it is known to be heavy. 


■O 5\ %0 -V 


Bhramara type of madhu produces jadya (numbness and 
rigidity). It is excessively sweet. 


Kscudra type of madhu is specifically cooling, light and 
lekhana (depleting). 

vrarrfe* ^ ^Vr^ si^gr ?rfs%»sr?r: u %. it" 

Maksika type of madhu is lighter than the former. It is 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 137 

exceedingly un-unctuous. It is specifically, useful in diseases 
like svasa (asthma). 


[m^^^: wr*T v : ?^] 

Treshly Collected Madhu 

Freshly collected (nava) madhu is nourishing. It does not 
alleviate kapha in excess. It is very useful. 

"^TfTPP *T* f|*T Prf^T TrPfTTTfcFT Hall 



Chatra type of madhu is sweet in vipaka, heavy, cooling 
and slimy. It cures raktapitta (a diseases characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body), svitra (leucoderma), 
meha (obstin ite urinary disorders including diabetes) and krmi 
{parasitic infection). It is of superior quality. 

3 9 

^WFT *fi&P <T1% forE ^JTTT^Tcr^T II s ll' 


Arghya type of madhu is an excellent promoter of eye- 
sight. It is also an excellent alleviator of kapha and pitta. It is 
astringent in taste and pungent m vipaka. It is bitter and does 
not aggravate vayu. 

^^Tirjreunrpsr ^ fqrr^R:qTf% ^ u £ n 

138 Materia Medica 


Auddalika type of madhu is appetiser and promoter of 
good voice. It cures kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy) and visa (poisoning). It is astringent, hot and sour. It 
aggravates pitta. It is pungent in vipdka. 


Dalodbhava type of madhu cures chardi (vomiting) and 
meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes). It is 

Special attribute of Paittika 

Paittika type of madhu is specially raksoghna (which cures 
afflictions by evil spirits including germs) when used mixed 
with ghee. 


Madhu in general 

Madhu m general cures medas (fat) and sthaulya (obesity). 
It is constipative and when preserved for a long time (purana), 
it is exceedingly depleting. It is a mixture of many drugs; there- 
fore, it cures many diseases. In view of its association with 
many drugs it is known to be yogavahin (which enhances the 
property of other drugs). It alleviates all the three dosas when 
properly digested. If ama is produced by its improper digestion 
it vitiates all the three dosas. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 139 


Adverse effect 

In a person who is afflicted with heat and during the 
summer season, madhu works like a poison. 

Madhu is tender (sukumdra) and cooling. It is produced 
by the mixture of the juices (rasa) of many drugs. Therefore, 
it is specifically opposed to heat. It also produces adverse 
effects when used by mixing with rain water (?). 


In emetic therapy, madhu is mixed with hot water and 
administered. It does not produce any adverse effect because 
it does not stay in the stomach (comes out along with vomiting), 
and therefore, does not get digested to produce such an effect. 

sfn5rrfsF#2r zmm g?2r ^ v^ srfqrsft n ?«. u 


Salt should not be used in combination with either honey 
or milk. Honey and ghee should never be used together 
m equal quantities. 

II ^fcT *n^r*f: II 

When honey and ghee are used in equal quantities but 
mixed with other drugs, then such a combination, according to 
scholars, does not produce any adverse effect. 

140 Materia Medica 

Thus ends the group of different types of madhu. 


2. fsr^Kfara; ?% stpp^ <tts: i 

5. ^Tnr ^far arr^^ tts: i 

6. ^T?r^rE5rf t ?f?r fs5Tm<T?rr% qrs- i 

7. ^CTrrq-l^rfcraT^'T W% STT^^f "TfFcr^T^ TT5: l 

10. ?^t^t ^f?r srr^rTsa^q" tts: i 

12. f^itrr^qnfara; %fa f^frsrr??^ its: \ 



^T^prr^^ m**?^ mh^I-jit *%w:<m: n ?u 


Payor (Milk) 


The milk of go (the cow), aja (the goat), urabhra (the 
sheep), mahisa (buffalo), ustra (the camel), osva (the horse), 
naga (the elephant) and manusya (woman) is used in medicine. 
The milk of these animals contains the essence {rasa) of many 
drugs, and therefore, it is life giver, heavy, sweet, slimy, 
unctuous, cooling, subtle and laxative. 

stftset <T^£> SI tf <T^fqrTTf%^R'Tq > \\ \\\ 

Go payas (Cow's milk) 
Cow's milk is wholesome, rejuvenating, strength promo- 

142 Materia Medica 

ting and cardiac tonic. It promotes intellect, longevity and 
virility. It cures aggravation of vayu and raktapitta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 

•st*t ^*rrc »m sftef mfk vwt w% \ 

Chaga payas (Goat's milk) ' 

Goat's milk is astringent, sweet, cooling, constipative and 
light. It cures raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the body), atisdra (diarrhoea), ksaya 
(consumption), kasa (bronchitis) and jvara (fever). 

9T3rnTT*T?7^r*r<:«fT^¥.ef5TTBf5T^WRr I 


^rfqNR 5q-i3rrq"RH#^Tf^fT 7^: UK It" 

[m^snprar: 5"9rpt WV?^>] 

Goats have a small physique. They eat mostly pungent 
and bitter things and drink very little water. They perform 
a lot of physical exercise. (They are agile). Therefore, goat's 
milk cures all diseases. 


«ik?l" *mi fcprsr ir^fcftrsptfn-iTM- | 

[tTT^R-^SEnFr: M^PT *:?-^] 

Vrabhra payas (Sheep's milk) 

The milk of the sheep is sweet, unctuous and heavy. It 
alleviates pitta and kapha. It is hot and is wholesome for 
patients having an aggravation of vayu alone. It cures kasa 
(bronchitis) and anilasonita (gout). 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarartanda 143 

Mahisa payas (Buffalo milk) 

The milk of the buffalo is exceedingly abhisyandi (which 
obstructs channels of circulation) and sweet. It suppresses the 
power of digestion. It induces sleep and produces a cooling 
effect. It is more unctuous and heavy than cow's milk. 



Ustra payas (Camel milk) 

The milk of the camel is un-unctuous, hot, saline, sweet 
and light. It is useful in the aggravation of vdta and kapha, 
dnaha (flatulence), krmi (parasitic infection), sopha (oedema), 
udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis) and 
arias (piles). 


fcfnsr ^wfc iM ^wv snresbnT us.ii 

Ekasapha payas (Mares milk) 

The milk of the mare is hot. It promotes strength. It 
cures affliction of the limbs by vayu. It is sweet and sour 
in taste, un-unctuous, saline in anurasa (subsidiary taste) and 

Hasti payas (Elephant's milk) 
The milk of the elephant is unctuous, sthairyakara (pro- 

144 Materia Medica 

ducing steadiness) and cooling. It promotes eyesight and 
strength. It is sweet, aphrodisiac and astringent m anurasa 
(subsidiary taste) and heavey. 


sftaT 3"pr m&% ?%pr *ttt<^ q^r: i 

12 13 

Manusi payas (Woman's milk) 

The woman's mile promotes longevity and nourishment. 
It is wholesome and unctuous. Its inhalation cures raktapitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body). When used in aksatarpana therapy (application of cotton 
swab soaked in the milk over the eyes) it cures pain in the 

sfpq- =prp^ ^-urr : — 


Property of the milk of cows of different colours 

The milk of a black cow alleviates v&yu and it is superior 
in quality. The milk of a yellow cow alleviates pitta and vayu. 
The milk of a white cow aggravates kapha. The milk of a 
red cow aggravates vayu. 


^TW^fesRSFTT f*TCt 5,fiT f^PffKT II 12 II 
g^fansrTf^sfttrsf ?pfoT SfTrfrcqjr I 

Other Varieties 

The milk of the cow having a very young calf or without 
a calf aggravates all the three dosas. The milk of a cow long 
after her delivery (baskayini) alleviates all the three dosas. It is 
refreshing and strength promoting. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toglarananda 145 

The heaviness and unctuousness of the milk progressively 
increases depending upon the arid, marshy and hilly areas in 
which the cow grazes. 

The milk of the cow which takes less food is heavy and 
it alleviates kapha. For healthy persons it is very -useful inas- 
much as it promotes strength and virility. The milk of the 
cow which eats straw, grass and cotton seed is useful for 


f^H^TfTTT cr^TWRT fsnftWfKT II %% II 

The warm milk of the cow immediately after milking 
(dharosnd) promotes strength. It is light and cooling. It is 
like ambrosia. It alleviates all the three dosas and it stimu- 
lates the digestion. When it becomes cold after milking 
(dhara slta) it aggravates all the three dosas. 

The Woman's milk is an exception to this rule inasmuch 
as it is useful only when it is cold. 

srFTTra^ ^m snTttupT^cf vw. u ?va it ~ 

Cold milk causes amavata (rheumatism) and dharosna 
(when it is warm immediately after milking) milk is like 

146 Materia Medica 

"pftwnn'fasF #r ^^^^t^^ttjt: II ?=; II 

Cow's milk is useful when it is dharosna and buffalo's 
milk is useful when it becomes cold after milking idhara sltd). 
Sheep's milk is useful when it is warm after boiling. Goat's 
milk should be used when it is cold after boiling. 

Boiled and hot milk alleviates kapha and vdta. The milk 
which is cooled after boiling alleviates pitta. 

The milk which is boiled with half of water till the origi- 
nal quantity of milk remains is lighter and useful. 

5T%?r T%T f^q-fcrq-^^* jp£rr q-qr I 

The milk which is excessively boiled by which it becomes 
free from its water content, depending upon the time of boil- 
ing, becomes progressively more and more heavy, unuctuous, 
aphrodisiac and promoter of strength. 

The santanika (the layer of cream which is formed on the 
surface when the milk is boiled on low heat) of milk promotes 
strength and virility. It alleviates pitta and vayu. 


Tpft sftT *T %%cT %%cf q-fe T F^cT II "R? II 

Time of taking milk 

Milk should not be taken at night. If one happens to 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 147 

to take milk at night, then he should not sleep. If he sleeps 
after taking milk, then it reduces longevity. Therefore, milk 
is wholesome if taken during day time. 

snrTfa^ to srnfr fe^f*^ tts cfpspFnr 1 


During night the attributes of the moon become predo- 
minant and there is no exercise. Therefore early morning 
(prabhata) milk is generally constipative, heavy and aggravator 
of dosas. On the other hand, there is exposure to sun shine, 
exercise and wind, for which the evening (pradosd) milk 
alleviates fatigue. It promotes strength and eye sight. It 
alleviates vayu and pitta. 

Time of intake 

Milk taken in the forenoon produces aphrodisiac and 
nourishing effects. It stimulates the power of digestion. 

iTEirr|f ^nrswr *sn%i: fq-TTTif ^Vq-^nr it T* u 

Milk taken during noon-time promotes strength. It 
alleviates kapha and pitta. It is a digestive stimulant. 

18 19 


Milk taken during the night promotes strength in child- 
ren, cures consumption, increasingly produces semen in old- 

148 Materia Medica 

men. It is wholesome and it cures many diseases. It invariably 
promotes eye sight. 


When used in combination with sarkara, milk produces 
kapha and alleviates vayu. 

In combination with sitd and sitopala, milk produces 
semen and alleviates dosas. 

g-TTsT ^W 5 !^ fwS%5R^: ■*!% II ^ II 

[jrprsrenrer: gwnnf ?y : $\] 

If taken in combination with guda, milk cures mutra 
kfcchra (dysuria) and it aggravates pitta and kapha. 


Intake of milk at night 

Some scholars hold the view that milk alone can be taken 
at night. But along with milk no other food like rice should 
be taken. If there is indigestion, then one should not sleep at 
night. One should not leave a part of the milk after drinking. 


dsKI£MSrR*T«f TPft sfbC ST^TF^ II R^ II 

[TTFTSPfrM: f^Rif ?Y:Yo-Y? ] 

Generally, human beings take food and drinks during, 
the day time which cause burning sensation (yiddhin). To 
alleviate this burning sensation, milk is useful at night. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 149 

*f^rof faxtf ^F^r fT?sf ^rf^Tcr w. i 


Bad quality 

Milk whose colour and taste are changed, which has 
become sour, which produces a putrid smell and which is of 
knotted appearance should not be used. It should not be used 
when mixed with sour things and salt because this type of milk 
produces diseases like kustha (obstinate skin diseases including 


'?>cTFf?r w§ "jftr sn% *rg xz$& i 



For persons whose digestive power is very strong, who 
are- emaciated, for infants and old persons and for those who 
indulge in sex, milk is exceedingly useful. It produces semen 


Special Processing 

When the luke-warm (kosna) milk of either a cow or a 
goat is stirred with a wooden rod (dandahata), it becomes light 
and aphrodisiac. It cures fever and alleviates vayu, pitta and 


3"%wfe^ crsir *rfrcc[ft?nFrt WW 1 

150 Materia Medico 

Ksira phena (foam of the milk) 

The foam that comes out of the milk (ksira phena) 
alleviates all the three dosas. It is an appetiser and promoter 
of strength as well as the power of digestion. It is whole- 
some, instantaneously refreshing and light. It is beneficial in 
atisara (diarrhoea), agnimandya (suppression of the power of 
digestion) and jirnajvara (chronic fever). It cures sula (colic 
pain), sopha (oedema), ama, kasa (bronchitis) and visama j\ara 
(irregular fever). It heals -the wound in the chest (urah sandhana) 
and cures hikka (hie cup), and svasa (asthma). 

^TvrfTT srerspar ^l\ cT^ faqreff: I 


Milk and butter milk (takra) should not be given without 
food (anna) by a physician. 

smsf ^rrafTsfhc tfMF fT5Fnrcr?pr 11 v* 11 


Milk in a copper container alleviates vayu. In a gold 
container it alleviates pitta, in silver it alleviates kapha and in a 
brass container it promotes blood. 


Ghana & PTyusa 

The milk of the cow immediately after delivery is called 
ghana and piyusa. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 151 



After seven days of the delivery, the milk is called morata. 
According to Jayyata, the asava or mastu prepared of the 
curdled (nasta) milk is called morata. 

Dadhi kurcika, Takra kurcika, Kildta etc., 

The preparation made out of boiling curd and milk (in 
equal quantity) is called dadhi kurcika. When this is done with 
buttermilk and milk it is called takra kurcika. If the preparation 
is made out in a solid form (pinda) then it is called kilataka. 
If the preparation is done without boiling but by adding sugar, 
then it is called ksTrasika. 


crater sr ct^ irc<|Tsr [ qr^mTfsrcnj; ] 1 1 \ * 1 1 


When the curdled (nasta) milk (?) or butter milk is 
filtered through a cloth and the residue is completely free from 
water, it is called pinda. 

<ffajT Jft^rfrfa eplwr ^fsTcTsFJft: U 35. II 
VT3: ivFZjm ^zrr f[ m ^raTfaRRFTT: II Vo || 

152 Materia Medica 

Property of Piyusa etc. 

Ptyusa, morata, dadhikurcika, takra kurcika, kilafa, ksfra- 
sika and takra pinda axe nourishing and heavy. They aggravate 
kapha. They are aphrodisiacs and cardiac tonjcs. They alleviate 
vayu and suppress the power of digestion. They are exceedingly 
useful for those having a strong power of digestion, those 
suffering from sleeplessness and those indulging in sex. 

Milk in different Seasons 

Buffalo's milk should be us d in the summer season. The 
milk of goat and sheep is useful in hemanta (beginning of 
winter). Cow's milk is like ambrosia for human beings during 
the rainy season. 

II ifcT sftwf: II 
Thus ends the group dealing with various types of milk. 


1. ^TT^f cTTT ?% 3Tm TT5: I 

2. sn^TiTT^^nrfq- qrsrfe^ *rc°Rt ^fa stt^t its. i 

4. Tr?*r«fTFnx %fa m^x qrs: i 

5. for^ra^ ^Tg^HTT^T ^i% m^x qrs. i 

6. TS ffcT 3TPPT VT5: I 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 153 

9. 5ft*ft ifcT sn^t qrs: I 
10. ^wnr^qi %f& qTq^ q-Ts: i 
11- TFTST f% stt^ qrs: 1 

12. TcEfqrf % ffcT STF*^ qT3: I 

13. ^rfsrersr^rq- sfa - stfp^: its- i 

14. ^fspsftag^ f f?r q^sqj?r% qT3: i 

15- ^rsn^T %fa T^T??T% TI3: 1 

16 xrfk ffcr fg:d^3rT?cr% qre: i 
1 7. spfto f% «pssq-?ar% TT5: r 

18 ^TcT ^f?r ffcfV^T??r% TT5: i 

19. "spre^ 1% fg:?ftinT?cf% qrs: i 

20 snar g-f onrfTq-^tqfT^T q^t^ra - qrjfr i 

i-jwt vm^wrftn^vri; «0r f|cr wow i 
ff?r TTW^'S^ir'Tw qrc i 

21. •^T^cZT^if ?T Wtfo ^T#€V ffrT 5TT^ VTZ I 

22. JFRTT: Wfcr STFf^: TT3 i 

23 ?T^T f«H%W ?fn 5TT^" 713: I 

24 <f<=5Tf3;fn? ^RT: ffcT STFf^; <TTC 1 
25. Tq". fi# ^fcT STT^ 7TS: I 

26 *t?t: wf?r srnfrt qre l 
27. fq%^r sfa ?TT^; qTS: 1 

28 ^% qW f fa 3TT^ qTS 1 

29 q^rrcPTq^cr sftr tc3T??t% qrs: i 

30 ^^^rrrsspflcr wfcr q^sq??f% qra- i 

31- =rrwr i ^f?r fg-efrzrqs<r% qre- i 

wr TTf^"5!t f fcr *pssqr?cr% qT5: i 



Dadhi (curd) 

Dadhi is hot, a digestive stimulant, unctuous, astringent 
in anurasa (subsidiary tas+e), heavy, sour in vipdka and consti- 
pative. It vitiates pitta and blood and aggravates sotha (oedema), 
medas (adiposity) and kapha. It is useful in mutra krcchra 
(dysuria), pratisyaya (cold), sitaga visamajvara (irregular fever 
which is associated with a feeling of cold), atisara (diarrhoea), 
aruci (anorexia) and kursya (emaciation). It promotes strength 
and semen. 

strt ^^c^t^t q^nf ^f«r <ts^sjt 113 it 


The first stage of dadhi is called manda (in which there is 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 155 

no manifested taste). The second stage of it is called svadu 
(sweet) and the third stage is svadvamla (both sweet and sour in 
taste). During the fourth stage it is called amla (sour) and the 
fifth stage is called atyamla (excessively sour). These are the 
five varieties of dadhi. 


Like milk, manda has no manifested taste and there is 
less of ghee in it. 

It helps in the elimination of stool and urine. It vitiates 
all the three dosas and causes burning sensation. 


^^RFP^~M ffrT ^TfFFst^CTfTarr II X II 


When it gets properly condensed and there is the mani- 
festation of a sweet taste it is called svadu. The sour taste in it 
is not manifested. 

3Tcr^T *r«n: it% T^fq-xTsrErnrHT' u s ii 


srrsnf?^ cr vwz ^FrfqTrnr^|'n' q T i 

Svadu is slightly abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels 
of circulation). It is aphrodisiac and it reduces medas (fat), 
kapha and vata. It is sweet in vipaka. It produces more of 
blood and pitta. If this is taken during the early morning then 
it alleviates both vayu and pitta. 

156 Materia Medica 


The svadvamla variety of dadhi is both sweet and sour in 
taste. It is astringent in anurasa (subsidiary taste). 


In properties, it is like dadhi in general. 



When dadhi is deprived of its sweet taste, and its sour 
taste is well manifested, then it is called amlaka. 

It stimulates digestion and aggravates blood, pitta aiid 



When dadhi becomes exceedingly sour it is called atyamla. 
It causes a tingling sensation {harsa) in the teeth and horripila- 
tion (roma harsa). It produces burning sensation in the throat 


It stimulates digestion and exceedingly vitiates blood 
and pitta. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 157 

Gavya dadhi (Curd of cow's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from Cow's milk is an excellent promoter 
of strength. In vipaka, it is sweet. It is an appetiser, sacred, 
a digestive stimulant, unctuous and nourishing. It alleviates 

Among the several varieties of dadhi, the one prepared 
from cow's milk is known to be the best. 

Mahisa dadhi (Curd of buffalo's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from buffalo milk is exceedingly unctuous. 
It aggravates kapha and alleviates vayu as well as pitta. It is 
sweet in vipaka, abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels of 
circulation), an aphrodisiac and heavy. It vitiates blood. 

5*TC*Rt ^re^T^:«Twrwr ^mir ll \R II 

Aja dadhi (Curd of goat's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from goat's milk is very useful. It is 
constipative and light. It alleviates all the three dosas. It is 
useful in svdsa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis), arsas (piles), ksaya 
(consumption) and karsya (emaciation). It stimulates the 
digestive power. 

q=F^sr*r# ^ 3fa ftWT 'FJftrWT I 

158 Materia Medica 

Dadhi of boiled milk 

Dadhi prepared from boiled milk is an appetiser, unctuous 
and exceedingly useful. It alleviates pitta and vayu, and pro- 
motes all the tissue elements (dhatus), digestive power and 

vmi sfa mnfg ^mvr ^nrcref ^rsr i 

Dadhi which is free from fat is constipative, astringent, 
aggravator of vayu and light. It produces flatulence (vistambhi). 
It is a digestive stimulant and appetiser. It cures grahani (sprue 

Trf^TcT ?fa SffFffST WTcT^f ^W *T^ I 

If the watery portion of dadhi is removed by Alteration, 
then it becomes exceedingly unctuous. It alleviates vayu and 
aggravates kapha. It is heavy. It promotes strength and nouri- 
shment. It is an appetiser and sweet. It does not aggravate 
pitta in excess. 


Combined with sugar, dadhi in very useful in curing 
tfsna (morbid thirst), vitiated pitta as well as blood and daha 
(burning syndrome). 

Along with guda, dadhi alleviates vayu. It is aphrodisiac, 
nourishing, refreshing and heavy. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 159 

[?rP¥ipf;T5r. 5-ftrar^ ?k : ?--?'3] 


Dadhi should not be taken at night, nor should it be 
taken without ghee, sugar, mudga supa or honey. It should not 
be taken when it is hot nor without amalaki. 


At night, dadhi should not be taken. It is useful when 
mixed with water and ghee. It is not useful in diseases caused 
by blood, pitta and kapha. 


v. ^ 

In hemanta (first part of winter), sisira (later part of 
winter) and in the rainy season intake of dadhi is beneficial. 
Generally, it is not useful in autumn, summer and spring , 

^F^qr^rwf "wmi fefsr %3T sfafsnr: ir°ii 

[ Trrcsrerer. s-fwf ? k: ?=;- ? 5. ] 

Adverse effect 

A person who takes dadhi without following the prescribed 
procedure succumbs to acute form of jvara (fever), asrk pitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body), visarpa (erysipelas), kustha (obstinate skin diseases inclu- 
ding leprosy), pandvamaya (anemia), bhrama (giddiness) and 
kamala (jaundice). 

160 Materia Medica 


Austrika dadhi (Curd of camel's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from camel's milk is pungent in vipdka, 
alkaline and sour. It cures aggravated vayu, arias (piles), 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), krmi (parasitic 
infection) and udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including 

Avika dadhi (Curd of sheep milk) 

Dadhi prepared from the milk of the sheep aggravates 
kapha, rata and durnaman (piles). 


Vadava dadhi (Curd of mare's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from mare's milk is a digestive stimulant 
and harmful for the eye. It aggravates vayu. It is un-unctuous, 
hot and astringent. It reduces kapha and urine. 

Nan dadhi (Curd of woman's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from woman's milk is unctuous, sweet it* 
vipaka, promoter of strength, refreshing and heavy. ^ It is an 
excellent promoter of eye sight. It alleviates dosas. It is ex- 
tremely useful. 

<?rW% 3MIUH sftjffOTf qfttHKH^ II V II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 161 

Naga dadhi (Curd of elephant's milk) 

Dadhi prepared from elephant's milk is light in vipdka. 
It alleviates kapha. It *s hot in potency and it reduces the 
power of digestion. It is astringent in anurasa (subsidiary 
taste). It increases the quantity of stool. 

?«fr=frErf?r irp%# TsqF?Y% \*f% fSTf- ll 25 II 


Properties of different types of dadhi are described above. 
Among them, the dadhi prepared from cow's milk is the best. 


*fT'£f^sronT#3'? Tfsrra^ ?$& ^ i' 

If the inside wall of the bhanda (jar in which curd is pre- 
pared) is smeared with the paste of the pulp of kapittha, juice 
of dmalaka, paste of the root of citraka or the juice of ripe 
mango, then the curd becomes hard (increased density) and 

Salt, silver and vida — these are very essential (lit. life) for 

Brwre^rf?: tft ■mm wt: ^*rrrf^r?r: it R* it 

Sara & Mastu 

The upper layer of the milk which is dense and unctuous 
is called sara (cream) and the watery portion of the curd is 
called mastu. 

162 Materia Medica 

3TC: *STT§»f'pf<aft ^T^f%5p>TT5Pr: II ^5. II 

^#f%-^TH^l^t: fTcP^jrfcrcrsfa: 1 

Sara is sweet, heavy and aphrodisiac. It reduces vdyu 
and the power of digestion. It stimulates (yidhamand) the 
bladder. When it becomes sour, it aggravates pitta and kapha. 


5TfGif sftiR sftsr' ffFTfrT TpSTSBTflT II 3? I! 

Mastu cures mental fatigue (klama). It is a strength 
promoter and light. It promotes appetite for food. It 
cleanses the channels of circulation and produces kleda (sticky 
material). It alleviates k apha, trsna (morbid thirst) and vdyu. 
It is not aphrodisiac. It is refreshing and works as an instant 

H f% sfsR^f; ii 
Thus ends the group dealing with various types of dadhi. 


2. &T% fa#55Tf ?PT % far 3TRi3: q73: I 

4. ^WlVJJ4ri| ^fa <snss^?r% TT5: I 

5. 3T?BIW f fcT fScft^^T TTH: I 

6. cT€iT3R?f «[fcT <TO*THI% qTZ>: I 

7. ^FrrjrfTcr^rc' sfa *n^ its: « 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todlarananda 163 

8. *\&i 3fsr feSpfir *WT3*<?f =*r ^fsrsreir sTer m^K its: i 

11. *^t srsrqrfesfiT" qrsrssf qT3T^% ?rtT?TTSFr i 

12. ^ #^" rRT ffa STF^ TT3: I 

13. =*nfr i% snrc^; qrre: i 

14. 3t?PT2nffsr ^f«r <ttc>s*t «t^<t^t% *fr<??PRT% i 

15. =F<fiTWTg f far fg-^fteq"*^ tts: i 

16. fk*£ ft TT5tS7 fg-^-q-'T??r% iftq^'WJ'd I 

17. sp^irrfawTq-f *r ^f?r <spssqT3% qrs: i 



5jft*fteWf — tff^>TO^fTWto II ? II 

*T?*T^f^ri^PTcfT* Tt^prq-R; ^r^jr i 

Takra (Butter milk) 

Takra is light, astringent, hot and digestive stimulant. 
It alleviates kapha and vdta. It cures sotha (oedema), udara 
(obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), arias (piles), 
grahani (sprue syndrome), mutra graha (anuria) , aruci (ano- 
rexia), gulma (phantom tumour), pllhan (splenic disorder), 
ghrta vydpat (complications because of wrong administration of 
ghee) and pangvdmaya (anemia). 


SWSra^RT q»'H^T4dtid' ^ TO II R II 

■« a C C C *s 



Takra is of three types depending upon the content of fat 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 165 

which is either completely removed, half removed or not re- 
moved at all. 


FTrT: <tt" ^cq-encf T^rraFnr^T^nT i 

The first variety from which fat is completely removed is 
light and wholesome. The second variety from which half of the 
fat is removed is exceedingly heavy and aphrodisiac. The 
third variety from which fat is not removed is exceedingly 

jrp^rRTfir ^sffaircet ^m ^*rrfe?Rr II V n 

The properties of the different types of dadhi prepared 
from the milk of different animals are also shared by the takra 
prepared out of them. 

5«T,^T^¥f%«f *£^f% wfrfT?m 



By the great sages like Susruta, takra is described to be of 
four types viz., ghola, mathita, udasvit and takra. The butter- 
milk which contains cream and to which water is not added is 
called ghola. When the cream is removed but no water is added 
then it is called mathita. When one fourth quantity of water 
is added then it is called takra. In udasvit half the quantity of 
wafer is added. 

166 Materia Medica 

^f^R*FB5 SF^ ssFHSf TT't TcPT II ^ II 

Takra alleviates all the three dosas. Udasvit aggravates 
kapha, promotes strength and alleviates fatigue par excellence. 


Property of different types 

Butter milk prepared of the manda variety of dadhi is un- 
unctuous, abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels of circu- 
lation), and difficult of digestion. 

cRS 5 *n*T* fWsf ^^TW ^IcrfarHcT II s II 

Buttermilk prepared of the sweet variety of dadhi is 
unctuous. It aggravates kapha and alleviates vayu and pitta. 

Buttermilk prepared of the sour variety of dadhi alleviates 
vayu- Buttermilk prepared of dadhi which is extremely sour, 
aggravates rakta (blood) and pitta. 

?m o ^n=3* ^tfsct?" ^f^TersfiTPsr iis.ii 

The heaviness of takra progressively inci cases depending 
upon the increase in density. 



When there is aggravation of vayu, sour variety of takra 
should be taken by adding rock salt. In pitta, sweet variety of 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 167 

takra should be taken mixed with sugar. In kapha the un- 
unctuous variety of takra should be used by adding alkalies, 
sunthi, pippali and marica. In mutrakrcchra (dysuria), guda 
should be added and in pdndu citrdka should be added to the 



If hingu and jfrd are added and the powder of rock salt is 
sprinkled over takra, then it becomes an excellent alleviator of 
vdyu. It also becomes an excellent curative for arsas (piles) 
and atisara (diarrhoea). It is an appetiser, nourishing and 
strength promoting. It also cures colic pain in the region of 
vasti (urinary bladder). 


Process of preparation 

Unboiled (ama) takra alleviates kapha in the kostha 
(colon) but produces kapha in the throat. The boiled (pakva) 
takra is specifically useful in pinasa (chronic cold), svasa (asthma) 
and kasa (bronchitis). 


^% 1^" ^B^^f^r^^f^^T 3 ^^ n ?* ii 
cnro^cfr — *^«T*tff — ^*in?*r*RrcPT i 

1 68 Materia Medica 


Properties in general 

Takra works like ambrosia in winter season, when there 
is suppression of the power of digestion, in the diseases caused 
by kapha and vdyii, in aruci (anorexia) and srotorodha (obstruc- 
tion to the channels of circulation). It cures diseases caused 
by kapha, chardi (vomiting), praseka (salivation), visama jvara 
(irregular fever), pandu (anemia), medas (adiposity), graham 
(sprue syndrome), arsas (piles), mutragraha (suppression of 
urination), hhagandara (fistula-in-ano), meha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes), gulma (phantom tumour), atisara 
(diarrhoea), sula (colic pain), plihan (splenic disorder), udara 
(obstinate abdominal disorders including ascitis), aruci (ano- 
rexia), svitra (leucoderma), kotha (urticaria), ghrta vyapat (com- 
plications arising out of improper use of ghee), kusfha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), sopha (oedema), 
tfsa (morbid thirst) and krmt (parasitic infection), 

#3- W* SRT ^STRiftsq-sFTH ff §#%" I 

15 16 

^ ^^NnTcTT|<T H fNr ^ptfrT% II U II " 

[ TrresRnrsr. trmff ? i: ? v- ? «? ] 


Takra should not be used in ksata (phthisis), during hot 
season, when a person is weak and in murcha (fainting), bhrarna 
(giddiness), ddha (burning syndrome) and raktapitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body). 

^ cTsfr%<fr sir^ j^tiVst ^s^t: srsrefer frnr i 
T«rr ^lurr^^cf mzm mi ?mirT irfk epRTf . i 


A person who habitually takes takra never suffers and 
being impregnated with takra, diseases do not attack him. As 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 169 

ambrosia gives happiness to the gods, so also takra produces 
happiness in human beings on this earth. 

?r fnp^srr- 5nT«rf% ffrr: ii ?* u 

It cures vayu because of its sour taste, pitta because of its 
sweet taste and kapha because of its astringent taste. There- 
fore (?) takra should not be given to a patient suffering from 
fever and being impregnated with takra, diseases do not attack 

II ¥f?r cT^PT: II 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of takra. 


l. ?nr ^m^wi -%fo m*t$. qrs: i 

2 ^T/t^T^T^^^^T^: ?f% 5TPPT TT5: I 
3. ?T?T lf?T %rtW'X qre: I 

-4. Tcfr 1% stf^ wrs: i 
6. ^t %fa qc5<T*3% its. t 

9. Spf %fa ff cft^T^^fr tjTS : 

170 Materia Medica 

1 1. cPnT% ^fcT fkcffrpT*cr% «TT5: I 

13. ens if?r ^^cr^5r% qrs: i 

14. «s?it«ro fflr "snss^cr^ tts: i 

15. ^W*iW»IH£ ^fcT «TO5*cl% <TT3: I 

16. -*TKfqTl% ^fcT STT^ "TTS: I 


*T*rfft?f ff?f TTSq- cfz4 WW^cTTf^Tffg; I 


Navanlta (Butter) 

Butter (navanlta) prepared from cow's milk is very useful. 
It is aphrodisiac, promoter of complexion, strength and the 
power of digestion and constipative. It cures aggravated vdyu, 
pitta and blood, ksaya (consumption), arsas (piles), ardita 
(facial paralysis) and kdsa (bronchitis). 

It is useful both for young and old and it is like ambrosia 
for infants. 


^jfYcf irffprntj ^TJFreTsPT" *T3 II R II 

anifTTrsrTfT" irsisr^fasriqw i 

Mahisa NavanTta 
The butter collected from buffalo milk aggravates yayu 

172 Materia Medica 

and kapha. It is heavy. It cures daha (burning syndrome), 
vitiated pitta and srama (physical fatigue). It promotes medas 
(adiposity) and semen. 


Milk butter 

The butter collected from milk is extremely unctuous. It 
promotes eye sight and cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised 
by bleeding from different parts of the body). It is aphrodisiac, 
promoter of strength, constipative, sweet and extremely 

fpf5fH % SfSTFP **n% flTff ff*f ^ II V ll 

Freshly collected butter 

Freshly collected butter is sweet, constipative, cooling, 
light and promoter of intellect. It is slightly astringent and 
sour because of its association with a small quantity of butter 


[TTTsnrsppn-: srapftanpT ?V9 • ?-$] 

Preserved butter 

Buttei preserved for a long time is alkaline, pungent and 
sour because of which it aggravates chardi (vomiting), arias 
(piles) and kuspia (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). It 
aggravates kapha. It is heavy and it produces more of fat. 

II ?% fTaRVcHPT : 11 
Thus ends the group dealing with various types of butter. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Tojarananda \ *l% 


Cow's milk ghee 

Ghee prepared from cow's milk increases memory, 
intellect, power of digestion, semen, ojas, kapha and medas 
(fat). It cures unmada (insanity) caused by vayu, pitta and 
kapha, sosa (consumption), alaksml (inauspiciousness) and visa 
(poisoning). It promotes eyesight, digestive power and strength. 
Cow's ghee is the best among the ghees. 


Goafs milk ghee 

Ghee prepared from goat's milk stimulates the digestive 
power and promotes eyesight and strength. It is useful in kasa 
(bronchitis), svasa (asthma) and ksaya (consumption). It is light 
for digestion. 

q^i TxSft^^ *T3 Tl% WK<Vm*l li * It 


^TFifi'rTsrsm^ wxm *nf|«r sjcw; 1 

Buffalo milk ghee 

The ghee prepared from buffalo-milk is sweet. It cures 
raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body). It is heavy for digestion. It aggravates 
kapha and alleviates vayu and pitta. It is cooling. 

'Sfrea:* ^S *fT <TT% STTSTfrfat^rifffT II §.11 

174 Materia Medico 

Camel's milk ghee 

Ghee prepared from camel's milk is pungent in vipaka. 
It cures sotha (oedema), krmi (parasitic infection) and visa 
(poisoning). It stimulates digestion and alleviates kapha and 
vayu. It cures kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), 
gulma (phantom tumour) and visa (poisoning). 

<tt% <=psntiw srfcpf ^ fq-g-spffrroir n ?° n' 


Sheep's milk ghee 

Ghee prepared from sheep's milk is light for digestion and 
it does not aggravate pitta. It is useful in aggravated kapha and 
vayu, yoni dosa (diseases of the female genital tract), sotha 
(oedema) and kampa (trembling). 


% 11 

Mare's milk ghee 

Ghee prepared from mare's milk is light for digestion, hot 
in potency, astringent, alleviator of kapha and stimulant of the 
digestive power. It obstructs proper elimination of stool and 

Elephant's milk ghee 

The ghee prepared from elephant's milk is astringent. It 
obstructs proper elimination of stool and urine. It is bitter, 
stimulant of digestion and light. It cures aggravated kapha, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 1 75 

kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), visa (poison- 
ing) and krmi (parasitic infection). 



Ghee of woman's milk 

The ghee prepared from woman's milk is an excellent 
promoter of eyesight. It is like ambrosia. It promotes the 
physique and the power of digestion. It is light for digestion 
and it cures visa (poisoning). 

Ghee prepared of milk 

The ghee prepared of milk is refreshing. It cures eye 
diseases and daha (burning syndrome). 

«*= ,* m< JU*™** ■ 

*T5dT$ SSWt^ K3 WT?WTT*115F&{_ II ?K II 

Preserved ghee 

The ghee which is kept preserved for a long time (puraoa) 
cures timira (cataract), ptnasa (chronic cold), svdsa (asthma), 
kasa (bronchitis), murcha (fainting), kustha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), visa (poisoning), unmada (insanity), 
daha (burning syndrome), apasmdra (epilepsy), colic pain in 
yoni (female genital tract), ear, eye and head, sotha (oedema), 
gara (a type of poisoning) and fever. It alleviates all the three 
dosas. It is purgative. It cleanses and heals ulcers. 

176 Materia Medic'a 

G^fto manda 

- The upper portion of the ghee is called g/yta marttfa 
according to Susruta. It is un-unctuous, sharp and thin . 


|q^f^T *(%*** 5faT TNR- TT^T II ?=: II ' 

The ghee that is taken out from the cream produced at the 
time of milking the cow is called hayarhgavina. It promotes 
eyesight and the power of digestion. It is digestive stimulant 
and appetiser par excellence. 

*rfa: "pcm" f^refar 5*TSPrft«Rf 3 qcT ll ?5. II 


The ghee which is preserved for ten years is strength 
promoting and aphrodisiac. It specifically cures fever. 

The ghee which is preserved for more than ten years is 
called ajya. It is rejuvenating. 

^r Ti^mjs m: gwrsfa TrirrfsR?*r n r? 11 

^ ft C\ o "\ * 

The ghee which is preserved for one hundred years is 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 1 77 

called kumbha sarpi. It cures the afflictions by rak?as (evil 
spirits). The ghee which is preserved for more than one 
hundred years is called mahaghrta. It is the best among all the 

Depending upon the duration of preservation, the ghee 
becomes progressively more and more useful. 

tft *rr*r f^rsJTT ^ few?'? ^ t^t?^ i 


Ghee is not very useful in raja yaksma (tuberculosis), 
young age, old age, in diseases caused by kapha, in the ama 
stage of diseases, visucika (cholera), constipation, maddtyaya 
(alcoholism), fever and in the suppression of the power of 

II ffcT SH3MT: II 


Thus ends the group dealing with various type of ghee; 


l. ^mffsfesFTtffcr ff<r nwK <rra: i 

^q^flfc cprrerfcrrj; ^f?r arre^cr^i tts: i 

2. WmfcwgT ¥f^T T^?^ TT3: | 

3. freftcq ^T^-?f|rf 5 =srspf T^TtT^ fffT srnr*: TTS*. I 

5. ?TftI I , <+d^f^^l'^ilh!:|i6A+K 5 P'T ffe *ii+^ qrs: i 

178 Materia Medica 

6. 5r**fi«wTrofT lf?r m^rk tts: i 

7. **ff ^fcT ?TFF^ TT5: I 

9. 5ft<t sfcT SRT^: ITS' I 

10. 5 lf%" WPP^ <TTS: I 

11. *T% lf5T etc35?^% TT3: | 

12. ^^T^iTTnra^" ffgr 3Hn^T5fW3TO TTS: I 

1 3. %fr**T ^ TTf% ^% ^33^3% <TTC: I 

14. fcrPTTsrfdssi-M (^w^RPra; ^fcr *rrc3: ttc: i 

15. ^raw ^ft^f^rcT qr*r ^ftr sit^: qrs: 1 

16. ^*ft ^fer "s^g^r^ tts: 1 


'for ^nfrref**-! vi«WTt»r? ^ ?n:sr i 


Oil is astringent in anurasa (subsidiary taste), sweet, 
subtle, hot and vyavayi (which pervades all over the body be- 
fore digestion). It aggravates pitta. It obstructs the proper 
elimination of stool and urine. It does not aggravate kapha. 
By combination and processing it cures all diseases. It is 


^T^^fsarf^SSTf^^^rf^rtfff^r^rpc^ i 


180 Materia Medica 


7Yfo ta'/a (GingiU oil) 

Til oil is useful in excised, incised, dislocated, macerated, 
lacerated, ulcerated, pressed, fractured, Droken, perforated, 
burnt, separated and scraped wounds and injury and eating 
away by wild animals. It is used in the form of seka (sprinkling), 
abhyanga (massage), avagaha (bath), vasti (enema), pana (drink- 
ing through mouth), nasya (inhalation), karnapurana (ear drop) 
and aksipurana (pouring over eyes). It is used in food and 
drinks for the alleviation of vayu. 

Ksauma taila (Linseed oil) 

The oil of k?auma alleviates vayu. It is sweet and a pro- 
moter of strength. It is pungent in vipaka. It is not useful for 
eyes. It is unctuous, hot and pungent. - It aggravates pitta. 

frfrrsjf *n*H #5T spffcsTTf WW II ^ II 

Sdrsapa taila (Mustard oil) 

The oil of sarsapa cures kfmi (parasitic infection), karidu 
(itching) and kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). 
It is light and reduces kapha, medas (fat) and vayu. It is 
lekhana (depleting), pungent and a digestive stimulant. 

6 ' 7~" 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 181 

Eranda taila (Castor oil) 

The oil of eranda is useful in the pain of the heart, 
bladder, sides of the chest, knee joint, thigh, waist, back and 
bone. It is also useful in anaha (flatulence), asthild (hard 
tumour in the abdomen), vatasrk (gout), plihan (splenic disorder) 
uddvarta (tymphanitis), sula (colic pain), diseases caused by 
vdyu, svasa (asthma), granthi (adenitis) and hidhma (hie cup). It 
is strength promoting, heavy, hot, sweet and laxative. 


cftewt^r fqtrw f%sr' T#c*¥t«r3T«r ^pt ii £ h 

The oil of the red variety of eranda is exceedingly sharp 
and hot. It strongly aggravates pitta and is extremely putrid. 

10 11 

Kusumbha taila 

The oil of kusumbha is hot, pungent in ripaka, heavy and 
vidahf (producing burning sensation). It specifically aggra- 
vates all the dosas. 

Kosdmra taila 

The oil of ko'sdmra is laxative. It cures krmi (parasitic 
infection), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and 
vrana (ulcer). 


tf^ra^r^fsrenmrrcsFir ^ n xr ii 


182 Materia Medica 

Taila of Danti etc., 

The oils of danti, mulaka, raksoghna, karahja, arista, 
sigru, suvarcala, ingudi, pllu, samkhini, mpa, heart wood of 
sarala, aguru, devahva and simsapa, tuvara and aruskara are 
sharp, pungent and sour. They alleviate pitta and cure arsas 
(piles), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and 
krmi (parasitic infection). They reduce kapha, semen, fat and 



Of these, the oils of karahja and arista are bitter and they 
are not very hot. The oil of sarala is astringent, bitter and 
pungent and it cleanses ulcer. 


faiwnsfayss^ atfsrftffaW nun 

[«mw5»ny»r: ^pt ?« : \-\\] 

Oils of tuvara and aruskara are exceedingly hot, sharp and 
pungent. They specifically cure krmi (parasitic infection) and 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). They are 
emetic and purgative. 

SR <5*ftfrTG»Tcft#5T" WT<R*r«r%;?jfgrq<T I 

Jyotismati taila 

The oil of jyotismati is laxative. It alleviates vata t kapha 
and headache. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toaardnanda 183 



Ta/Za of .d&jtf etc. 

The oil of aksa, atimukta, aksofa, nalikela, madhuka, 
trapusa, ervdru, kusmanda, tlesmataka and piyala alleviates vayu 
and pitta. It promotes good hair and aggravates kapha. It is 
heavy and cooling. 


[m^^srsEnnir :#5roRf ? : ?v?*J 

Tflf/o of Snparna & Kimsuka 

The oil of sriparria and kimsuka alleviates /wtfa and 
fcap/nz. It is dosaghna (correcting morbid factors) and digestive 
stimulant. It promotes intellect. It is slightly bitter and 

iw f^f-ff q-f^iTr^q^jtr qr% i 
Tteft^^rfrrTrr^ ?rt=r <r*r. n ^ „ 

Ttf/Za of Slesmdtaka etc. 

The oil of slesmataka, aksa, picwnandaka, kdkini, 
kgsmaryaka and haritakl cures premature graying of hair when 
used for inhalation. For this purpose, patients should cons- 
tantly use cow's milk as their food. 


184 Materia Medico 

w^m%T ^m w&m mfafaxt^z it ^ u 

Taila of Yavatikta 

The oil of yavatikta is sweet in vipdka and depleting. It 
alleviates kapha and vata. It K i*-Utti«nctuous and astringent. 
It does not aggravate pitta in excess, 


7fci7a of Sahakara 
The oil of sahakara is bitter, fragrant and an appetiser. 



[ iq t«t wss^tt: ftwwt ? ° : ? £- ^ ? ] 

To/fo of other fruits 

The oil extracted from other fruits which are described 
elsewhere in this text shares the properties of fruits from which 
it is extracted. 

Taila prepared of Sarjarasa 

The oil prepared of sarjarasa cures visphota (pustular 
eruptions), vrana (ulcer), kustha (obstinate skin diseases includ- 
ing leprosy), pcimd (itching), krmi (parasitic infection) and 
diseases caused by vdyu and kapha. 

3RT: 5t^5T sftS^T ift^ *Twr 5R: II T*" II 

Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todardnanda 185 

W* <fo*TOT 5f^T SW«rft*MT*HT: »l RX II 


Vagbhata has stated that the oil shares the properties of 
the source plant from which it is extracted. Following this 
principle, the properties of the remaining types of oil should be 

^raw-3¥<ft =sr f^irFTr^tsfq- cnfew u *% u 

Muscle fat and Bone marrow 

Vasa (muscle fat) and majja (bone marrow) alleviate vata 
and increase strength, pitta as well as kapha. They share the 
properties of the meat of the respective animals. Medas (fat) 
has also similar properties. 

The vasa (muscle fat) of ulluka, sukara, hamsa, kukkufa, 
kumbhira, mahisa, kaka and mrga is the best among their res- 
pective groups. The vasa (muscle fat) ofkaranda is not useful. 

w«rrg *?5sm 5 grfta* 5 ^3^ 11 *«; 11 

The medas (fat) of goat is delicious and that of the ele- 
phant is exceedingly useful. 

jr*rr w?3 5 sfc^^iTT^Grr f%f?rf?5lcT 11 rs.ii 


Both vasa (muscle fat) and majja (bone marrow) are 

186 Materia Medica 

sweet, nourishing, aphrodisiac and strength promoting. The 
potency, viz., hot and cold of vasd and majja should be deter- 
mined on the basis of the nature of the animal from which they 
are collected. 


[TTIsra-^oJTirtrr: ^crrf ^\] 


Boiled ghee loses its potency after one year. But oil 
whether boiled or not maintains its potency for ever and there- 
fore it is better. 

II ^ftr 5Npt»t: 11 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of oils ' 


l. ^f^?^Krer#Tt*rrq^ srcnr ^f?r snwt qrs: i 

5. f^^^R#3rFT^fw^"T'Ssrftgr^Tf5r^TiT 5 fa STrsf^ <TT3: I 

6. sTFTT^sst^rfq-^^ %fa ^T^\ its: I 

7. «*ftftenr^rf%*n^ ^f?r *rra3: qrs: i 

8. 3T^^^3RT?rf?«r3c'Tt>^TlX'iITiT f% 3TFf^ TTS: | 
9- fqrf^^f #<T «TR»t TT5: I 

jo. *r ifir stfj^: tts: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 187 

12* ^ft^^d-T^tq^ sfH 3TFP^ ITS: 1 

13. ^^rfqwcr wfar str^tts: i 

14. cTFfW ?% fsH^qr cT% TVS: I 
15 STK5T ?Pt SIT^t TT^: I 

16. fsfr^ sparrfrsw ^ ^-fa q-re: i 

18. fq^spyTTT %?& fefffag^cr^' TT5: I 

19. «ft"Tifff°Fn5T^t^T^Tr ^fcT STT^ qT3: 1 

20. ^T% ^T% f^^sf^ f% ITFF^ <TT3: I 

21. sfarK' g-pm^q' i*r %xfk ^>*nT*r i% mwk tts: i 

22. rTTf^T ^ ^fcT STT^ 173: I 

23. ^Ffte fefafesicr ?f% srra^: qnrs: i 

24. *Nf ^TpTW^nFrn fftr 3Jr*^. 7T3: I 



^TcP^TfT 5^?TT <ffa f%cr^5[?ir«TT II 3 II 

[ TTTsr^5S2r>TW: T^TWT ? R : ? - 3 ] 

Madya (Alcoholic drinks) 

Alcoholic drink {madya) is a digestive stimulant, 
appetiser, sharp, usna, refreshing, nourishing, sweet, tikta, 
pungent, sour in vipaka and taste, laxative and astringent. It 
promotes good voice, health, intuition (pratibha) and comp- 
lexion. It is light. It is useful for persons who do not get 
sleep and also for persons who get sleep in excess. It vitiates 
pitta and blood. It is useful for both emaciated' and corpulent 
persons. It is un-unctuous and subtle. It cleanes the channels 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 189 

of circulation. It alleviates vayu and kapha. AH the above 
mentioned properties are manifested when alcohol is taken only 
in appropriate dose. Otherwise it works like a poison. 

ssrftre: w*n*mr&i: sTrenftafaf H^P+td-H, uvu 

Asava & Arisfa 

The alcoholic drink prepared of unboiled drugs and 
water is called asava. Arista is prepared of decoctions and the 
dose of both the asava and arisfa is one pala (48 ml approx.)- 

Arisfa is better than as-ava because the former is light 
because of boiling. Their properties are determined on the 
basis of the property of drugs used in their preparation. 


'^rrf^rfe^ft'^Tfefrcf vm grr jt^t i 


The alcoholic drink prepared of the paste of sdli and 
sasfika types of rice is called surd. 



S'z/A-a m heavy. It promotes strength, power of retention 
(stambha), plumpness, medas (fat) and kapha. It is constipative. 
It cures sopha (oedema), gulma (phantom tumour), arsas (piles), 
graham (sprue syndrome) and mutrakfcchra (dysuria). 


3^WT5rrfNfrc£faff?TT «rwft *im n vs i» 


190 Materia Medico 


The alcoholic drink prepared of the paste of punarnavd 
and Soli is called varuni. It is also prepared of the juice of 
tola and kharjura. 

[ifTR5r«PW: tffsnwf ?? : RVV*] 

Vdruni shares the properties of sura. However, it is light 
and it cures pinasa (chronic cold), ddhmdna (flatulence) and 
sula (colic pain). 

srrr^r^cr^sr: sft^Fit Sv&tit srwresr: iis.ii 

Different parts 

The upper portion of surd (which is very thin) is called 
prasannd. The portion below that which is more dense is called 
kddambari. The portion below that is called jagala. The surd 
which is at the bottom of the container is called medaka. 

wfjfter srrd w. ^wt spar. *r snwsr: i 

The fermenting material from where alcohol has been 
taken out is called vakkasa. The material that is used for 
initiating fermentation of alcoholic drinks is called kinvd. If 
kinva is not matured then it is called madhulaka. 


Prasannd cures dndha (flatulence), gulma (phantom 
tumour), arSas (piles), chardi (vomiting), arocaka (anorexia) 
and aggravated vdyu. 

<ft^T^Rf?ffa^^nPTr%?fV II \\ II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 191 


Kadambari type of alcoholic drink is a digestive stimulant. 
It cures anaha (flatulence), pain in the heart and pelvic region 
and colic pain. It is heavy, aphrodisiac, alleviator of vayu and 


Jagala alleviates kapha. It is constipative. It cures dopha 
(oedema), arsas (piles) and graharii (sprue syndrome). It is un- 
unctuous, hot, carminative and strength promoting. It cures 
ksut (morbid hunger), tr§na (morbid thirst) and aruci 


Medaka is sweet, strength promoting, stambhana (which 
increases the power of retention), cooling and heavy. 

8 , 9 


Vakkasa from which alcohol is taken out is constipative 
and it aggravates vayu. 


Kinvaka alleviates vayu. It is not good for heart. It 
is difficult of digestion and heavy. 

192 Materia Medica 

WV&&; zpW.apr' fFPsf f%CH:fc?T|#?TT I 


Madhulaka aggravates kapha. It is unctuous, constipative 
and difficult of digestion. 

TTlteTfa: f?f TSf msfar ^PTfaff ^ cT^T II U II 
Tt^q- wsr fsr w'lw sw^jt; II \% II 

qT^rrrenr^frsff f^wrnT^TTT^TT n ?\3 u 


1 he alcoholic drink prepared of grapes is called mardvika 
or kapisa. ■ It is the best among the alcoholic drinks It is 
unctuous, sweet, laxative, light, appetiser, carminative, 
cardiac tonic and nourishing. It promotes strength and semen. 
It causes amlapitta (acidity in stomach) and aggravation of 
vdyu. It does not cause burning sensation and it alleviates 
kapha. It cures pandu (anemia), ksaya (consumption), meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), arsas (piles) 
and vi§ama jvara (iyegular fever). 

[TTsprsKrjpr: Ttm&v ?^ ; \\] 

Khar jura madya 

"The alcoholic drihk prepared of kharjura is slightly 
inferior in quality in comparison to the mardvika type of 
alcohic drink. It aggravates vayu and is heavy. It is a cardiac 
tonic, astringent, sweet and fragrant. It activates the senses 
(indriya bodhana). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todaranancla 19$ 



Gauda madya 

The alcoholic drink prepared of dhataki, water and guda 
is called by physicians "gauda"'. It promotes the power of 
digestion, complexion and strength. It is refreshing, pungent, 
bitter, nourishing and sweet. It promotes the elimination of 
stool, urine and flatus. 

Mddhuka madya 

1 he alcoholic drink prepared of the flower of madhuka is 
called mddhuka. It aggravates vdyu and pitta. It is un- 

13 14 

15 ° 16 

The alcoholic drink prepared of boiled sugar cane juice 
is called pakvarasa sidhu. If unboiled sugarcane juice is used 
in the preparation, then it is called slta rasa. 

17 18 

18 80 

flfsrrsrirefr — JjfKref: — ^T^WtvTO-^IFr I 

Pakvarasa type of ffcftt/ is the better of the two. It 
promotes good voice, digestive power, strength and complex- 

194 Materia Medica 

ion. It aggravates vayu and pitta. It is a cardiac tonic, unctuous 
and an appetiser. It cures vibandha (constipation), medas 
(adiposity), sopha (oedema), arsas (piles), svasa (asthma), udara 
(obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis) and diseases 
caused by kapha. 

3XH\< ^% W. #cTW: #%TsPT: ^RT: II ^3' II 

iitarasa type of sidku is slightly inferior in quality. It is 
known for its depleting action. 

WTcT^ft^^: <TT% W*V ff^Errr^R-: II ^RY ||' 

[*TT£Rsf5Wir: *!Wr H : ?3] 

Ssrkara type of alcoholic drink is sweet, cardiac tonic 
and digestive stimulant. It cleanses the urinary bladder and 
alleviates vayu. It is sweet in vipaka, appetiser and stimulant 
of senses (indriya bodhana). 

'^t *rscrmw*cfteifr ^fi'to^ra-feT \' 


Madhvasava in c/ie<# (which takes away tissues by cutting) 
and sharp. It cures meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes), pxnasa (chronic rhinitis) and kasa (bronchitis). 

«nftW: ^TFf^TEJfr «r?q-; *raTf|^> ^ || ^ || 


Akfika type of alcoholic drink cures />««<& (anemia). It 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toaardnanda 195 

is a promoter of strength, constipative, light, astringent, sweet 
and cooling. It alleviates pitta and promotes blood formation. 


oHw: afraid Tartar ^farsFfFrewr 11 ?i it' 

Jdmbava & Tauvara 

Jdmbava type of alcoholic drink helps in the prevention of 
excretion (baddha nisyanda). 

Tauvara aggravates vayu. It is sharp, astringent and 
intoxicating. It -cures durnama (piles), aggravated kapha and 
gulma (phantom tumour). 

'fHf^r? yoircf^rFirFr ^wq^rrcrsrR i' 
'^f^rsprcftsRt triTFr a^rifa -=tir<3lri i 



Many other types of alcoholic drinks viz., asavas, ari^fas 
and sidhus are prepared from rhizomes, roots and fruits of 
different plants. Their properties should be determined by an 
expert physician on the basis of the properties of their 
ingredients and the pharmaceutical processes followed in their 

O ^- *\ 

The alcoholic drink prepared from pippali etc., cures 
gulma (phantom tumour) and diseases caused by kapha. 

In a separate section on the "treatment of diseases" 

196 Materia Medica 

aritfas which cure different ailments will be described. 


sq^f f%"f ^T^V j^sf PPfTC «J5 II R5. II 

Fresh and Preserved wines 

Freshly prepared alcoholic drinks are abhisyandi (which 
obstructs channels of circulation). It alleviates all the three 
do§as and is a laxative. It is not a cardiac tonic and is not 
tasteful (yirasa). It causes burning sensation and produces 
putrid smell. It is visada (non-slimy) and heavy. 

The same alcoholic drink, when preserved for a long time 
and used, is relishing. It cures krmi (parasitic infection) and 
aggravation of kapha as well as vayu. It is cardiac tonic, 
fragrant, endowed with good qualities and light. It cleanses 
the channels of circulation. 

Good and bad quality 

The alcoholic drink in which five tastes are manifested, 
which is pure and which is endowed with good smell is of a 
good quality. 

sn^tf firerf| ftffrer fro faftpsf sfpr; \\\\w 

The alcoholic drink which causes burning sensation, 
which is putrid in smell, which is of bad taste, which contains 
krmis (maggots) and which is thick should be rejected. 


<rw% f^^r^rffur fast ^ gr^t **<*: n ^ u 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 197 

Action on different types of individuals 

Alcoholic drink makes a person of sattvika type to sing 
and laugh. In a rajasika type of person it promotes strength. 
In tamasika type of persons it produces despisable acts and they 
get sleep after taking alcoholic drinks. 

f=rfsFTT »rmT ^ fffiy^rcra^ i 


sr^sst m fq%ro mv w\*tfmH*r n 33 11 

Proper method of drinking 

An alcoholic drink, taken according to the prescribed 
procedure, in proper doses, at the proper time, along with 
wholesome food, according to the capacity of the individual 
and in an exhilerating mood produces effects like ambrosia. 

fip§ to Fron%*r znfar^f ?m s^ft i 

[ycmxwvc *r«rFnPT R%: 3^-3=;] 

By nature, an alcoholic drink is like a food. When used 
inappropriately, it causes diseases and in appropriate circumst- 
ances it works like ambrosia. 

5TTWT: STsr*raTRT*f ^^517 fas?c3T3R i 

Food, when taken appropriately, gives life and it takes 
away life when used inappropriately. A poison normally kills 
a person but when taken appropriately it works as a rejuvena- 
ting drug. 

11 sf?r TO^nt. II 
Thus ends the group dealing with alcoholic drinks. 

198 Materia Medica 

J . T*V sf<T STRSFjf^spTf TO: 1 

2. *yu ifir m^ - to: i 

4. sft^inwkgwt^f ^5cr i% sn^: to: i 

5. 3^T5nMqfefa%rT «n^ift *^rr 5% aiwt to: i 

6. Wff ^^rTR^T^^qi- STSfa 3T5*jft f% 5TT^ TO: I 

7. iftw ?T*f SfFT ifa ^^ TO: I 

8. ^^?ft WfFT fScfte"J^% TO: 1 
9- ^T?TW^T: sf?T fecftWi=T% TO: I 

10- fe^frH^TfpFij; iffT ^^3^9% TO: I 
11. ^^^^^frfte> sfcT <TCS3?cr% TO: I 
32. *W*rfacft S% q^3??r% TO: i 

13. 7*ft sftr regai* m: 1 

14. to: ifr arwffsfewi^ TO: I 

15. *r: ?ft^: ^fcT 3TRr^ tts: i 

16. sfttPtfff: ^cf: Sfaf WT^t TO: 1 

17. arTfrfirrFFT: *rs: F^ft ^Rt ^?T 5% arret TO: I 

18. HjffT ^PT ^r? lf?T q - cS3??T% TO: 1 

19. fasF^Si ^f?r mwk to: I 

20. siWte?^T*mH f f?T «TR$ TO: I 
21- SHSTsp: ffcT STT<*T TO: I 

22. fa?P^S*psraT*T: % % *TPP^ TO: I 

23. srefHsT^SgS^ ff?T mt to: I 

24. srrar *nF*rc*i%OT 1% vmek to: i 

25. ?Tf^ ?fcT ^53^% qrs; , 

26. TfelTSS^ lf?T 3TT^ TO: I 

27. *R*T ?TT3[^cf ^*TT ^% 3TRJ^ TO: 1 


Sukta (Vinegar) 

The potion prepared by adding rhizomes, roots and 
fruits along with fat and salt in water (lit. liquid) is called sukta. 

1 2 

SfcT ^m^ "TFi"!T>rfrf*Tj?T *rsr n ? n 

-» w v* ^ 


It produces raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the bod>). It causes chedana (which 
takes away tissues by cutting). It helps in the digestion of 
food. It is purgative and depleting. It cures' pandu (anemia) 
and ki.mi (parasitic infection). It is light, sharp, hot, diuretic, 
cardiac tonic, alleviator of kapha and pungent m vipdka. 


200 Materia Medica 

When prepared by the process of fermentation (asuta), 
it also produces the same effect. It, however, becomes a good 



The potion prepared by fermenting dhanya manda etc., is 
called kafijika. 

[ iTT^sr^T^r: ?r?snT^r't ^ \ ■ \ - r ] 

It is purgative, sharp, hot, appetiser, carminative and 
light. When applied externally, it cures daha (burning 
syndrome) and fever. When taken internally, it alleviates vdyu 
and kapha. 


'gtft<5*B Jpr^f: *rqq- sjwr?^ I! K ll ' 

Tusodaka is prepared by the coarse powder of yava along 
with its husk and some other drugs. 


KYsiift'sof TRvf f^R^if^^f^ u =; n 

It is a digestive stimulant and a cardiac tonic. It cures 
pandu (anemia) and kjmi (parasitic infection). It is sharp, hot 
and carminative. It vitiates pitta and blood and cures pain in 
the urinary bladder, 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 201 

*fafk" 5 TfTPT: cppNf fa^Jjfc fTrTJT I 

8 9 


Sauvira is prepared of dehusked yava — either unboiled or 
boiled. In some places sauvira is also prepared of godhuma. 


s'Hfa^ g^<iW:sFl7sf 5rf% ^Vq^riT I 

[ ^ ] ^r^^Tt^TT^? f**T5fct H «^ *T«I% II c II 

Sauviraka cures graham (sprue syndrome), arias (piles) 
and aggravation of kapha. It is purgative and digestive. It is 
useful in udavarta (flatulence), a/z#a marda (malaise), asthi sula 
(pain in bones) and Snaha (tymphanitis). 



Aranala is prepared of godhuma and it shares all the pro- 
perties of sauviraka. 

12 13 

Dhanyamla is prepared of the powder of salt, kodrava etc. 
It is useful in anorexia and diseases caused by vdyu. It is use- 
ful in asthapana type of enema for all patients. It is satmya 
(wholesome) for persons residing on the sea coast. 


202 Materia Medica 

?rr 5 ?m%xt areefjr xrwfr tffR qx*r i 


The potion prepared by the fermentation of the leaves of 
mulaka is called sdnddki. It is purgative. The sdnddki pre- 
pared of the vataka of mudga etc., is superior in quality. It 
alleviates vdyu. It is light, appetiser and carminative par 
excellence. It cures sula (colic pain), ajiriia (indigestion), 
vibandha (constipation) and ama. It cleanses the urinary 



stm^^t' ^ faSHwtTiwra^ u \\ ii' 

['mr^?piw: ^rfs^r^cnf ? 3 : ? ? ] 

Special preparation of Kanjika 

The potion prepared of kanjika mixed with drdraka and 
salt is carminative, digestive stimulant and light. It alleviates 
vdyu and A-op/ra. It is an appetiser. It specifically alleviates 
amavdta (rheumatism). 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of 


l. ^tw ^fcr sn^r «rrs: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 203 

4. gf^rerecT: ^h fs?fVT5?cf% <tts: i 

5. spTf^spfJ T'*q% ifar ?rr^: qrc: i 

9. %f%f f^Pf ^ffT 5RTT^T <TT3: I 

10. fft^fVT" wf?r stfp^: tts: t 

13. ■*t%cr ^% «n+1 TT5: i 

14. *TW^*s©«!'sNl% ^f?T ^^S5^?T% TTS: 1 

15. ^nfs^^Tsf* ^f?T f^cfV^^ TTS: 1 

16. ^fa^fr ^ «TC53*<t% ra: 


Mutra (Urine) 


The urine of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo, elephant, horse, 
camel and donkey is commonly used in medicine. 

Tr?iTT5f%fW^^WfC5TOf% ; 3I% :: ^W II ^ II 

General Property 

Urine aggravates pitta. It is sharp, un-unctuous, hot, 
saline in anurasa (subsidiary taste) and pungent. It cures krmi 
(parasitic infection), sopha (oedema), udara (obstinate abdo- 
minal diseases including ascitis), anaha (flatulence), sula (colic 
pain), aggravation of kapha as well as vayu, gulma (phantom 
tumour), aruci (anorexia), visa (poisoning), svitra (leucoderma) 
and kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). It is 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 205 


Cow's urine 

Cow's urine is light, sharp, hot and alkaline. Therefore, 
it does not aggravate vayu. It is light, digestive stimulant, 
promoter of intellect, aggravator of pitta and alleviator of 
kapha as well as vayu. 



«\ « C\ "V 

In diseases which are amenable to urine like Mia (colic 
pain), gutma (phantom tumour), udara (obstinate abdominal 
diseases including ascitis) and anaha (flatulence) and for the 
purpose of purgation therapy and asthdpana therapy cow's 
urine should be used. 


bht ^sfrraraesp fnsitapnf^rns^ u * it 

Goat's urine 

The urine of goat cures kasa (bronchitis), Svasa (asthma), 
sopha (oedema), kamala (jaundice) and pdndu (anemia). It is 
ununctuous, hot and pungent. It also cures nddivrana (sinus) 
and visa (poisoning). 


Sheep's urine 

The urine of sheep cures plihan (splenic disorder), udara 
(obstinate abdominal disorders including ascitis), Svasa 

206 Materia Medica 

(asthma), kasa (bronchitis), sopha (oedema) and varcograha 
(retention of stool). It is alkaline, bitter, pungent and hot. It 
alleviates vayu. 



Buffalo's urine 

The urine of buffalo is useful in durnama (piles), udara 
(obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), sula (colic 
pain), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), viiuddhi (eli- 
mination therapy), aiidha (tymphanitis), sotha (oedema), gulma 
(phantom tumour) and pdpdu (anemia). 

Elephant's urine 

The urine of elephant is bitter, saline and purgative. It 
alleviates vayu and aggravates pitta. It is sharp and alkaline. 
It is useful in kilasa (a type of leucoderma). 


ifcft ^e ^tetrftruf ^TfR-^frf^ ^RgcT II 5 II 
11 12 13 

Urine of Horse 

The urine of horse is a digestive stimulant, pungent, 
sharp and hot. It cures diseases caused by aggravation of vayu 
and of the mind. It alleviates kapha and cures kr mi (parasitic - 
infection) and dadru (ring worm). 

Camel's urine 

The urine of camel cures kustha obstinate skin 

Ayurveda Saukhyarit of Todarananda 20? 

diseases including leprosy), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases 
including ascitis), immada (insanity), arsas (piles) and krmi 
(parasitic infection). It alleviates vayu. 

Urine of donkey 

The urine of donkey cures gara (poisoning) and 
cetovikara (mental disease). It is sharp. It cures jafhara (obsti- 
nate abdominal diseases including ascitis). It is a digestive 
stimulant. It also cures krmi (parasitic infection). It alleviates 
vayu and kapha. 

15 16 


The stool of these animals is astringent and bitter. It 
alleviates hikka (hiccup), svasa (asthma), vitiation of pitta and 
blood and krmi (parasitic infection). It is appetiser and it 
alleviates kapha and vayu. 

Human urine 

The urine of human beings cures gara (poisoning). It is 
rejuvenating. It alleviates vitiation of blood and pama (itching). 
It is sharp, alkaline and saline. 



208 Materia Medica 

Male and Female urine 

The urine of females of cattle, goat,* sheep and buffalo is 
more useful On the other hand, the urine of the males of 
donkey, camel, elephant, human being and horse is known to 
be useful. 

?^!*sr*ftTfc*TO^w^ *r?ft T5r: i 

In classics like Caraka, this distinction between male and 
female urine has not been made. Therefore, in actual practice 
urine of either the male or female animal can be used. How- 
ever, the urine of female animal is more useful. 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of urine. 


i. 'ftsrrf^rafatfi inn i'^^«pRt^nr^ sftr vmK its: i 

2. WS f% mwt TT5: I 

7. C5ft^5<jwm + i^n«r^hi| f% irr^: to: i 

8 fj*5%f fwfej ff% ?TT^ TT3: I 

10. ^mfr^rfw^K^r fftr mwk tts: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 209 

12. -m ^fcT m*k TTS: l 

13. frfTT^f^rrsFnr; ffa- tcs<i^% qrs: i 

14. ^T^TfTf^TqrfiT ff?T mwk TT5: J 

15. f^«nWW5T" ¥fcT 3TT^" 1*5: i 

16. ?rfrcr ^% fecfta'i*^ tts: i 

17- T>s^rsf%^r^«!i ^% *rr^ <TT5: i 
18. **r?r*r ?f% w^ qrs. r 


'<trW sr^rspf ?*w%x.' ^asfflrmn? ^?t i 


3ftcf ^ ^^cflM ? T^riTFrt ^frr^if wf%f ^r n ^ u 

General properties 

Water removes physical and mental fatigue, murcha 
(fainting), thirst, tandra (drowsiness) and svapna (sleep). It 
promotes strength. It is life giving, refreshing and caradiac 
tonic. It has unmanifested tastes. It cures indigestion. It is 
wholesome par excellence. It is cooling, light and like ambrosia. 
It helps in the manifestation of all tastes. It cures chardi 

"TFfte jr*pr sffai f*«i *frfrfir% fesrr i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 21 1 


Water is first classified into two categories viz., divya 
(which falls from the sky) and bhauma (which is available on 
the earth). 

f^an* f^rOr^^r sftspf ?t<ft ^ u 3 11 

The former type of water has no manifested taste. It is 
life-giving, refreshing, light and rejuvenating. It cures tffd 
(morbid thirst), murchd (fainting), tandra (drowsiness), daha 
(burning syndrome) and klama (mental fatigue). It is saumya 
(cooling) and carminative. It promotes strength and cures mada 
(intoxication), nidrd (excessive sleep) and vitiation of all the 
three do§as. It gives consolation and happiness. It removes 
physical fatigue and promotes intellect. 

*rcrm wrwTanw afar* 1**%* w 11 x 11 


Classification of divya type of water 

Divya type of water is of four types viz., dhdraja, 
karakdjdta, tausdra and haima. Of them, dhdrdja is the best. 

q-facf *m ^m^rcrercfaffT ^rfacPT 11 ^ 11 

ImfSTTT'f ^f fR'T f%^f TR^T II V3 II 

s 4 

*r*t ?n^i%ffsf TH?r[5r]f5r [*r]gf% 1 

212 Materia Medica 

Dharaja water 

The water that falls from the sky is called dharaja. It 
should be collected on a clean roof made of stones or through 
a piece of cloth and collected in vessels of gold and stone. It 
should be used before it gets spoiled. The rain water which is 
collected before it falls on the earth is called divya. Dhara type 
of divya water alleviates vayu, pitta and kapha and it is light. 

srrc' ^Tft fssrr sfjf *ri*rcrwsrt^: i 


The dhara type of water is of two type viz., ganga (which 
is derived from the river (?) Ganges and samudra (which is 
derived from the sea). 


'mwrvmm w^ ztvmvzm fe**m: iis.ii 

According to the saints, diggajas (elephant guiding differ- 
ent directions as described in the epic) collect water from 
akdsa ganga (the ganga river in the sky as described in the 
epic) and release it on the earth in the form of rain through the 

7 8 

The ganga water which rains from the clouds in the 
month of alvina (September-October) is always useful for 
drinking. This is described in Caraka sarhhitd. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 213 

If this ganga type of water is collected in a vessel of gold, 
silver or stone and salt rice is kept in it soaked then this rice 
does not deteriorate (aklcdi) and it retains its colour for a long 
time. This is the characteristic feature of ganga type of water. 
In sdmudra type of water this Mi rice deteriorates. 


The samudra type of water which rains in the month of 
asvina (September-October) shares all the properties of the 
ganga type of water. 

'^r^Rf^TWT^T ^TPTFTf szft^T^JTW II ^ II 


5nTT## JT^p^cT flf* ^rPrsp-rffj JT=T II ?V II 

frfNretrnr wstqt %fe?TT 7f^f%?r*r i 
Poisonous Water 

The nagas (snakes as described in the epic) moving in the 
sky emit (phutkara) poisonous air which impregnates the rain 
water and such rain falls take place from clouds unseasonally 
i.e. during months other than asvina (Se ptember and October). 
This type of water aggravates all the three dosas in living 



Karakajata (Water from hail stone) 

The divya type of water gets condensed because of the 
impact of wind and heat (agtii) and falls from the sky in the 
form of pieces of stone. This is called karakajata water which 
i? like ambrosia- 

214 Materia Medica 


This type of water is un-unctuous, non slimy (yisada), 
heavy and sthira (stable). It is penetrating (darana), cooling and 
dense. It alleviates pitta and aggravates kapha as well as vdta. 

16 17 18 

19 20 

spr^n srrfiRt srrzft w^iirr 3 ?tt f^crr: u\*\\ 

Tausara (Water from dew & frost) 

The water on the sea coast gets impregnated with heat 
(vahni). It is free from portions of smoke and is called tusdra. 
It is generally unwholesome for living creatures but it is useful 
for plants. 



Tausara types of water aggravates voyu. It is cooling, 
un-unctuous and dense. It does not aggravate pitta. It cures " 
ailments like aggravation of kapha, urustambha ,(a disease 
characterised by immobility of thigh), kusfha (obstinate skin 
diseases including leprosy), agni (digestive power), medas 
(adiposity) and garida (goitre). 

Haima (Water from snow) 

When the snow (himd) collected on the top of hills melts 
and this water comes through rain fall, it is called haima water, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 215 


This water is heavier and cooling. It alleviates pitta and 
aggravates vdyu. 


c\ « v r "n 

4«MT'ftrm^HHri' ^fesrfiTfrT 3?tef?f ^frfa: 1 1 ? ? 1 1 

Another view 

The sea water being impelled by heat (aaala) and smoke 
gets condensed (solidified). It is carried by the wind to the 
north which is called hima (snow) by sages. 


This snow (hima) water is cooling, ununctuous, darana 
(which causes excission) and subtle. It does not vitiate either 
kapha or pitta or vdyu. 


Thus, there are two types of haima water. 

3TST ?lW 3FT srsq 1 JT«IT ^TTirT^fTW II R3 II 

Bhauma (Water on earth) 

Depending upon the attributes of the land, the bhauma 

216 Materia Medica 

type of water is first classified into three types viz., anupa, 
jangala and sadharana. 

srf^Tcr^^fsrcm ffcr ¥tf%<r: it R* n 

sr5q*tef?: **c«PJ«r: STPr: ft r) 1^1 ITT: I 

fat*ft ^rrs^reft ^mn^f sn-errrT: <tt: i i ^ \ 1 1 

The area which contains a lot of water, which is surroun- 
ded by many trees and where many diseases caused by vayu 
and kapha are manifested is called anupa (marshy land). The 
land which has less of water and fewer trees and where diseases 
of pitta and blood occur is called jangala (arid land). The land 
which is in between these two categories is called sadharana 
(moderate land). 

Cv *v C\ > A »\ 

The water found in marshy areas is called anupa, that of 
arid areas is called jangala and that of the moderate type of 
land is called sadharana. 

'3TFTT Wpffrsiff;^ *WTffcTTsf rT^T *T^ I 

'*rmrcw g t^t" str? srtavf spt i 

31 * 

mw sftf%5R«fT <rOTrrsf ^Tf^tq-^ II R£. ||' 


The anupa type of wafer reduces the power of digestion 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 217 

and aggravates kapha. It is despisable. It causes many dis- 
eases. The jangala ty^ of water has properties which are just 
opposite to anupa type. The sadharana type of water is sweet, 
digestive stimulant, cooling, light and refreshing. It producess 
the feeling of comfort and cures trsfid (morbid thirst) and daha 
(burning syndrome). 

Another Classification 

The bhauma type of water is also classified in a different 
way like nadeya (which is derived from nadi or river) etc. 
Their characteristics and properties will now be described. 

River Water 

The water of a nadi (small river) or nada (big river) is 
called nadeya. 


This is ununctuous, aggravator of. vdyu, light, digestive 
stimulant, anabhisyandi (which does not obstruct the channels of 
circulation), visada (non-slimy) and pungent. It alleviates 
kapha and pitta. 

All rivers which have a strong flow carry pure water. The 
water of the river which flows very slowly, is heavy. It is cove- 
red with moss etc. and its water is not pure. 

218 Materia Medica 

35% IJiTO^r *WT* ^m^ai OT^cf || 33 || 

Other Varieties 

The good and bad qualities of the water of rivers, lakes, 
ponds, wells and springs should be determined on the basis of 
the attributes of the land in which they are situated. 


Audbhida (Water coming out from earth) 

The water which comes out in a strong current by penet- 
rating the low lying land is called audbhida by ancient 

The audbhida type of water alleviates pitta. It does not 
produce burning sensation. It is exceedingly cold, refreshing, 
sweet and strength promoting. It is a mild aggravator of vayu 
and is light. 


?TFT srcrctT =5(Tfq" cT35TW #?frr T#cT II \\ II 

Nirjhara (Water from Spring) 

The water that flows from the peak of the mountain is 
called nirjhara. The water of the spring that is found in the 
peak is also called nirjhara. 


The water of nirjhara is appetiser, alleviator of kapha, 
digestive stimulant, light, sweet in taste and pungent in vipaka. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda ,219 

It aggravates vayu and excessively aggravates pitta. 

Sdrasa (Water of pond) 

The water that flows down from the big mountain and 
gets accumulated in the valley is called sdrasa. It is covered with 
kumuda and padma. 


The sdrasa type of water is strength promoting, alleviator 
of trsnd (morbid thirst), sweet, light, astringent, appetiser and 
un-unctuous. It causes retention of urine and stool. It is 

areq wz: 15W*!" Pim 5rfeFT*t' vwt i 

Pdlvala (Water of small pond) 

A small pond is called pahala. During the southern 
solstice when the sun moves towards a southernly direction, 
these small ponds get dried. The water of these small ponds is 
called pdlvala. 

This water is abhisyandi (which obstructs the chennels of 
circulation), heavy and sweet. It aggravates all the three dosas. 

srer?cnrf*rffrosr #frsrecsmfq-?nT i 

TfHffT: few cTrfrsf frrmfafrr ^rfffcfT II V% 11 

220 Materia Medica 

Tadaga (Water from lake) 

The water that gets accumulated for many years in a plain 
land is called tadaga by the sages. 


The water of tadaga is sweet and astringent in taste and 
pungent in vipdka. It aggravates vayu. It causes retention of 
stool and urine. It alleviates vitiation of blood, pitta and kapha. 

forenfcfrrcsrafr w. *nfr«r? ^nfT^i^fir i 

S» S3 

Caunda water 

The receptacle of water dug in the earth of the size of a 
vapi (big well) which has no boundary wall of stone and which 
has a staircase to go down is called cunda. Its water is 
called caunda. 


TSR: fa^sT^ Tr*pf fWf TcTT II ~*V II 

This water stimulates digestion. It is ununctuous, 
alleviator of kapha, light, sweet, alleviator of pitta, appetiser, 
carminative and visada (non slimy). 

F<zpF water 

The water reservoir which is like a well, which has a 
boundary wall of stone or brick and which has a staircase to 
go down, is called vapi. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 221 

?r^r qfe fa-s^ pjtttt^t PiTrrf^TFr^r n vs n 

The water of the vapl is alkaline. It aggravates pitta and 
alleviates vayu as well as kapha. If this water is sweet in taste 
then it alleviates pitta and vayu. 

^fft ^tcfrs?qrf^5Rrrft nr«Jk "it 1^*1^1 i 

m Kupa water 

The water reservoir prepared by digging earth which has 
no wide opening but which is very deep and which has a 
boundary wall of bricks is called kupa (well). 

If the water of this, well is sweet m taste, then it alleviates 
all the three dosas. It is wholesome and light. If the taste of 
this water is alkaline, then it alleviates kapha and vayu. It is a 
digestive stimulant and it aggravates pitta. 

Vikira water 

The water that is taken out by digging small hole in 
the sandy river bed is called vikira. 

ftfrpc mtm ^=515 fasfa ^ ^r ^aw i 

This water is cooling, pure, free from defects and light. 

222 Materia Medica 

If it is either astringent or sweet then it alleviates pitta. If it is 
alkaline then it slightly aggravates pitta. 

42 43 

Kedara water 

Keddra means a field. The water of the field is called 

This water is abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels of 
circulation), sweet and heavy. It aggravates dosas. 


Rain water 

The rain water which is collected from the ground on the 
same day is unwholesome. If it remains on the ground for 
three nights then it becomes clear and acts like ambrosia. 

45 46 



ht^q ^xfx ^fkq ar?r-ar?ft'^rsrW*4':' ti xy n 


Ayurveda Saukhyarhof Todardnanda 223 

Water in different seasons 

In the hematite (early winter) and sisira (later part of 
winter) seasons the water of saras (big pond) and tad&ga (small 
pond) is useful. In spring and summer the water of a well, 
vdpi (big well) and mrjhara (spring) is useful. In the spring and 
summer seasons, river water should not be used because it gets 
polluted by poisonous leaves, flowers etc., and also by the 
polluted springs. During the rainy season, audbhida type of 
water (that comes out by piercing the earth) and the water that 
is collected directly from the sky (antariksd) is useful. During 
autumn, river water and amsudaka (described below) are useful. 


w^f TsnraFf %^r sffa &\ gerTsnrsr it kw u 


The water which is exposed to the sun's rays during the 
day time and the moon's rays during the night time is called 

It is unctuous. It alleviates all the dosas. It is 
anabhisyandi (which does not obstruct the channels of circu- 
lation) and free from defects. It is like dntariksa jala (water 
collected directly from the sky). It is strength promoting, 
rejuvenating, intellect promoting, cold and light. It is like 



Another view 

The clean water of autumn which is impregnated with the 
rays of agastya (star canopus) is always useful. 

224 Materia Medica 

<ffa wife ffffarsf *rrt ?rer swronspr i 

•a -\ 

53 54 



iflfnf =pfa to: «jre?RTft^ ^Vs^w ^ i 


^Tf%% ttw*<? =? TsftTT^' spsn=q% ii ^o n 

Water in different months according to Vrddha Susruta 

In the month of pausa (December- January) the water of 
saras (big pond) is useful. In the month of magha (January- 
February) the water of taddga (small pond) is useful. In 
phalguna (February — March) well water is useful. In caitra 
(March —April) the water of caundya (a big well without a 
boundary wall) is useful. In vaisakha (April — May) spring 
water is useful. In jyestha (May — June) audbhida (the water 
that comes out penetrating the earth) is useful. Well-water is 
useful in asadha (June — July) and the water collected directly 
from the sky (divya) is useful in sravaria (July — August). In 
bhadrapada (August — September) well-water is useful and in 
asvina (September — October) the water of cunda (big well with- 
out any border wall) is useful. In kartika (October — November) 
and mdrgasir$a (November — December) all types of water are 

58 59 

3ft?n?f ftpf*rc# "* *M-kM TTt Tirr: II ^? II 

Time of Collection 

All types of water available on the ground should be 
collected in the early morning because during this time they are 
extremely cold and clean. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 225 


Mode of intake 

Taking water in excess or not taking any water — both 
affect the process of digestion of food. Therefore, with a view 
to promoting the power of digestion, a person should take 
water in small quantities very frequently. 

[irrsrcfSoZFiTur: sftacrq- i% : ^?] 
Candrakdnta water 

The water collected by moon stone (candrakanta) is un- 
unctuous. It cures visa (poisoning), aggravation of pitta and 
jvara (fever). 


The water of the sea is visra (foul smelling) and saline. It 
aggravates all the dosas. 


5T?r: qTqTOfaf^^frr^^>S33T: I 


irsrsrmsRf *rppr diHIHWfts^TPT*? II ^v II 
River water 

The rivers which pass in a strong current through stones 
and those whose source is in the Malaya mountain — their water 
is like ambrosia. 

trnK'HiPTffirT ^n^r q«rre3T fM*fte*r: i 


smft ^r^T <rrs*ff vm q^nprr. n \%. w 

226 Materia Medica 


qrfw^sreT Tffwz f^r«jRrir*RT^ tt: i 

The rivers which flow towards the west generally carry 
clean water. Those flowing towards the sea of the east are 
generally of slow current and their water is heavy. Rivers 
originating from Parijatra, Vindhya and Sahya mountains carry 
water which causes §iraroga (diseases of head), hrdroga (diseases 
of heart), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) 
and sllpada (filariasis). 

66 67 

q^cftofr srgTfT *r*r fhre^r ^ ii *& n 

[ msressiFTw. eft^M' ? K ? g-r 3 ] 

The water at the top of a mountain which is exposed to 
the rays of the sun and the moon, and strong currents of wind 
is like ambrosia (lit. suitable for Indra). 

^rqiffcSR^ts' zpvjF fsrqTfacfjr u ^ ii 
jfrs^TT|^ ^erfg fqrtsifT ?ra- ^rs^r i 

Polluted water 

The water which is mixed with the urine, stool, egg or 
embryo of insects, grass, leaves and poisons, and which is 
freshly collected on the ground should not be used either for 
a bath or for drinking. By doing so, the person falls a victim 
to a number of diseases — both external and internal. There is 
no doubt about it. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Tofarananda 111 

^ snt fef<^s:% ?m% twzlX: cr«rr i 

Cold water 

Cold water is useful in mureha (fainting), vitiation of pitta, 
usmd (excessive hot feeling), daha (burning syndrome), vi?a 
(poisoning), vitiation of blood, madatyaya (alcoholism), bhrama 
(giddiness), srama (physical fatigue), after digestion of food, in 
tamaka (asthma), vami (vomiting) and in urdhvaga rakta pitta 
(bleeding through various orifices in the head). 

ww* srfireq'TJr ?T^xft irrtI i 



Cold water should not be used in pdriva Mia (pain in the 
sides of the chest), pratisyaya (cold), disea^ses of vayu, gala graha 
(obstruction in the throat), adhmdna (flatulence), stimita kotfha 
(absence of peristaltic movement in the intestine), sadya duddhi 
(immediately after the purification therapy), nam para 
(beginning stage of fever), aruei (anorexia), grahatfi (sprue 
syndrome), gulma (phantom tumour), svdsa (asthma), kasa 
(bronchitis), vidradhi (abscess), hikka (hiccup) and snehapana 
(immediately after oleation therapy). 



In arocaka (anorexia), pratiSyaya (cold), praseka (saliva- 

228 Materia Medica 

tion), svayathu (oedema), ksaya (consumption), agnimandya 
(indigestion), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including 
ascitis), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), para 
(fever), netramaya (eye disease), vrana (ulcer) and madhumeha 
(diabetes mellitus) one should take less quantity of water. 

75 76 

[*H'4M+l*r: 3rfr3PT ?3 : vao-^Y] 

77 78 

3TcT: *prf?«PnFTR| T wPreTfr IT^ II U* ll' 

Water is the life of all living creatures and the entire 
world is pervaded by water. Therefore, when a person is extre- 
mely thirsty then giving water is not prohibited. If water is 
not given, then the thirsty person becomes unconscious and 
succumbs to death. Therefore in all circumstances water is 
never prohibited. 

78 80 

'q&ffVBFWT f#T f%:>Wf fr*fvf 1%cT l' 

Boiled water 

The water which is boiled and when the boiling is over 
and the foam subsides, it is cleaned, then it alleviates all the 
do§as. It is digestive stimulant, carminative and light. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 229 

When it is reduced to three-fourth after boiling, it 
alleviates vdyu. When it is reduced to half by boiling, it 
alleviates pitta. When it is reduced to one-fourth after boiling, 
it alleviates kapha and it becomes constipative, digestive 
stimulant and light. 


[WTsrarsnRT'T'ir: <fftr<pt U : v?] 


Hot water 

The water which is reduced to half after boiling and 
which is hot is called usnodaka. This hot water is always whole- 
some and it cures svdsa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis), para (fever), 
aggravation of kapha and vdyu, dma and aggravation of pitta. 
It cleanses the urinary bladder and gets detached the adhered 
kapha. It helps in the elimination of vdyu. When hot water 
is taken at night, it removes indigestion. 

"TR^Ttf 5 cTrftef SN<VUIM ^^ I 

y Oft V* % * 


When the water is boiled and reduced to one-fourth, it is 
called drogydriibu (healthy water). It is always wholesome. It 
cures svdsa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis) and aggravation of 
kapha. It instantaneously reduces fever. It is purgative, digestive 

230 Materia Medico 

stimulant, carminative and light. It cures anaha (flatulence), 
paniu (anemia), sula (colic pain), arsas (piles), gulma (phantom 
tumour), sotha (oedema) and udara (obstinate abdominal 
diseases including ascitis). 


•4, "~ ^ ** 


When the arogyambu is hot, it stimulates digestive power. 
It is extremely light. It cleanses the urinary bladder. It cures 
parsvaruk (pain in the sides of the chest), adhmana (flatulence), 
hikka (hiccup) and aggravation of vayu and kapha. It is useful 
in tr§a (morbid thirst), ama, Mia (colic pain), asuddhi (when 
the purificatory therapy has not acted properly) and nova jvara 
(beginning stage of fever). 

^ra^RfTTTT^F — ^^TSrfeq'Tfa'J U ^ II 

c. •& 


[«nsr?rcwr»rwr: *?&m% ?k : 33-3^ J 

When the arogyambu becomes cold, it is called srta sita. 
This cold water is useful in daha (burning syndrome), atisara 
(diarrhoea), vitiation of pitta and blood, murccha (fainting), 
madya (alcoholism), visa (poisoning), diseases caused by kapha 
and vayu, tr?na (morbid thirst), chardi (vomiting), bhrama 
(giddiness), diseases caused by excessive intake of alcohol, 
excessive vitiation of pitta and sannipata (when all the three 
dosas are vitiated simultaneously). 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 231 

The boiled water which is cooled along with its steam 
alleviates all the three dosas. It is not un-unctuous and it 
does not obstruct the channels of circulation. It cures krmi 
(parasitic infection), trf (morbid thirst) and jvara (fever). It is 


When the boiled water is cooled by pouring over another 
container, it becomes constipative and difficult of digestion 
because during this process the water conies in contact with a 
lot of air. 

'fe3T*pf 5 irerW Tprt ere *iw ?nr<r i 


[m^^srsT'TW: ?frirw# ?* : yy] 

If the water is boiled during the day time and kept over- 
night, it becomes heavy. Similarly, if water is boiled at night 
and kept till the day time, then it becomes heavy. 

TFfnf T n ^Fffa TFTV^JTST^rsr I 

srsfW ^facf ^n% t^ ^ft^ ^ ^"fFfT ii <5\s u 

Water of another place should not be taken when there 
is indigestion and formation of ama. It should be taken only 
when it is properly boiled and not otherwise. 


T-tRfT^fTq-FrTW ?rTfe%^-^ tk i 

Coconut water 

The water of tender coconuts is unctuous, delicious, cool- 
ing, cardiac tonic and digestive stimulant. It cleanses the 
urinary bladder and cures raktapitta (a disease characterised 
by bleeding from different parts of the body) and pipasd 

232 Materia Medica 

(morbid thirst). It is heavy. 

The water of the matured coconut causes wind formation 
in stomach. It is heavy and it aggravates pitta. 

Time of taking water 

Water taken before eating food causes kasa (bronchitis) 
and agnimandya (suppression of the power of digestion). When 
it is taken during the process of eating, it stimulates the power 
of digestion. If, however, it is taken after the completion of 
the process of eating, then it causes sthaulya (adiposity). 

snjcf ^frsprr^f 5 tft^Rfafr <rf5*nr u 5.0 11 

If there is indigestion water works as a medicine. When 
there is proper digestion, intake of water promotes strength. 
When taken in the middle of a meal it works like ambrosia and 
when taken after a meal, water works like a poison. 


cJFnrTfr ^flff^WTTq- *rjf tffsrffT ftt^fc ll€.?ll" 

If water is taken in excess or if water is not taken at all, 
then it hampers the process of digestion. Therefore with a 
view to promoting the power of digestion, a person should take 
small quantities of water very frequently. 

3TW 5qr<T~f [ctcT] ff Sl^PT II ^ U 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 233 

Water pollution 

Polluted water should not be used. 


The signs and symptoms of polluted water are as below : 

The water which is mixed with mud, moss, grass, lotus 
leaf etc., which is not exposed to the rays of the sun and the 
moon and wind and which has manifested smell, colour and 
taste, is called polluted. 

sFTfcfcr ^TfSrsprrfq 5r«r*f ?r^ wfjrrir t 

The water collected of unseasonal rain or the water col- 
lected from the ground immediately after rain is also polluted. 
It aggravates all the dosas. 


Polluted water has defects of touch, colour, taste, smell, 
virya (potency) and vipaka (taste after digestion). 

Roughness, sliminess, heat and sticking to teeth — these are 
the defects in touch. The appearance of mud, sand and moss, 
and variegated colour are the defects in colour. 


234 Materia Medica 

Manifestation of taste is the defect in taste. 

The presence of a foul smell is the defect in smell. 

When water is taken, if it gets digested after a long time 
and if it produces thirst, heaviness, colic pain and slivation, then, 
these are the defects in potency. 

If water gets digested very late and causes fermen- 
tation of the food, then it should be determined that the water 
has the defect of vipdka. 

A person who takes defective water succumbs to many 

ffc?r sp^ir 5r€KTTfa?rcf%— ^^Jrefaw- 

f?2r#3T^T<ra*WTfw HrfimftT^fcT II 


f^r^r^rT^f %f% it £^ u 

[qxjr. x*r v* : ??, ?», U] 

Water pollution can be corrected by seven items, viz., 
(1) kataka, (2) gomeda, (3) visa granthi, (4) saivala mula, (5) 
vastra (cloth), (6) mukta (pearl) and (7) mani (jewel). 

For cooling the water, the container should be kept in 
an airy place, water should be cooled over the container, the 
water should be stirred with the help of a stick, it should be 
fanned, the container should be covered with a piece of cloth, 
sand should be poured over water and the container should be 
kept hanging on a Hkya. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 235 

"TTCTg-iTtf tffsfsf jftzif sp-fe sp^ |' 

Boiling in different seasons 

During summer and autumn seasons, water which is 
boiled and reduced to one-fourth is useful. During the remain- 
ing seasons, viz., hemanta (early winter), MMra (later part of 
winter), rainy season and spring season, water boiled and 
reduced to half is useful. 

^■ergr : 


»ri?r*TFrp#sr *tffi?*f ^^f3W *Fm II £*; t! 

Another view 

During the rainy season, autumn, hemanta (early winter), 
sisira (later part of winter), spring and summer, water to be 
used should be boiled and reduced to 6/8 (yasu), 5/8 (vdrta\ 
4/8 (veda), 3/8 (tri), 2/8 (paksa) and 1/8 (ekabhaga) respectively. 

argr *rqT $Wim ff^m rWt ?T*rr sq-cr^T 3F?q#qr II S.S. II 

In this context, however; the exact nature of processing 
should be determined on the basis of the diminution and aggra- 
vation of the dosas. 

am fa«rf «ftawrfa : 

arnsPTfa tt?Ti3t wzfati ?panrfq<PT i 

^aruf T5PT *ftf[ imm fw%.m sp?*? II ?°o II 

♦ 97 

98 99 

236 Materia Medica 

Removal of pollution 

For the removal of pollution, the boiled water should be 
exposed to the sun's rays and in this water hot pieces of gold, 
silver, iron, stone, sand or clod of earth should be immersed 
seven times. To this water fragrant things like karpura, jdtf, 
punnaga, patald etc. should be added. This should then be 
filtered with the help of a clean and compact piece of cloth. 
It should be protected from small insects. In the vessel con- 
taining this clean water, kataka, pearl etc. should be added. 
This process corrects pollution. 

arnf sref sftzrfo q-prinsr crs^rpf * j,d*tiW ^ i 

Time taken for digestion 

Unboiled water gets digested in one yama (three hours). 
The water which is boiled and cooled takes one and a half 
hours for digestion. The water which is boiled and warm gets 
digested in forty five minutes. These are the three different 
times for digestion of water. 

II *f?r sfTfeff : II 

Thus end the groups dealing with different types of 


1. 55£3iR[ qT^5R>T¥: mfvtft 13:21 

2. ^RJ«rf X% fsTcffa3*cT% «ns: I 
3- JTFTcTfFT 5% fStft5T35Fcl% TT5: I 

Ayurveda Saukhyaih of TodarSnanda 237 

7. ^«rr sPr stfp^" ire. i 

8. ?T^W iPr STPF^ "ITS: I 

9. S«TTfo% f % STT^ <TT5: i 

10. SGH-s^nr m^srspw: ^nrf^nt 13 : 14 i 

11. feoZRTOTTf^f f^TT ffrT mwk <TT5: I 

12. f<o<4 4 1 ac< frr ?f 3ftTTc*f £?TT: ^f?r stfk* 7T5: t 

13. qrmw^'j^^FFFTT: ff?r arre^; tts: i 

14. ^^^FT^f 1% ^T^: <TT3: I 

15. crrcif ^f?r srre3: <tts: i 

16. srt> JTeiT: f f?r srr^ ^rrs: » 

17. ^%TT7f?T§5^^T: 1% STC^ <TT5: t 

18. TFT^TiT^^T: 3f?T ffyfta" |?RT% TT5: ! 

19. STT: fffT STT^: TTS: I 
20 JTJTT: ^frf STT^r tjra: ( 

21. ^qiTT*! fesf ^sft ?irT^Tfr^f7TT5f5Fr ^ mwt <rrs: t 

22. ^^^^^^srf^r^ir'i^TfcTT^f!; ^fcr stff^; tts: i 

23. ff *n*i #?f pTfj^f <js ^Tsf^N-sr ^f?r ?tt^ <tts: i 

24. 3ffa?^*T^fr?nT*=g i% ithj^: <rrs: i 

25. *«3r^ ?p?fcr: ?% wt^ to: i 

26. sT^Tf srRSPFrer: ^nrfr^t 13 : 24 I 

27. 5 fwe*r*mmnr ^fg- fs<jrjrfRr% <rre: i 

28. ^l^iuiir^cTR - ^fgr srftd; <tts: I 

29. *Ff 5% 3TT^: <TT3: I 

30. wf^f e^rf ^fg- ^ftr vwk to: 1 

31. -d^f cr^iKi^MWTsr^ci; ?% str^: smrr^ to: i 

32. ^fiftr!^ f % STR^: TO: I 

33. sp^fo JT^rtT: ?fe «n^ ITS: I 

34. 35^: f% HR>^ TO: I 

238 Materia Medica 

35. tf 3 STCRraTOft cTWc^f #WC ^^fT % f% *TT^ 7IS: I 

36. ^qr^fTTraw ifcr *?r?3: qre: i 

37. g^TW^f % f% T*5|£Fcr% qT3: I 

38. ?jrra^sr«PtT3 s l' if?r fg#*T3*ci% qre: i 

39. ^rrf qr% ^fir <?c5q/a% qrs: i 

40. ^B^T ffcT ^<S55?cf% TT3- I 

41. s*2»r*r ttftsfftst WTfTW'T n : vv** i 

42. %^R: ^T WTC^ qT5: I 

43. ^cnr sfir src*^ TT5: I 

44. ffi remflta' sfir «n^ tts: i 

44. cfW ? fcT 5TT^ "TTS: i 

46. ^fffcT S^PT ffcT STFPt qT5: I 

47. |*f% fa%f cftsr ftrP^sfr snsrc^ %fa srr^ qra: i 

48. qfar sf?r srre^: qrc: i 

49. fa^^^TTOf TOTsfc?T«ra ^ sftr mwt TT5: i 

50. srtf^re ^rcsssrctef wr qftq srr srFrfq- *^pt <?f% sn^: qre: i 

51. Tfarc^sro %fk( 5rr^% its: i 

52. *2rs^g^TrsT*c*TFnfw s% ?rr^ qre.- i 

53. q^ipr ^fir feftenpti% tis: i 

54. =^3^jf ^fo an 5 ^ TT3: I 

55. ?r«ftrf*r?'T sf% an - ^ qre: i 

56. =??W<m2m iftr am^: qTS: 1 

57. sr^rm ^ftr 3tpb^ qre: i 

58. <il\d^' ^fir 3TFf3: qTS: I 

59. frsr>rir: 5% arrq^: qre: i 

60. 3iciF|qT^T^fwT5qfrsT?f ft-Tsgqpn^ %fa 3tt^: qrs: i 

61. ^f^ffsr^TTq- 5f% f|[cft»T5^r qra: I 

62. qTerrwfaf^n «|f«nTTf^t^^r: ?% 3n-q3: qrs: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 239 

63. frow si^ ^fcr snwt; TT5: I 

64. ; £f r ^T ^f?T <TS57^a% "TT5: I 

65. Trfw^nflRT SfcT 3TTaF% ^ tp^a^ft: 'TIS: I 

66. 'sps'p&trTsfFTej sf?r 3tfp% qra j 

67. 5f : ^fcT 3TT^r5- qT5' 1 

68 g^sffinffaipsT^g %fa m^k tts: i 

69 *n| ?r| f fir ^iT^sf^ftfT^rg tts: i 

70 srefav? •fopimTsnsra' *r f fa- tfcsg^ <ns: i 

71. ^fTT^- ^r ^f?r anr^ qre: J 

72. tp% s r?f\ 3T5^ ff?r srFf^: to: i 

73. prir%% ws^: f»s§ ^'i»rSt ^ ffir arr^: tts: i 

74. fq3 cmh^^cWt ffa 3tt^: tfs. i 

75. Trcftsczr??rfa«rsr t ^=rrf%fTfV wmf^ 5% 3n^>% qre: i 

76. gsng; ^fa arrest 3*^%^ tts: i ^m ifir fiR frq%w3» tts: i 

77. TTfacft 3T#% mZTSZf ^TOf/FRi ^>Fr«# | 

78. WH^ ^T 3TR^ 7T5: I 

79. a^P^IFf f fcT STRsfjfer^Tg <TT5: I 

80. ^ qcr ifcr anr^: <rrc: i 

81. ^RTKT'T^sf ?% f3HY«T5??I% 715: I 

82. T^fcT ^fcf 3TFP% <T15: I 

83. sT^ip? Trrsr^S-sq^TW: ?fopnf ?H : 3^-33 I 

84 srnrTiqr^s^sRff f fa <4^Htd^> qrs: i 

85. Wtt ^flr <TO"J^T% TT5: I 

86. fTfftf?2T% ffo sp^U?^ 7T3" I 

87. f^f IT: ^fr an^; T .5: I 

89. 5 fe3% ipR^rPw^fir ^fcr srn^: <tts: i 

90. ^rf fqrrfVwsf ^f?r %?frT7/F<ri% tts: 1 
apf fT^rPTTRrsff sfa ?m^: 775: 1 

240 Materia Medica 

92. %s 5% 3tr3: 3rf?RJ qrs: i 

93. TO <?% 3TT^ STfsRJ TT5: I 

94. FI^Hta: ^fgr 3TFP^ <TT3: I 

95. qrstsif gsrjt rW?t«t^ i 

96. «s«i<ffq[ sFer fsrcft-^^T% tts: i 

97- sre^Rnfatf ?% «ps53?cr% tts: i 

98- ^r^gcrnrer: ^fgr q«gqff3 % <rre: i 

99- ^twr ?f?r fe?ftq3??r%r vxs: \ 


fpift-^sii^raT fg^cKH mix\ ii ? if 

Rakta Mli (Oriza saliva Linn.) 

The red variety of salt rice alleviates all fthe three dosas. 
It promotes eyesight and semen. It is diuretic. It causes thirst 
and promotes ojas, strength and voice. It is a cardiac tonic. 

sffcft w*rj%q-<?taEjfr jrgrrt «fte«rfapp: t 

Gaura sasjlka (a variety of Oriza sativa Linn.) 

The white variety of sasfika rice is cooling and light. It 
alleviates all the three dosas and it is sweet.; 


There is another variety of it which is slightly inferior in 
taste and vipaka and which is heavier than the former. 


242 Materia Medica 

Mahd salt and Kalama 

Maha iali type of rice is exceedingly aphrodisiac. Kalama 
variety of rice alleviates kapha and pitta. 

wegZ&XGWR^g; ?ft% fTrWd *J5: II 3 II 

Vrihi (a variety of Oryza sativa Linn.) 

The vrihi type of rice is sweet. It produces acidity during 
digestion. It aggravates pitta and is heavy. 

sreg^ft suffer*? ircsreg; fastafcr i 


The patala type of rice is very hot and is exceedingly 
abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels of circulation). It 
aggravates all the three dosas. 

ftfaref % ^ ^ <gxm ^ *r% ?*r<m n v ii 

Sowing and transplantation 

The rice which is cultivated by sowing is heavy; otherwise 
it is slightly inferior in quality. The rice which is cultivated by 
transplantation is aphrodisiac when freshly harvested. When 
preserved for a long time, it becomes light. 


4 S 


The idli rice which is cultivated in a forest land after sett- 
ing fire to the vegetation is light for digestion. It is astringent. 
It causes retention of stool and urine. It is un-unctuous and 
alleviator of kapha. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 243 


foP^4<*ifrreK»*tJ*T "T^TFTSra^Tl: II ^ It 

The sdli rice which is cultivated on plain ground alleviates 
kapha and pitta. It is astringent, pungent, slightly bitter and 
sweet. It aggravates vayu and stimulates the power of digestion. 


f'srr^rTin^Tir^r tt«t: w:wmw:^\: ii o ii 

The rice which is cultivated in the rice field is sweet, 
aphrodisiac, strength promoting and alleviator of pitta. It is 
slightly astringent and it produces less excreta. It is heavy. It 
produces more of kapha and semen. 

■^qTftrfrcin- eref: =ftsr<rpPT 'pftrm: t 


The rice which is cultivated by repeated transplantation is 
light. It gets digested easily and is superior in quality. It does 
not cause burning sensation. It alleviates dosas. It promotes 
strength. It is diuretic. 

f?TW: *Pmm: fTa^TT: arsrqT^r: sptprq^r: I IS. 1 1 

The rice which is grown after cutting the plant, is un- 
unctuous. It causes retention of stool. It is bitter and astringent. 
It alleviates pitta. It is light for digestion. It also alleviates 

li iftr ssrFSre: U 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of rice. 

244 Materia Medica 


4. «t4fa«»^r ^Rf 3TT^ tts: l 

5. ^^ftt: ^far m^< TOJ: f 

6. ^^FTSPTT: ?far STFFT "TT5: I 

7. q^TT^W^TT ff?T fef)R5??T% ITS: I 

9. farenrffsft *% arra^ tts: i 


Syamaka (Echinochloa fruraentacea Linn.) 

Syamaka is sosana (drying) and un-unctuous. It aggra- 
vates vdta and alleviates kapha and pitta. 

^ f^W***: MM. I. % I. 

Priyangu (Setaria italica Beauv.), Nhdra (a type of paddy) 
& Koradiisa (Paspalum scorbiculatum Linn.) 

Priyangu, nivara and koradiisa share the properties of 

=ror: *qf*ferft TrSrafafPFETT ^^=r it ^ n 


Favar (Hordeum vulgare Lino.) 

Yava is un-unctuous, cooling, heavy, sweet, laxative, 
producer of more of stool and flatus and aphrodisiac. It 

246 Materia Medica 

produces sthairya (steadiness) and reduces urine, fat, pitta and 
kapha. It cures pltia&a (chronic rhinitis), svdsa (asthma), kdsa 
(bronchitis), urustambha (which produces immobility of thigh) 
and diseases of the throat and blood. 

3 4 

HTTt irr^ ^afTtifT sfsmt rm: \\ 3 il 
Amiyava & Vamsaja yava 

The anuyava is slightly inferior in quality in comparison to 
yava. The yava (fruit) of vamia (bamboo) is un-unctuous and 


[TrT6rw?3qrrnr: granszTspf ?va : ^-y N ] 

Godhuma (Triticum aestrvum Linn.) 

Godhuma (wheat) is aphrodisiac, cooling, heavy, unctuous 
and life giver. It alleviates vata and pitta, and helps in the 
union of broken tissues. It is sweet. It produces steadiness. 
It is also a laxative. 

«fi^5 ^m *t%Tt *r^ src*r: ft«jr: ^sPsfarre^ i 
ftffefr [^ct^tJ fT^fqrr^Tfr ?migi^ [?] ^h^t. stcstiikii 

Another view 

Godhuma is sweet, heavy, promoter of strength, steadiness 
and seir.en, appetiser, unctuous and cold. It alleviates vayu and 
vitta and produces flatus {vata ? ) and kapha. It is laxative. 

7 8 

fsTcft ftrcT% rr^Ct srfats forTsfr W5frn%q?r q*rar 3tr: u ^ u 


5f? qtsfT?r^qT3R-^t5?q-^^?c5fsifr5«r %3*ft3fa<T^T T^f ( 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 247 

Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.) 

Tila is slightly astringent, sweet, bitter, constipative, 
aggravator of pitta, hot, sweet in vipaka, promoter of strength 
and unctuous. It is useful for application over ulcers and for 
teeth. It is a promoter of digestive power and intellect. It 
reduces the quantity of urine. It is useful for the skin and the 
hair. It alleviates vayu and is heavy. 


Among the different types of tila, the black variety is the 
best, the white variety is middling and other varieties are 
inferior in quality. 

#?fT V?dWS( fafesHT SHPr: < T^#?T: It ^ II 
Mudga (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) 


Krsna mudga, maha mudga, white, green, }ellow, white and 
red — these are the different varieties of mudga. The former ones 
are lighter than the latter ones. 


gjSTFR- jrr: stttbt sp*rt ^fVrrr nw. i 

According to Susruta, the green variety is the best among 
the mudgas. 


Mudga alleviates kapha, pitta and blood. It is astringent, 
sweet, light, constipative, cooling and pungent in vipaka. It 
promotes eye sight and does not aggravate xdyu in excess. 

248 Materia Mcdica 

^>TRrr : ^f T: =rT?! : T5^spf*5rT: inn: ?*jrtt: i 

Vanya mudga 

Different varieties of vanya (wild variety) mudga share all 
the properties of cultivated varieties of mudga. 

13 14 

*TflTt Trsprf ^=s*r: WXVgt sp'pf t TTT?T II ?° II 

Afasiira (Lens culinaris Medic.) 

Mas'ura is sweet, appetiser and constipative. It 
alleviates kapha and /»7to. 


Makustha (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jstcq.) 

Mahn$thaka alleviates rakta pitta (a disease characterised 
by bleeding from different parts of the body) and jvara (fever). 
It is constipative. 

sfT^TW^ f<TTT"T?csr^ T^wrvT msraT fe*rr: 1 1 ? ? 1 1 

[ mTsrs'sipTor: ftrfiir-tqrT^xr^'T ?5.-?-vJ 

Carjaka (Ciccr arietinum Linn ) 

Canaka alleviates kapha, blood and pitta. It causes 
impotency and aggravates vayu. It is cooling. 

Haretiu & Satin a 
(Pisum arrens Linn. & Pisum sativum Linn.) 

Haretiu and satina cause constipation. 

16 17 

^r rrsr ^?Rrpm r<rsr<?tEra*r;rr: t?tt j 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnaiida 249 

Adhakl (Cajanus cajan Millsp.) 

Adhaki alleviates kapha and pitta. It is astringent. It 
aggravates vayu in excess. When added with ghee, it alleviates 
all the three doisas. 

Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) 

Kulattha is hot, astringent in taste, pungent in vipaka and 
alleviator of kapha as well as vayu. 


It cures Sukra&mari (stone in the seminal tract) and gulma 
(phantom tumour). It is constipative. It also cures pfnasa 
(chronic rhinitis), k asa (bronchitis), anaha (flatulence), medas 
(adiposity), guda kila (piles), hikkd (hiccup) and svasa (asthma). 
It vitiates blood and pitta. 


Vanya Kulattha 

The wild variety of k ulattha specifically alleviates kapha 
and cures diseases caused by vayu. 

WTcnj^- stem a?*ft *nrnt sr^rrarT *n?. n' ?sui 

[jnsR?3*P]rnr: fsrfrsrsrFsra't ?=: : ?-£] 

il<f«A'a (Phaseolus mungo Linn.) 

TV/aia is unctuous, hot, sweet and aphrodisiac. It produces 
more of fat, flesh and kapha. It alleviates vayu, promotes 
nourishment and strength and produces more of stool. It is 

250 Materia Medica 


SPfW* PcPWft fa?TOTS5rsre: f<TTR>ljrer|[ira- II $\ II 

Another view 

Mdsa is heavy, laxative, diuretic, unctuous, aphrodisiac, 
sweet, alleviator of vdyu, refreshing and promoter of lactation. 
It has the specific property of promoting strength and aggravat- 
ing pitta as well as kapha. 

o o 

The fruits of atmaguptd and kakanda have properties 
similar to those of mdsa. 


Aranya mdsa 

The wild variety of mdsa is un-unctuous and astringent. 
It causes burning sensation. 

jR<3/a ma^a (Vigna cylindrica Skeels) 

Raja mdsa is laxative and appetiser. It reduces kapha and 
semen, and cures amla pitta (hyper acidity in stomach). It is 
delicious, aggravator of vdyu, un-unctuous, astringent, visada 
(non-slimy) and heavy. 

q5?f *«f ^ 5T?jf ^ ffuf elld'fWcTT'T li H II 
Kakanda (?) & Atmaguptd (Mucuna pruriens DC.) 
The fruits of kakanda and dtma gupta are heavy, hot, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnartda 251 

unctuous, sweet, aphrodisiac, strength promoting and 
nourishing. They are excellent alleviators of vayu. 

24 25 

fcTOTWft ?2TT!|f?P??TT spqifaTTSfRT *&■ 1 

A tasl & Kusumbha 
(Linnm usitatissimum Linn. & Carthamus tinctorins Lion.) 

Atasl is unctuous, sweet, bitter, aggravator of kapha as 
well as p/tta and heavy. It reduces eye sight and semen. It is 
pungent in vipaka. 

Seed of kusumbha shares properties of atasl. 

srrcrfTTr^TT wsa fawrrcrn #ewwwt: » 

Nfspava (Dolichos lablab Linn.) 

Different types of nispdva are aggravaters of vayu and pitta 
and un-unctuous. They dry up kapha. 


fe^f^f^sf'^^rfafe^r SsrfsrarEW: ir?u 

&6i (a. type of Dolichos lablab Linn.) 

Different types of iimbi reduce strength and alleviate 
kapha. They ate exceedingly un-unctuous, sweet, cooling and 
constipative. Ihey reduce the power of digestion. 


Simba (a type of Dolichos lablab Linn.) 

$imba is un-unctuous, astringent and promoter of 

252 Materia Medica 

strength. It causes burning sensation and reduces kapha and 
eye sight. It is pungent in vipaka and sweet. It eliminates 
stool as well as vayu and aggravates pitta. 

29 30 

fkarfaraT: qt^rsFTt^wif : ^ref^ HJ|*<wu«r* rem: i 

31 32 

[%^: g^r?«rpr v^ : yy-y^] 

It has several varieties viz., white, black, yellow and red. 
They have different tastes but all of them share the properties 
described above. They are predominantly pungent in taste as 
well as vipaka and hot. 

33 34 


^f^TT^wsfsnrer^ m **rcrr tsf^R^ ^t: u ^yu 


Vaidalikas & Simbas 

Pulses having dicotyledons and different type of simba — 
all produce burning sensation. They are exceedingly un- 
unctuous and constipative. They aggravate vayu and are 
extremely difficult of digestion and are appetisers. 

They reduce the power of digestion, alleviate kapha as 
well as pitta and cause retention of stool, urine and flatus. 

'3^UcT^cfoFJT: ftr^Tsff ^fifarrfrcr II RU. || 

ftq-TsfrOT]-; ffrr^ssT: ;pE^t ^sm^RT: | 


Siddfiartha alleviates kapha and vata. It is sharp. It causes 
raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body). It is unctuous and hot. It cures k r mi 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 253 

(parasitic infection) and kusfha (obstinate skin diseases includ- 
ing leprosy). It is pungent both in taste and vipaka. 

RSjika 9c Sar$apa (Brassica campestris linn.) 

Rdjikd and sarsapa share the properties of siddhdrtha. In 
addition rdjika is an appetiser. 


*wreproftr fesf ?rrri?5r^rc sg?ra[ n R» u 

Property In preservation 

Saka dhdnya and sirhbi dhdnya which are preserved for 
one year before use, are the lightest and most wholesome. 
Freshly harvested ones are heavy and extremely unwholesome. 
The earlier they ripen, the lighter they are. 


3TTTT fsp-tfT V«frr ^ cPTT *W*nft«n ll' \* II 

Yava, godhuma, mdsa and tila are useful when they are 
freshly harvested. When preserved for a long time, they become 
tasteless and un-unctuous. They do not promote strength to 
the same extent as the fresh ones do. 

[in n«lri«l^M| : f ^ffrTOFTO t«; : u] 

Other defects 

The germinated corns cause burning sensation. They 
are heavy and constipative. They cause impairment of eye 

254 Materia Medica 

4HItH ^TfWWTJrfqrT^ ^ II ^ II 

[wm^fs^mw. %F*3rsrRnnt ?«; : ?=;-U] 

Unseasonal and immature corns cause many diseases. 
Those which are not grown on the ground and which are 
freshly harvested do not possess the prescribed properties. 
Freshly harvested corns are abhisyandi (which obstruct the 
channels of circulation) and they become light after preservation 
for one year. 

II ^fcT STTfq^5f: II 

Thus ends the group dealing with different type of corns. 


l. ers^ ^iptarc^Y*:^: ff?r m^x wrs: i 

2 Tt*TSSf rST^r^^F^S^TI ^ 4 M, ff>T STTW^ TT5: I 

3. zmvwtrft sfr arrenc tts: i 

5. ^q - : 5ftcft ff?T STT^ TT5: I 

6. *fsrrrr ateoft 5r?*ft »frsr*F: *#%c<tt*t ff% ari^ tts: 

8. q«r 7**r: f fa 3tr>T TT3: I 

9. 5^zfrsfrri%srr ^far fsHtoj*^ qrs: i 
^rrsf^Jmro ^ srre^ to: i 

10. ftaeRTCcnTTSwr sftr sn^: ^re: I 

11. K«ewr«T— g^?r: ^pr v^ : ^$. i 

Ayurveda Sauk hy am of Todarananda 255 

13. *np: ^frT 3TT:f>T TTS: X 

14. ^sffcT: ^ 3TFPT TTS : I 

15. •^t5fq\t>M - '->*TTer sftffr ^f?r srresrjrw+t^, tis: i 

16. 3TTS^V sptRfq-TT^fV ^TPTT^^fcr^TcRTT: ?fcT STT^T TTS. I 

17. spqrar?nsriT: ?f?r feft<rT^?r% tts: i 

18. %<*\*m O-iTcwfH 'Jcft^ ?f?r arT^TT tts: i 

19- ^ftf^TftrT^rrf ^frf sn^ TT3: t 

20. 3rqv?q- ??grT t^ptsp^t f^5Tq"!fr 3rpT°pT?«r zw. ?f>r arra^ tts: t 

21. ft^^twr^sift ^f?r STT^PT TTS: I 

22. ^sP*>+>Kf^r lf?T 4»l=h< TTS: | 

23. ^nrrqT srfsrarTf^fp?^ sfar anr^ tts: i 

24. fiFFsft*rr wPt sthpt tts: i 

25. ^"TffclTRtOTn f fff ST^R TTS: 1 

26. ^ra^TT: 4>4>ffit»*«i r: ffcf sn^: tts: I 

27. ^sr: ^nrnft fa n ^ft ^ ^gmret^PTffegrT^T ^ an^ tts: i 

28. *np?g ft% 3tt^: tts. i 

29. TTd+ <T*4"ur? ^f?r anrR: tts: i 

30. ^"^rf^^T?5 %fa 3TT^^ TTS: I 

31. zT*rTferc5T 'pRT: %foi aTTT^: TTS: t 

32. WTP^jft^ ^fcf STT^t 713: I 

33. fk^err ?f% ampr tts: i 

34. f%ssm ^r^qf^srep?^ ?% stttr tts: i 

35. terftpPRg %fct 3TFPT TTS: I 

36. sftq-^r: ^*rfTTT*sft ?% fgrf>i3??r% tts: i 

37. ^TRWcT 5RRq% %fa 3TFPT TTS: I 

38. craTTSW^T: ipgRTT: ^f?T 3TTT^ TTS: I 



All types of meat alleviate vayu. They are aphrodisiac, 
exceedingly strength promoting and heavy. Meat soup is 
refreshing, strength promoting, unctuous, life giver (propa 
prada) and light. 

There are two groups of mdriisa (meat) viz., meat of 
jangala animals and the meat of anupa animals. 

1 2 

arrqrsf m*r*pfsw [fw]*r*srre^ ^jgrcroT: i 
a-*rr <m*wr #*n fafatsTK wsj^t *rfa u ^ n 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 25? 

Jangala (Meat of animals dwelling in dry land forests) 

Jangala is of eight categories viz., (1) janghala, (2) vilastha, 
(3) guhdsaya, (4) parna ntfga, (5) viskira, (6) pratuda, (7) prasaha 
and (8) gramya. 

arfrmT *Ffn ^«n*3^rTr ?reeFcr«iT \\ \u 
«[^rr f*rf^r?r?2r % T^c^nfe^ ?r«rr u v u 

T«rT*¥ a^sftqref *r ^n^t^srw'T it k it 

Meat of this variety is sweet, un-unctuous, astringent, 
light, strength promoting, aphrodisiac, nourishing and 
digestive stimulant. It alleviates dosas and cures mukata (dumb- 
ness), minminatva (stammering), gadgadatva (lulling speech), 
ardita (facial paralysis), vadhirya (deafness), ahici (sense of 
impurity), chardi (vomiting), prameha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes), mukharoga (diseases of the oral 
cavity), gala ganga (goitre), slipada (filariasis) and diseases 
caused by vdyu. 

4 5 

*m*n «^m fallen: q^wmsrrcre: u % n 

Anupa (Meat of animals inhabiting marshy land) 

Antipa is of five categories viz., (1) kulecara, (2) plava, (3) 
koSastha, (4) padin and (5) matsya. 

irpjtn: W^TT: fr^W. iptft iT^msm: I 
Hrets fiiuif^H^ f| srFft[5]«r«qcnn: *rat: iivjh 

258 Materia Medico 

Meat of this variety is sweet, unctuous, heavy, suppresser 
of the power of digestion, alleviator of kapha and slimy. It inc- 
reases muscle tissue considerably. It is generally abhisyandin 
(which obstructs the channels of circulation) and unwholesome. 


<u*ftcu wa^rfqr #**«?: sR^rrem n <; n 
ilfajPFcrrsr sffsar: q^r: fwra^w: u 5. n 


*^"T: <f«nrft ^m wnft T*WT?T«P: II ?? II 

GO. « C * * 

*\ {■■• * *% » p* 

<l«ft<l*3 spft ?Pft TFsfVf^r: qfcft fcT: 1 1 H II 

5^«s?: «FR?ft JTfg Wf*fl^ ^ferftnT: II ?3 II 

^fSW i «i: SW^lfcm'PT: *RTKft <?nre*r: ¥ T^T*prFSq-:| I ?Yl | 

Different types of Jangala meat 

Hariya, eria, kwanga, rk?a, vatayu,mrga matrkd, rajiva, 
pr?at, hadaihspa, iarabha— these animals are called janghala. 
Their characteristic features are given below : 

Harina is of coppery colour. Eva has a black body. 

Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todarananda 15$ 

Kuranga is of coppery colour. It looks like harina but it is 
bigger in size. R$ya (rksa) is commonly called nllapduka or 
saroru. Vatayu is like a deer calf and it is small in size. Mrga 
matrka is like a rabbit. It is small in size and it has a bulging 
abdomen. Some people, however, take musk deer as mrga 
matrka. Rajiva has a spotted body. Prsat is dotted like the 
moon in its body and it looks like a hariiia of small size. 
§vadarhs{ra is called karka\a in Kashmir. Sarabha is found in 
Kashmir. It has eight legs, four of which are upwards. It is like 
a camel in size and it has big horns. This animal, which is also 
known as maha mrga is locally called navastha (?). 


'sa*m* Tsrarr: firsrjft farrow r 

e 10 n 

'srTT?TT: STTW: m f*HV&**t%tT *tm. II ?R II 

fofs^STcnFTT sfar ztwsft 3r?5*pf?Tr: i 

Krtamala, vapracura, visruta and vindu citraka — these 
animals also come under the janghala category. 

The meat of all these animals generally alleviates pitta 
and kapha. It slightly aggravates vayu. It is light and pro- 
moter of strength, 


»ft*rT5T5W4 i Ti<!5 > %i?irf ( W€n' farftiiir: it \\ u 

Vilesaya (Meat of animals which live in barrows in the earth) 

Godha, sasa, bhujanga, akhu, iallaki etc., are called 
vileiaya animals. 


#^TT ^?f%<ffT: ^ltJTM>||!^r SppyfcfcTT: II ?va II 

The meat of these animals alleviates vayu. It is sweet both 
in taste and vipaka. It is nourishing and it causes retention of 
stool and urine. It is hot in potency. 

260 Materia Medica 

15 16 

Guhasaya (Meat of animals that dwell in caves) 

Sithha, vyaghra, vrka, aksa, rksa, taraksu, dvipin, babhru, 
jambuka, mdrjara etc., are called guhasaya animals. 

Taraksu is commonly known as hadahd. Dvipin is the tiger 
with a spotted body. A variety of babhru which has a thick tail 
and red eyes is called nakula. 

'Wiimi 3"TcTircT igGWf T«|?TfSr ^ I 

fFT^n ^^rr %tt ftw %^^Fwrfw*j i 

The meat of these animals alleviates vayu. It is heavy, 
hot, sweet, unctuous and promoter of strength. It is always 
wholesome for patients suffering from the diseases of the eye 
and the anus. 


TOTCTflitauiWHi: ^a^5r3<t«r^T: I R ? 1 1 ' 

Panta mrga 

Vanaukd, vrksa marjdra, vfksa markatika etc., are called 
parrja mrga animals. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 261 

The meat of these animals is aphrodisiac, promoter of 
eye sight and useful in the correction of the vitiation of blood. 
It cures svasa (asthma), arsas (piles) and kasa (bronchitis). It 
helps in the elimination of urine and stool. 



Viskira (Meat of galHnacious birds) 

Vartikd, lava, vikira, kapinjalaka tittira, cakora, krakara, 
etc., are called viskira animals. 

They eat by tearing (viklrya) the food because of which 
they are called viskira. 


[•nmw^m *rrarw*t ?? : ^«-^?] 

The gray coloured tittira {kapisa tittira) is called kapinjala. 
Cakora is a well known bird. Krakara is locally called kathara. 


The meat of these animals is sweet, cooling, astringent in 
taste, pungent in vipaka, strength promoting, and. 
It alleviates all the three dosas. It is whole$>mf*an<$?igh£: 


262 Materia Medica 

Pratuda (Meat of packer birds) 

Kdlakanfhaka, harita, kapota, satapatra, sarika, khanjarifa, 
pika etc., are called pratuda animals. 


They eat by picking (pratudya) the food because of which 
they are called pratuda. 

In the country of gauda, kalakanfhaka is popularly called 
gaurai and adagake. 

fTftcTT %fT&T ?f?r 5ft% II -R\3 II 

Harita is called /zan/a in the local vernacular. 

Kapota is white and yellowish (pandu). Satapatra is the 
bigger variety of iuka. 

'srpT T^T: ftrrs^TT^TT f^T" I 

rpspTt ^S^m f^f3^5TcT5r^tT?IT: II ^t; || 

The meat of these animals is sweet. It alleviates pitta 
and kapha. It is astringent, cooling and light. It causes 
retention of stool and it slightly aggravates vayu. 

v 25 26 

*TOt 5TW 3H«n* fo?<T5rj 5T5r?rTf^: | 

srosft x *ir**«^ *r*t ^rrerr: srcrfrr: **r?TT: |R€.I|' 

Prasaha (Meat of animals & birds who eat by snatching) 

Kaka, grdhra, uluka, cillu, sasaghatin, cdsa, bhdsa, kurara 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todaratmnda 263 

etc., are called prasafia animals. 


These animals eat by snatching (prasahya) their food be- 
cause of which they are called prasaha. 



The meat of all these animals is hot in potency. Persons 
who eat their. meat suffer from fosa (consumption), bhasmaka 
(gluttonous appetite), unmdda (insanity) and reduction in 


S!»ii)wiwmi *r«rr: sfTrRr *T|fafar: 11^ ? II 

Gramya (Meat of domesticated animals) 

Chdga, mesa, vpsa, asva etc., are called gramya animals by 
the great sages. 


The meat of all these animals alleviates vdyu, stimulates 
digestion and aggravates kapha and pitta. It is sweet both in 
taste and vipaka, nourishing and strength promoting. 

rr^ SJvFSPCT: sftffiT ^TTcT 3% ^T^WTFT \\\\\\ 

Kiilecara (Meat of animals who live near water) 

Lulaya, ganaa, varaha, camarl, vdrana, etc., are called 
kulecara animals. 

264 Materia Medica 

These animals graze (reside) by the side of water (kala) 
because of which they are called kulecara. 

fliTIRft Tfftn I *P3¥:^: I ^nrft f JTTjawV *ft: I RYU 

Lulaya is mahisa (buffalo), ganda is Khadga (rhinoceros) 
and camari is a type 0/ cow having a chowric tail. 

*rspr: sffam: r^Tsrr: *jw«rr: ^i^srt: n^n 

The meat of kulecara animals like Maya, mahisa, ganda, 
khadga, camari, camara puccha and go alleviate vayu and pitta. 
It is aphrodisiac, proiroter of strength, sweet, cooling, unctuous 
and diuretic. It aggravates kapha. 

j?3fcrat *wT3«r 5rawraT: *siwt *r?rr: t 


Plava (Meat of animals who swim in water) 

Hamsa, sdrasa, kacaksa, baka, kraunca, sasarikd, nandi 
mukhi, kddamba, balaka etc., are called plava animals. 

36 37 38 39 

40 41 

5f?r <=ft% 1 *rcrfo*FT faf ^fgr cfi% 11 \q 11 

Kacaksa is also known as karditdksa or bfhadbaka. 
Kraunca is also called icrtffif vihanga and in folk language it is 
called tenka. Sasarikd is called sindhu in folk language. 

42 '43 

44 45 

sfrrcsr *r*r=rr 5% $rr% I TOPPT wwsnfr: ^T?ftl%cT>% Il3£ll 

Nandi mukhi has, above its bill, a projection which is big 
in size, hard to touch and round in shape. Kadqmbg is called 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 265 

Kayathba in folk lore. Baldkd is the small variety of raka, 
which in folk lore is called bagulf. 

"^T: flxT^r: fFPm: TfTT *[X*i\ f^TT: l 


The meat of these animals alleviates pitta. It is unctuous, 
sweet, heavy and cooling. It aggravates vdyu and kapha and 
promotes strength as well as semen. It is laxative. 


3ftalW<4f«PfT: Wt iftwnr- Mft+lfadi: 11*? 1 1 

Koiasiha (Meat of animals that dweB in shells) 

Sasaka, vinaka, sukti, sambuka, bhattuka etc., are called 
kosastha animals. 


The meat of these animals is sweet, unctuous, alleviator 
of pitta as well as vayu, cooling, nourishing and aphrodisiac. It 
increases the quantity of stool and kapha. 




Kumbhira, kurma, nakra, karkafa, kfsna karkafa, ghanfikd, 
sisumara etc., are called padin animals. 

52 53 


jtjp: TT^ ^fir "ft% 3TC*nfe T«rf ^|W: 11 VV It 

266 Materia Medica 


^f^TTST ^fcf vfl% I f^pTTT: $1% ifcT ?ft% II VK II 

Kumbhira is a type of aquatic animal. Kurma is known as 
kacchapa in folk lore. Nakra is called «afca in folk lore; they 
are found in large numbers in rivers like Sarangha. Karkata is 
known as kemkadd in the folk language. Krsna karkata is a 
variety of karkata. Siiumara is called susi in the folk lore. 

q-rfoftsfcr =*r * ct 3 qstarernit *pjr: swt: i' 

The meat of these animals shares the properties of the 
meat of kosastha animals. 

Matsya (fish) 
Living creatures like rohita etc., are called matsya (fish). 

o^qwsqrccTFTt ^ ^toarrcftot w "jfsRTT: iiyvsii 

Fish is unctuous, hot, sweet and heavy. It aggravates 
kapha and pitta and promotes strength. It is abhisyandi (which 
obstructs the channels of circulation), aphrodisiac, nourishing 
and alleviator of vdyu. It is useful for those indulging in sex 
and walking and for those who have a strong power of 

ar«T sfHrsrretai itfsramTf fqftrasMi 1 itt : 


Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todarartanda 267 

Property of the meat of individual animals 

Harifta (Red deer) 

The meat of harina is cooling. It causes retention of the 
stool and urine. It is digestive stimulant and light. In taste 
and vipaka it is sweet. It has a good smell and it alleviates all 
the three dosas. 



Em (Black back) 

The meat of eija is astringent, sweet and a cardiac tonic. 
It alleviates pitta, blood, kapha and vata. It is constipative and 
appetiser. It cures fever. 



[■JTT^JT^ra-: *lItM4 U : VK] 

Pr?at (Spotted deer) 

The meat of prsat is sweet both in taste and vipaka. It 
alleviates dosas and is digestive stimulant. It is delicious, 
constipative, cooling and light. It is an appetiser. It cures 
svasa (asthma) and jvara (fever). It alleviates all the three 
dosas as well as the vitiated blood. 


The meat of nvindinf cures jvara (fever), kasa (bronchitis), 
vitiation of blood, ksaya (consumption) and svdsa (asthma). 
It is cooling. 

268 Materia Medica 

[ifrFra^Rr: vm?*! ? ? : vv| 

Nyanku (Antelope) 

The meat of nyanku is sweet, light, strength promoting 
and aphrodisiac. It alleviates all three dosas. 


The meat of /-sya is sweet, aphrodisiac, unctuous and hot. 
It aggravates kapha and pitta. 


&tfa (Hare) 

The meat of §aia is light, constipative, un-unctuous, 
sweet and always wholesome. It stimulates digestion and 
alleviates kapha as well as pitta. It is neutral for vayu. It 
cures jvara (fever), atisara (diarrhoea), sosa (consumption), 
vitiation of blood, svasarta (asthma) and arsas (piles). 

[srFrsr^rpn - : *rm*pf ?? : *°-sc?] 

ii 'T^ra-zrr: n 


The meat of salyaka cures svdsa (asthma), kasa (bron- 
chitis), vitiation of blood and Sosa (consumption). It alleviates 
all the three dosas. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 26£ 

Lava (Common quail) 

Lava, which is included in the viskira group, is of four 
types viz., (1) pamsula, (2) gauraka, (3) paundraka and (4) 


The meat of lava in general is a cardiac tonic, cooling, 
unctuous, constipative and digestive stimulant. 


» - r si.i T , m ._x u - U t rs, "*, „c — — — . . 

"TRW: S^T^^T wM'S'TTFT?5^Psr J T: II HH. II 

The meat of the pathMa type of /awz aggravates kapha. It 
is hot in potency. It alleviates vara. 

The meat of the gaura type of lava is lighter, un-unctuous 
and stimulant of digestion. It alleviates all the three dosas. 

<fa^p: farTfrrc+PiH <r5T^rTd4>4>m^: II %.%. II 

The meat of paundraka type of lava aggravates pitta. It is 
slightly light. It alleviates vdyu and kapha. 

The meat of darbhara type of lava cures rakta pitta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body) and hrddmaya (heart disease). It is cooling. 

60 70 

[w^sr^RT: maw t ? : v. %-*.*, K*] 

270 Materia Medica 

Vartika (Gray partridge) 

The meat of vartika is sweet, cooling and un-unctuous. 
It alleviates kapha and pitta. 

71 . 
'*&(;: #cPT: fcTTsft ^Tf: ^**4>iR: I 

Cafaka (Tree sparrow) 

The meat of cataka is cooling, unctuous and sweet. It 
increases semen and kapha. 

Vesma cajaka (House sparrow) 

The meat of vesma cataka alleviates sannipdta (a condition 
caused by the vitiation of all the three dosas). It increases 
semen in excess. 

^raqpteftrspr: [?] cffftft 5T*5taWTS: I 


g^r. p*?t w?jfr ■<sfdwm<JiT ?rcr: n K£ n 

Vartaka and Vartika 
(Male bustard and female bastard) 

The meat of vartaka is cooling. It cures jvara and allevi- 
ates all three dosas. It is delicious and promoter of semen as 
well as strength. 

The meat of vartika is slightly inferior in quality. 



Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda Til 

Tittiri (Partridge) & Gaura 

The meat of tittiri promotes complexion. It is constipative. 
It cures hikka (hiccup). It alleviates all the three do§as. It 
cures Svasa (asthma) and kasa (bronchitis). It is wholesome. 

The meat of gaura is better in quality. 


Kukkufa (Cock) 

The meat of kukkufa is nourishing, unctuous, hot in 
potency, alleviator of vdyu and heavy. It promotes eyesight It 
increases semen and kapha. It is strength promoting, aphrodisiac 
and astringent. 



Paniya Kukkufa (Water cock) 

The meat of paniya kukkufa is unctuous, nourishing, 
aggravator of kapha, heavy and alleviator of vdyu and pitta. It 
cures k?aya (consumption), kpni (parasitic infection) and 
vipoma para (irregular fever). 

*T«r M<J4T: 


%xtmt ^*x$t 'ssfpfst <TbPMfi<+>"*mf: i 


The meat of hdrita is hot and un-unctuous. It alleviates 

21% Materia Medica 

vitiation of blood, pitta and kapha. It promotes sweating and 
good voice. It slightly aggravates vayu. 

TtUfq'TrfT: Sfcft *r§Tt TSPTPiWt: II \V II 

The meat of pdnduka alleviates kapha and vayu. It cures 
graham do fa (sprue syndrome), rakta pitta (a disease characteri- 
sed by bleeding from different parts of the body). It is cooling 
and sweet both in taste and vipaka. 

mi%\ arr<arer*nT: >cqt?r: qf^ftfrRr: 1 

Kapota (Dove) 

The meat of kapota is constipative and alleviator of vdyu. 
This bird is white and yellowish in colour. 

f H KHtft *p3 ftTTsft TfRrq-TTTfq-5fTT^: ll' ^* II 

Pdravata (Pigeon) 

The meat of pdravata is heavy and unctuous. It cures 
rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body) and vitiation of vayu. It is constipative, 
promoter of semen and cooling. It shares the properties of 

'TTfirfpr»«rrf5T fSTTftiT ^gqw^TTfa T l' 


«ricr*iTFTf?npwrTf<jr ir^nrorfa Tfsmro' u^ii 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 273 


Eggs of birds are not very unctuous. They are aphrodisiac, 
sweet in vipaka and taste, alleviator of vayu, promoter of semen 
in excess and heavy. 



Chaga (Goat) 

The meat of the goat is light, unctuous, sweet in vipaka 
and alleviator of all the three dosas. It is not very cold and it 
does not cause burning sensation. It is sweet. It cures pfnasa 
(chronic rhinitis). It is an excellent promoter of strength. It 
is appetiser and nourishing. It promotes tissue elements. 



The meat of a recently delivered she-goat cures pinasa 
(chronic rhinitis). It is useful in suska kasa (dry cough), aruci 
(anorexia) and Hotha (oedema). It stimulates the power of 

88 89 

The meat of a male calf of the goat is lighter. It is 
cardiac tonic. It is an excellent curative of para (fever). It is 
exceedingly delicious and promoter of strength. 


274 Materia Medica 

The meat of the castrated goat aggravates kapha. It is 
heavy. It cleanses the channels of circulation. It promotes 
strength and muscle tissue. It alleviates vayu and pitta. 


zngsv 37?^ w zmfmw gores - =«r i 

The meat of an old-goat aggravates vayu. It is un- 
unctuous. The meat of diseased and dead goat shares these 
properties also. 

|_*rnnnprer: Tra^nf ? ? : isv-vse.] 

The meat from the head of the goat cures diseases of 
head and neck and is delicious. 


Mesa (Sheep) 

The meat of the sheep is nourishing. It aggravates pitta 
and kapha. It is heavy. 

cTrft ^sprrlta'RT *IW frf^R^ ^^ II ^ II 

The meat of a castrated sheep is slightly lighter. 

^ : U ] T 5 ^^ *ttf f «f W<sf sr^f* I 
ftM^^+< fiF%grd^Tfcr^F?riT'r ii \$^. u' 

The fat and the meat of the tail of the sheep are cardiac 
tonic, aphrodisiac and alleviator of fatigue. They aggravate 
pitta and kapha and alleviate to some extent diseases caused by 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 275 

Go (Cow) 

Beef is heavy and unwholesome. It aggravates pitta and 
kapha. It is unctuous, alleviator of vayu, strength promoting 
and nourishing. It cures pinasa (chronic rhinitis). 


'•wrote mrwi wf^fcstrofarr^ i 

3Torf3rfw ^sf *rspi *rgr snj ti vs*. ii' 

Aiva (Horse) 

The meat of the horse is saline and stimulant of the 
power of digestion. It aggravates kapha and pitta. It alleviates 
vayu. It is nourishing, promoter of strength as well as eye 
sight, sweet and light. 

fTar^eftJ^TfcFJT^^^ *pj (?) U U^ II 

Mahi$a (Buffalo) 

The meat of the buffalo is sweet, unctuous, hot and 
alleviator of vayu. It increases sleep, semen, strength, lactation 
and size of the body. It is light (?). 

«BW <*PfT: 


276 Materia Medica 

Kadambaka and Cakrahga 

The meat of kadambaka and cakrahga is unctuous, 
cooling, heavy and aphrodisiac. It helps in the elimination of 
stool and urine. It alleviates vayu, pitta and vitiation of blood. 

3?«r qptenprr: 


[■5TT^5T^T?5r: WFSm ?? : S.^] 

Kacchapa (Tortise) 

The meat of kacchapa is promoter of strength. It 
alleviates vayu and pitta and promotes potency. 

fcr^?pjft ^FT?*? ^#3r:fatTf'Erir: || w || 

^^TST^y^rwF^srr nsresrsTrrfasrnTfji: i 

Gaja (Elephant) 

The meat of gaja is un-unctuous and depleting. It 
vitiates semen, ojas and pitta. It is sweet, sour and saline. It 
alleviates kapha and vayu. 


• 99 

Varaha (Hog) 

The meat of vardha is unctuous, nourishing, aphrodisiac, 
alleviator of fatigue and vayu, promoter of strength, appetiser, 
delicious and heavy. 

ftr«tf ;8mrf* *pf" *|#f*r«rfK? ^fcrenr i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 111 

Carmacitrita sukara 

The meat of sukara who has a spotted skin is unctuous, 
sweet, aphrodisiac, heavy, abhisyandi (which obstructs the 
channels of circulation), cooling, alleviator of vayu as well as 
pitta and cardiac tonic. 

'^B^ff frferfafcra 1 ^<rr5?JTi%srrcr^ i 

[TrrsRsS^Tfor: nmiA H : H-?3] 

Khadga (Rhinoceros) 

The meat of khadga alleviates kapha. It is astringent and 
alleviator of vayu. It is pitrya (liked by pitrs or dead ancestors), 
sacred and promoter of longevity. It causes retention of urine 
and is un-unctuous. 


[jTrw^s^FTDr* JtrreMr H • ?^] 

5<7r/» (Peacock) 

The meat of barhi is most wholesome. It promotes 
strength, alleviates vayu and increases muscle tissue as well as 



Kapota (Dove ?) 

The meat of various types of kapota residing in houses is 
astringent and sweet in taste and cooling. It cures rakta pitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body). It is sweet in vipdka. 

ft«ft WttXV. f%f3or ap*ftm: >=H<mftH : II <;^ H 

278 Materia Medica 

The meat of those residing in forests is slightly lighter. It 
is cooling and constipative. It produces less of urine. 

ff<m% m*% fsnrprr srctaT spmTftnr: innai' 

The meat of kapotas which are yellowish, spotted or 
green in colour and which reside in the forests, is slightly ligh- 
ter, un-unctuous and constipative. It aggravates kapha and 
pitta, and it is wholesome. 


Sarpa (Snake) 

The meat of sarpa is promoter of eye sight, sweet in 
vipaka and promoter of intellect. 

Of them, darvikara and dipyaka are pungent in vipaka. 
They are sweet in taste and excellent promoter of eye sight. 
They help in the elimination of stool, urine and flatus. 


1 05 1 06 

Saiikha, Kurma etc., (Conch shell, tortoise etc..) 

The meat of sankha, kurma etc., is sweet both in taste and 
in vipaka. It is strength promoting, cooling, unctuous, useful for 
pitta and promoter of eye sight as well as semen. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 279 


[Tm^sTSTW TITf'T J>£ : 35.30] 

Krsna Karkafa (Block crab) 

The meat of the black variety of karkafa is strength 
promoting and slightly hot. It alleviates vayu. It promotes 
semen and healing. It helps in the elimination of stool and 
urine. It alleviates vayu and pitta. 

Hamsa (Swan) 

The meat of hamsa alleviates vayu. It is aphrodisiac. It 
is promoter of good voice, muscle tissue and strength. 


Cakravaka, Thenka and Ca(aka 

The meat of cakravaka, fheiika and cajaka alleviates vayu. 

WrfTapT5r^PT?Tgr?}raR>T. qsRTTWT. I 

fa*F«rr: 3F-5JTTT Y- m "^faWT feTT- I It; 5. 1 1 

Sarika, Baka, Kadamba and Lavaka (Shama thrush, Common 
crane, Whistling teal & Common quail) 

The meat of sarika, haka, k adamba and lava alleviates 
vayu. It is unctuous. It helps in the elimination of stool. It 
is aphrodisiac. It cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body). It is cooling. 

Godha (Inguana) 

The meat of godha cures kdsa (bronchitis), hdsa (asthma) 
and ksaya (consumption). It is sweet and cooling. 

280 Materia Medica 


gTfaTfSrastoeir: f>fa^ftfa<5rT7^: II 5.o II ' 

[TmsrsinT'jr: *riwt ?«. : ^v-^*] 

Musaka (Mouse) 

The meat of musaka is sweet and unctuous. It increases 
kapha and semen. It cures durndman (piles), aggravation of vayu, 
kpni (parasitic infection) and dust visa (artificial poisoning). 

Tt^r fsw *nwert: a? sriw* i 

TcfdwPreFT *% f^s ^r| few %?HT II S_? II 


Along with caru karira, the meat of jdngala type of ani- 
mals is appetiser and nourishing. It cures raktapitta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body), visarpa (erysipelas), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases inclu- 
ding leprosy), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes) and visa (poisoning). 

fK?f sftqrcf fsr *rct<f: si grfTWJT i 

Along with ghantola, the meat of jdngala type of animals 
works as appetiser, digestive stimulant and cardiac tonic. 

'WT^TGirfw^RHrT cffaff Tfrg^rt^ II S.R II 

frppfkr f^rq-or sft<rp%: ^ 3TPTW l' 

Along with vltdgni, the meat of jdngala type of animals 
cures diseases caused by vdyu and kapha. It is digestive 
stimulant and laxative. It is very delicious. 

The meat prepared with dry radish cures yaksntd (tuber- 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Tofarananda 281 

The meat prepared with curd is unctuous, digestive 
stimulant and cardiac tonic. 

STST ^3? T ^Sp-J cTTgtJt: 11 OTf^cnr 1I£VH 

The meat prepared with tddoga promotes strength, good 
voice and eyesight. 



^ *pnw*r fa^m-f ^sFrTfa^feFfV wan n«.mi 


^ fTT^r fa^m^T WfTf^rfcpft *im: It €.^11 


The meat of animals and birds residing and grazing far 
away from water is less abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels 
of circulation). The meat of animals which graze near water 
is an excellent promoter of strength. Such animals and birds 
are extremely abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels of 

i! #t *riwr: II 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of 


1 . WMT f f?T ^35*?!% "TT5: I 

282 Materia Medica 

3. STTfT ^crq- 5% BpS5pg% TO: i 

flf r sr«r ^ ^f<r f§xffa3*5r% qrs: i 

4. srsrFrqT: ?fer q^3^i% srfwr qre: i 

5. q-^T^^r ff?r q^jscr^ tts: i 

7. sronrt wPr feftog*^ tts: i 

8. ''f^T fWP:" TTStST %cfhl^?r% fftcFPSlfr I 

10. warfar^^^T f % qrcs3^% qrs: i 

11. S^cTH 3<% 3TT^T TTS: I 

12. fofs^T^TspEnfr ff?j arr^T 7T3: I 

13. ^mM^TP?rcri?'?nf'iraT ffer stt^ <?re: i 

14. STSfa^T f% 3TFRT TTS: I 

15. f$%°mmj$T ^^IfRWitfq-fT^TT 1% SRTPft^ TTS: I 

16. fsftRF^T^lT wfcT ^33^% errs: \ 

17. "spfrpt *rer*TT5rffr zfjam^f&PT wlr f% *r>%" ^fcrsrrew- 

5??T% <TTC: I 

18. ^tT^T ^R^Tff^^fqs^T^fcrfTRT: ^% 3n*fiT <TT5: 1 

19. f ftr^f ^fpnnrre^ fftr stt^t qrs: i 

20. 5TT#: ^facft jffrfgrfTTfT: ?f% STnUT <TT5: I 
21 T«TT*% f=T?ar. ?^T: ?% 3TT^ qTS: I 

22. "Tn^ar: w^^e: fq-^rar: srgsrr: ?qm: ?fcr stfr tts: i 

23. SRjar ?% stfet Trs: I 

24. f^f^r^TcT^TT: ^qjcTL ?% 3TFFT qi5: I 

25. fa?*PF*r ffcT stfr: <TT5: I 

26. srptrr;: s% 3Tr^T <rre: I 

27. srangrrf^sr *r§TWicr fcr fir sttot qrs: i 

28. srarf t: ^g ajWWresRTW ^srarfor ^ tfg- strr qrrs: i 

29. ^^^carre ?ftr srresh^pptsr ^t^: i 

30. wrif^rarTCWT: % % fcfhi<p<R? to: i 

31. ^rrFqrg ^tct^tt ^fcr ^"pg^ to: i 

Ayurveda Sauk hyam of Todarananda 283 

32. JTcf: lf?T 3TT^T 7T3: I 

33. fftfm^r^™g^^Y^ 5 p" T fV<*rr: SRTfrr qtS: j 

34. ^J?TT- 1% STTfR qT5: I 

35. c^far 5f?T 3TFPT TF5 I 

36. +K«J«5 ff% 3TT^T 7T5: | 

37. SFTfewsfT ^% stt^tt tf^: ( 

38. f$S3?fc- %U 3TT^- <TT5: I 

39. srncfar 5#r w&g*& tts: i 

40. Jfmfw wfar 3tf?>3- its; i 

41 . f^sr ?far arifTT tts- i 

42. ^3^r?r<2?ft f far 3r re>fMM% y mz: \ 

43. sftrB ^ftr 3Tr^ TTCJ: I 

44. sjr«rr ^fa" sffft to: i 

45. TT^t^f 3TTCR T>T1'*q% I 

46. *Fre%wrspjre*nflT sftr ?rm <rrc: i 

47. Jtrs^rfrenr^rfT ^f^nrpf ^^sr: ?far stfir tis: i 

48. ^t«rr s^ fcrsn^Fir tWut: ^f^ffraT ffir ari^; q- T s: i 

49. ^s^tt srg^iRn- srajrsR sfhtsNtt: sfo srr^ qrs: i 

c - W c 

50. rr>JFT E F Ti ?re E PW: iffT 5fT3>t qra- t 

51. STfe^: ffar 3TT^ TT5: I 

52. TR^Pt 5p=r3Fg: wffT STFfn? <TT5: ! 

53. ?PTf sfk srr^rj^cT^nr ^rs: i 

54. TTs^if^fT^I sfar stt^t: "7T3: » 

55. "^pfe "W^T?:" qrefcq" STR^r ffttpfwifr I 

56 *T*T sfrT m^* TT3: I 

57 $nf«r: ?f*r ^tt^t <rre- t 

58. ttht sptrraT TfT: fnrr^WBWFTfrJ 5fa m**T TO: I 

59 «p:*fr sw-srspR-: *xpt: f fa STTCR TO: I 

60. ?T%c^Tpf^: ?far srrerr to: I 

61. "*r?*T t^^:" TO^Sq- ^55*3% jftTSPKR* I 

62. ^Trr^TSTR'T: ^f<T 5U^ TO: I 

284 Materia Medico 

63. srarcrefterresfN w<w wiw^m sn %fa w&?£ tts: i 

64. faf^^'f'J 3r % f?T aiT^f "TT5: I 

65. qt^Jt ^fcT STFFT cjr ^sjScRJzfr: ITS: I 

66. 'ft^s?^^ ^% iTFfR TTS: t 

67. wnrr srf^-^r: fwsrFR^T srf^r f^rr: sfe ^rr^K tts: i 

68. ^Tfrefa ^"fajftsfa^TSR: ^r srr^f tts: i 


69. STT^spT ^% qnS3<p?# <n3: I 

70. ^firai>rr ff% srr^: tts: i 

71. f fwf: ffcr sn^ to: i 

72. *T<r: ff% ^53?cT% TO: I 

73. fafartf <>hft iRr ^3*cr% to: i 
f"cr%M?r;fr iRr vf*X to: i 

74. ^w^^r^Ti^'RrFrR'ft^sfHn^ *nb %fa m^ex to: i 

75. ^#sJrsf;r*if ^w. ^% qr^f to: i 

76. w: fRr str^ct^i to: i 

77. sjn^qfq^: ffa-srpjrf TO: I 

Tr^fV^f ^fs 1 : farn-ft ^-zifOTffsfTr^f^ ^ftr <^s3p?i% to: i 

78. wrafq^^^fafwr^TfrnFT: ^fa stfrT to: i 

79. fi^Vcft ^«r SOTpFsr ff% stt^rT to: i 

80. *%?: ?^C^T: sfg srcssfg^Jsr TO: I 

81. fiFTfir wftr srref to: i 

82. fas>W<pT Sfa WFf TO: I 

83. ?RT%qT^^rr| ^% 5TFPT TO: I 

*r?Tf^Tr wzt% *% feft»ig??r% to: i 

84. *ft*fsraNnr iftr stffjT to: i 

85. SFSTTqi^ST^TFIT ^% 3TT^T TT3: I 

86. srfft ^f% STT^f TO: I 

87. **rcT*T ^fcT 3TT^f TO: I 

88. SPjRTC fftr ?TT?iif5^g%«j TO: I 

89. pT<? 5n?R f% iTT^f TO: | 

90. Prc^TftrgT'^q- ^% i) K%*d 3>q TO: ! 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 285 

91. errr sqrrf^d*i» =5r sfa %hwk to: i 

92. msf 3^> *qrf^^%wr?nr *ni iPt siwf «rre: I 

93. cTW^Tisfq-ftT^ ^f?T m*G? "TTS: I 

94. *TTT*f f% "STES3?cl% "71^: I 

95. sppRt?r?5 5^T ?f?r flT^rf tts: i 

96. ^*pf ^nnPTfT *rrar wftr ?tt^t tts: i 

97. wi d Ph r» ^j^t^tt^: ?ftr src^ tfs: i 

98. «nrE^Tf:rsrni*r »«* 7Tstef fNtoj*?^ ^>T<FPRn-f i 

99. s%^ fNrcf *£5 l% amr^ qrs: i 

100. ^: ^r «TKsq;iF<T% qrs: i 
g-^V ?f?r f§r?fai3*;=r% «tts: i 

101. spqw Ttpj: #?TT: wfcT STPFT 7TS: I 

102. ^"frar if?r stfp^: tts: i 

103. *PT?: ^RTP^r^TT: ff<r ijtot TTS: | 

104. SHsfT: ^Tf?«T: f f%f ?TT^^ "TTS: I 

105. ff?IT ffiT WTPFC TTS: 1 

106. 5p>sNNT ff>T STT^t ^ fe?ftJI<3*a% TTS: t 

107. ^PT: *fsiT«Tf«T ^T WW^ TTS: I 

108. *'==r^ jtrftwt:" qrstsjf stfpt ^ftTsnaRF t 

109. *ur <4>t'frt'fr-w r qw'ren": ?fa srpfrf <tts; i 

1 10. sqramft qpp^pfr: ?% snPFT trs: i 

in. "ci H^M T fa'frioi «i^fm" "roter fecftar g pggr^ 

112. sPTFcTftFRT^ ff ^Rr STFFf <TT5: I 

113. ^wrfrofiFft ^fa m^t TTS: I 

114. * i vn«i i <f*T firgraT: ?fo stpft tis: i 




^frfwftc^Tt ^T: STelT ^TcT^T: VX* II \ II 

Matsya (Fish) 

Fish is unctuous, hot, sweet and heavy. It helps in the 
elimination of stool, urine and flatus. It is aphrodisiac. It 
promotes strength and alleviates vdyu. 

sirmmT^TgT^t ^r stccrF'ftaf *% ^fkm: irii 

It aggravates kapha and ^/ffa and promotes strength as 
well as plumpness. It is exceedingly useful for persons who 
indulge in exercise and walk in excess and also for those who 
have a strong power of digestion. 

sFq-rarjrw: *«n«pfapsft TTfcrfa?rf>g; i 

TtF^rT: ^T^iTRt <SR> ^"ftpRltfef^ Tl ^ II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of To^ardnanda 287 


Rohita fish is. astringent in anurasa (subsidiary taste) and 
sweet. It alleviates vayu and does not aggravate pitta in 
excess. It is the best among all the types of fiah. It is aphro- 
disiac and it cures ardita (facial paralysis). 

Nandikavarta and Sakula 

Nandik&varta fish is astringent, sweet, un-unctuous, 
visada (non-slimy), appetiser, light and constipative. 

The Sakula type of fish is slightly inferior. 



The pafhina fish aggravates kapha and is aphrodisiac. 
It resorts to sleep in excess and eats the meat of other animals. 
It causes raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from 
different parts of the body) and kugfha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy). 


'»J**ft WJfTC: 5HP <ft» l cmifctkl» ttgyT: I 

^£#: sriw mm T^TTorrfg; f^Tmi u % u 

i^rwgf etc. 

■5/TigF, madgura, sanku, gomattya, ali and trikanfaka — all 
these type of fish have spikes. These spikes are poisonous. 
But the fish when eaten is non-poisonous. 

288 Materia MeaHca 

^<TFTT: fatt fli MTwr^wrt cfjcKR^ m: II vs 1 1 

.£/7J£f fish alleviates vayu. It is unctuous, aggravator of 
kapha, astringent and bitter. Therefore, it is lighter than others 
in this group. 

fife$ wgft w&ft WF&zft WglTt ITS: I 


The madgura fish is sweet in vipdka. It is aphrodisiac, 
alleviator of vayu and heavy. 

A/?pa matsya 

Kfsna matsya is heavy and un-unctuous. It alkviates 
vcyw and aggravates kapha. 

*aarftm?^rt »J?: faprsft *F2?Ft ¥ST [?] qw *T I 

The a// fish is heavy, unctuous and pungent. 


lyfe'Tt 'T^ftTT^ns^ft ^TcRrST*: II £ It 


The pryu type of fish is heavy and unctuous. It aggra- 
vates kapha and alleviates vayu. 



Ayurveda Sauk hyam of Todardnanda 2H9 


The illisa type of hbh is sweet and unctuous. It aggra- 
vates pitta as well as kapha. It is useful for persons who 
indulge in sex in excess It excessively stimulates the power of 



The balanga type of fish is unctuous, sweet, wind forming, 
light and cooling. 

sfrtcs^T *pjn ^^rr ^s^ft stFTfrrfepfV i 


The proifikd type of fish is sweet and aphrodisiac. It is 
an excellent alleviator of vdyu. 


Nandivarta and DIrgha tundaka 

The nandivarta type of fish is heavy and unctuous. It 
alleviates voyw and aggravates kapha. It is astringent and 

The ditgha tundaka type of lish shares the properties of 

The bhdskara type of fish is sweet and un-unctuous. It 
aggravates vdyu. 

290 Materia Medica 

5lf?ft *H3 WOT iTR^q- 5PSt<T?T: \ 


The sakula type of fish is heavy and un-unctuous. It 
aggravates vdyu. 

The sailmdhu type of fish is aggravator of kapha, 
aphrodisiac, sweet in xipdka and heavy. 

The gargabha type of fish is sweet and unctuous. It 
alleviates vayu and aggravates kapha. 


The imvdka type of fis>h does not obstruct the channels of 
circulation and it cures pinasa (chronic rhinitis). 


The imbikd type of iis>h does not obstruct the channels of 
circulation. It is sweet and it increases plasma. 

W%3: »tdMr^l^ ffTfgqfr *t*ftfScrT. II U II 

Small fish 

Different types of small fish are light and constipative. 
They are useful m grahcap. (sprue syndrome). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 29 1 


The eggs of fish, tortoise and birds are sweet and 

If the egg of birds is prepared along with egg of fish, then 
it becomes unctuous, promoter of corpulence and heavy. It 
increases kapha and fat, promotes strength, produces fatigue 
and cures meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 

Dry fish 

The dry fish produces wind in the colon. It does not 
promote strength and it is difficult of digestion. 

Putrified fish 

The fish which is putrified should not be eaten. It 
aggravates all the dosas. 

Burnt fish 

The burnt fish is excellent in property. It is nourishing 
and strength promoting. 

*dm *TfTT Tc**TT *p«ft 4Hidl4*i; I 

292 Materia Medica 

River fish 

The fish collected from river is sweet and heavy. It allevi- 
ates vayu and cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleed- 
ing from different parts of the body). It is hot, aphrodisiac and 
unctuous. It produces less of stool. It is astringent in anurasa 
(subsidiary taste). The river fish feed on grass and moss. 

Pond fish 

The fish collected from big and small ponds is unctuous 
and sweet in taste. 


■QWff^T fW$mm TT^Tf^^T^rgS^T. II R° II 

Sea fish 

The fish collected from sea is heavy, unctuous and sweet. 
It does not aggravate pitta in excess It is hot, alleviator of vayu 
and aphrodisiac. It increases stool and semen. Tt is an excellent 
promoter of strength because the sea fish feed on the meat of 
other animals. 

srgsSrwft m%m ^wrecr^nfrrni: i 

In comparison to sea fish, the river fish is more nourishing 
and better in quality. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 293 

Well fish 

The fish of cunda (a big well without boundary wall) and 
well is better than the sea fish and river fish because the former 
is a strong alleviator of vdyu. The fish of vdpi (a big well with 
a boundary wail and a stair case) i?, b.tter than the fish of 
cunda and kupa because the former is unctuous and sweet in 

•fpiwr ^RT W*m f$\W% *TP-*TT: ff?n: l' 

ttptstrt wrfg T**rr spf? ^tjett ii « n 

Fish in different seasons 

In hemanta (early winter), fish from a well is useful and in 
sisira (later part of winter) fi h from big ponds is useful. In the 
spring season, river fish is most useful and in summer season, 
fish collected from lake is useful. In rainy season, fish collected 
from small ponds is wholesome and in autumn, fish from 
springs is useful. 

Different parts of fish 

The rivei fish i- heavy in the middle of its body because 
it moves with the help of the tail and the mouth. In the case 
of fish from the big and small ponds, the Head is heavy. 


The fish which does not travel long distances inside the 

294 Materia Medica 

water is harmful. Leaving a small portion behind the head, 
this fish is very heavy. 


srarrrre'R^T w^t *tc?jtt. srcfer *nrerr. i 


[g«r,?r: $*re«rff v^ : ?^-^v] 

The lower part of the pond fish is heavy. Because it 
moves through the help of its chest, its front portion is light. 


25 26 

gEFTZT: ?«H%TT *T ?f : *Th«m 5WP?=ET ^ I R^l I 
27 28 



The fish of a big size is generally heavy. In comparison 
to the fish which is very active, the one with a sluggish move- 
ment is heavy. In comparison to the young ones, the old fish 
is heavier. The male fish is heavier than the female. In com- 
parison to the fish having a soft body, the one having a 
compact body is heavier. In comparison to the birds which 
move in the sky, the animals which move on the ground are 
heavier. Those which feed on heavy and on un-unctuous 
articles in large quantities and those having accumulated fat 
are heavier. 

STffTvq- TpJ Wtw. mm snf«T?rt *rw I 

Tefrc£<TTf?fT'Rr k$& WT^sq^ II ^£ || 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 295 

Male and female animals 

Among birds the males are the best. Among quadrupeds 
the females are the h st, The hind poriiun of the body of 
the males is light- The front portion of the body of female 
animals is light. The middle portion of the body of animak 
is generally heavy. In the case of birds, their middle portion 
is better because the feathers attached to it help in its 

'wit ^ fnr-*^^r?wi^^PT i 


Different parts 

In all animais the he«d, neck, spleen, skin, liver, anus, 
feet, brain, tail, colon, testicles, pelvic region (kroda), airy 
portion {samirami) and tissue element-, like blood are progres- 
sively heavier. 


tr^MTf-Rr i'i' _ i^ ^rrsri/ T'rf^ir si 2? n 

;ppir n* 7H c f : -TT[ir? r . -frfiprnT n 3=> 11 


The meat of birds inhabiting desert i-> light and alle- 
viator of vayu. r ihc meat of birds which feed on fish aggra- 
vates pitta and alleviates vayu. It is heavy. The meat of birds 
which live on water is alleviator of A .?/>/«/, light and un- 
unctuoas The meat of birds vvhuT, eat the meat of other 
animals is nourishing, heavy and alleviator of vayu. 

tl ^fa" ipssra*? 11 

296 Materia Medica 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of meat 
and fish. 


2. ^tt i f?T srr^^T qrs: i 

6. ^;nsf%crrf^T ^f?r srrqR qrc: i 

7. TFfte: ffar <src5<pr% 7T3: I 

9. ^rjfar fq-rf' gro^ti ^T>f?r =? sf?r mw>^ q"T5. i 

10 JT^q-Tryf^ tit sffT STPW" TT5: I 

• - o 

12. srfenc^fr it- fr?r*sr. ^mm w& rrsr =w %fa *rppf tfs. i 

1 3. iprspsqT T* fcT«f: ^JT'TT ^Ta"5TT5?T?r: ffcT 5TFP"f ITS: 

14. Tf^^T T^f fw?«*. fTTfi; ^TCtr^T^ 3% ^j^-T qrj. I 

1 5. ^rf^f^W'T" Sf>T iTT'7'"" ITS' I 

16. t^t f^^crfn ^fsr^iWi^. sfa vnw^ qvs. i 

1 7. 5=f^FT ?fW <T r 3'I?='!% TT3 I 

18. qfefrriwr. sfa fem^rR? tts: i 

19. tritt *strrr *re?ir T^^ftsf^Fr^rr^r^TT: i 

TrBfqrf«F r T 3[t?n: fTfT'sftOTTT: ^T^NNr: ¥ffT ^rFFSPSTSr TT5: I 

20. S>s*P?sfaT. ff?T WITT qps: 1 

21. sr^fton ^jn^^TrfPFfRTFr^T: if?r ww? tts: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 297 

22. ??W^Wi: %fa vrmr? TT5: \ 

23. S^t f^^TojTfT ¥TT ^fa" mT.T <TO: I 

24. wzmmvn: *T7m fwzriW'HT2c , T%fecTT: ^fn sffpt qrs: i 

25. f^Fir: ?fi=r «rnp^ qrs: i 

26. f^rspf^r iffT *TT^ TT5: I 

27. fifsfp^T if*'* 5 ** f"T"nf Ts^r ^prr ^% ws q?^% qrs: i 

28. *r*fT vnij sfa wrav- t^. t 

29. ^p^TT: sfa STT^^"" TTS: 1 

30. ^Wgzvti 3% STFPT qnrs: t 

31. ?nftfw: iftr zrrvf its: i 

32. ir^^T^fra": ^ft *ffi>t qrs: i 

33. ^r5nf"jrm ffT ep^. <$*;=!% qrs: i 


'w*4 T^m wsp m?rz4 mfz ^Vtw i 

fr^srFW ^tfwd ^ mfTmfsRlfsr ^ 'I ? II 

Dddima (Pomegranate) 

Dadima is sour, astringent, sweet, alleviator of vayu, 
eonstipative, stimulant of digestion, unctuous, hot and cardiac 
tonic. It does not aggravate kapha and pitta. 

It is of two types viz., sweet and sour. The sweet variety 
alleviates all the three tfoyas and the sour variety alleviates vayu 
as well as kapha. 



srrxfrnrr^ ^Nr ?mt?| srnmfT ^ II 3 II 

Ayurveda Saukhyarit of Todarananda 299 

NTpa etc., 

Nlpa, valtika, pilu, trtiasunya, vikankata and prdcmdmalaka 
alleviate dosas and cure visa (poisoning). 

Karkandhu, Kola & Badara (Jojoba fruit) 

Karkandhu, kola and hadara are sour and they alleviate 
vayu as well as kapha. 

Ripe fruits alleviate pitta and voyw. They are unctuous, 
sweet and laxative. 

Dry fruits (puraria) alleviate tft (morbid thirst) and Srama 
(physical fatigue). They are light and digestive stimulant. 

ft "* 

Tender fruits cau>e rc/A/a /»///« (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the bod\K TIie v vit'ate pitta. 
The matured fruits are laxatKe 


fTw.fanfa ^rT c 5T t-tswst ^*\j it "5. n' 

.fwra (Mango) 

J/wra is cardiac tonic. It promotes complexion, appe- 
tite, semen and strength. It does not aggravate pitta and 
alleviates vayu. 

The ripe antra is laxative and heavy. It is astringent in 

300 Materia Medica 

auurasa (subsidiary taste). Tt increases digestive power, kapha 
and semen. 


?r^r ^sr% «rw w* wtctst tt^ n « u 

/i/wra which has become ripe in the tree itself is heavy 
and it is an excellent alleviator of vayu. It is sweet, sour and 
slightly laxative. It slightly aggravates pitta. 

7 8 

/fmra which is ripened by artificial means alleviates pitta. 
'sippra'' ^frnrmf -fan ?w^ i' 

Dry mango is astringent, sour and purgative. It aggra- 
vates kapha and vayu. 


If ripe amra is taken by sucking (cosana), then it is 
appetiser, promoter of strength and energy, light and cooling. 
It gets digested early. It alleviates vayu and pitta. It is 


sTf^T-TTrtsifr^ fgw: ^t^^ ii \° n 

The juice extracted out of it is a promoter of strength, 
heavy, alleviator of vayu, laxative, ahrdya (which is not 
cardiac tonic), exceedingly tarpana (refreshing), nourishing and 
aggravator of kapha. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 301 

TfT fww *Fq- srft^r ^FFrrsR*r u n n 

Along with sugar, the mango juice becomes very heavy. 
It is an appetiser. It gets* digested very late. It is sweet, 
nourishing, strength promoting, cooling and alleviator of 

Along with milk, the mango juice alleviates vayu and 
pitta. It is appetiser, nourishing, strength promoting, 
aphrodisiac, promotor of complexion delicious, heavy and 

JTJcrFrsypf farmer ^ 'tt-ttr ^s^raft^ ^ i 

wT"5rrf?T5T>»fr ^iFnwi m ^rnfa *r* JTRfa rnfr Tremr 1 1 ? 3 1 1 


Mango used in large quantities causes manddnala (sup- 
pression <if the power of digestion), visama para (irregular 
fever>, raUJmaya (diseases of biood) haddhagudodara (obstinate 
type of abdominal disease caused by obstruction in the rectum) 
and eye diseases Therefore, one should not consume mango 
in excess. This description relates to sour variety of mango 
and does not apply to sweet variety of mango because the 
latter is exceedingly useful for eyes and in similar other 


, 5r?ftj r 3T5 c FT?r Frrsrsnwwfffw*! i 

302 Materia Medica 

If mango is to be used in excess then milk should be 
used after it as anupdna. It can also be taken with jiraka or 
sauvarcala type of salt. 


WT^^t ^p^ WTOM^ ?f?T«r?T: II ?^ II 


If the juice of ripe n ango is spread over a thick piece of 
cloth and made to dry in sun by repeatedly adding additional 
quantity of juice, then this is called dmravarta. 


T.vq: Sfqf^fa. qrT=Ft Bf^ Tft^Rp. II ^ || 

It alleviates /ft?« (morbid thirst), chardi (vomiting), vayu 
and pitta. It is laxative and appetiser. If it is dried in the 
sun's rays, then it becomes light. 

s«i««iW wr s^^^rnTrraprrr i 

[^r^EpprsT: srrarrf^^R-if vs : ?v-? a ] 

The seed of mango is astringent, it cures chardi (vomi- 
ting) and rfbdnz (diarrhoea). It is slightly sour and sweet 
It cures hfdaya daha (burning sensation in the chest). 

Amrataka (Hog plum) 

Amrata is sour, alleviator of vayu, heavy, hot, appetiser 
and laxative. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todararumda 303 

19 26 


srqur [sRTirpr] frjfrtj ^ir href*.? ipom I 
*p> fr.^ JT«i-q-fT*;H?[rrlfciqraN?f II to li' 

The ripe fruit is astringent, sweet in taste and vipaka, 
cooling, refreshing, aggravator of i apha, unctuous, aphrodisiac, 
constipative. nourishing. heav> and strength promoting. It 
alleviates veiyu and pitta. It ture> ksata (phthisis', daha 
(burning .syndrome), ksaya (consumption) and vitiation of 


Lakuca (Monkey fruit) 

Lakuca is heavy, wind forming in the stomach and aggra- 
vator of dosas. It vitiates st men. 


Karamardaka (Carisss car&ndus Linn.) 

Karamardaka is sour and it cures /r?a (morbid thirst). It 
is appetiser and it aggravates pitta. 

\^^^zTFm q-^rspT * t : srfta^crrs:] 

Amlavetasa (Garcmia pedurtculata Roxfo.) 

Amlavetasa is exceedingly sour. It is sharp, unctuous 
and digestive stimulant. 

304 Materia Medica 

Tintidika (Rhus parviflora Roxb.) 

Tintidika alleviates vayu and produces ama, pitta as well 
as kapha. 


mm™* ^t^ fir' "j?^ ^^Tfrfr i 

Fully matured fruit of it is, constipative, hot, digestive 
stimulant, cardiac tonic and alleviator of kiipha as well as vayu. 

Amlika and Kosdmra (Tamarindus indica Linn. & Schleichera 

oleossa Merr.) 

The ripe fruit of amlika has all the properties of tintidika. 
In addition, it is a purgative. 

Kofamra is slightly inferior in quality. 

%m<j 3E?rer5*rK5f sfrftRrftrTfFq; i 

Airavata and Dantasatha 

Airavata and dantasatha are sour and they cause ionita 
pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts 
of the body). 

5|JTf;sr rrgV =fiT7T fasrc ^TfTJ^nT I 

Naranga (Orange) 

The fruit of naranga is fragrant, sweet, sour, viiada (non- 
slimy), appetiser, difficult of digestion, alleviator of vayu and 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 305 

•fawwwar arnrwr twjt im^ w\ i 

Nimbuka (Lime fruit) 

Nimbuka is sour, alleviator of voyu, carminative, digestive 
stimulant and light. 


^^^W?^%^^^FTf^P"*ri? II R\ II 

Raja nirhhu 

The fi mt of rajanimbu is sweet and heavy. It alleviates 
pitta and vayu. It cures //■,$/?« (morbid thirst), suki (colic pain), 
kaphotklesa (salivation), chardi (vomiting) and hasa (asthma). 

Jumbira (Citrus limon Linn. Buna, f.) 

Jarhbira alleviates vayu and kapha and relieves consti- 
pation. It is heavy and it aggravates pitta. 

*F€W tfiT.znm^VTKT fTrpPTTJT^ II *% II 


Karuna alleviates kapha, vayu and amadosa. It aggravates 

5T^tst^cT^ g'sr 'Trg^TjJ^^T'T II R^ II 
Mahdunga (Citron) 

Mdtulunga cures kdsa (bronchitis), ivasa (asthma), aruci 
(anorexia) and tr$na (morbid thirst). It cleanses the throat. It is 
light, sour, digestive stimulant and cardiac tonic. 

306 Materia Medica 


rvaktikii is difficult to digest. It alleviates vdyu and cures 
Lrmi (parasitic infection) as well as visa (poisoning). It is sweet, 
cooling and heavy. 

The unripe fru.t of it is cooling and it alleviates vdyu and 

Sfcpf **% ¥WrfK "pTTsffar % %5TC*J II *S. II 


Kesara promotes intellect. It cures siila (colic pain), 
vitiation of vdyu, chardi /vomiting) vitiation of kapha and 
arocaka (anorexia). It is digestive stimulant, light and consti- 
pative. It cures gulma (phantom tumour) and arias (piles). 

^STF3fT<jffe^'q l <T HFOsft MTO*m£r II 3° II 

Madhu karkafi (Sweet lime) 

Madhu karkafi shares the properties of kesara. In addition, 
it is aphrodisiac. It cures siila (colic pain), ajirna (indigestion) 
and vibandlia (constipation). It is useful in suppression of the 
power of digestion and in vitiation of kapha as well as vdyu. 

Its juice is indicated in aruci (anorexia), svdsa (asthma) 
and kdsa (bronchitis). 

'wm *np <n% #s*rsr *p sficFr^ 113? n 


Ayuneda Saukhyam of Todarananda 307 


Kapittha (Wood apple) 

The unripe fruit of kapittha is astringent, sweet in vipdka, 
aggravator of kapha, heavy and cooling. It causes impairment 
of the throat. It is visa ?a (non-slimy), constipative and aggra- 
vator of vayu. In view of its sweet, sour and astringent tastes 
and fragrance, it is an appetiser. 

=T?=r Tf^r st^tm fas?? ?fTfs? *pffqr r 

The ripe fruit of kapittha alleviates dosas. It is viSada 
(non-slimy), constipative and heavy. 

Jariibu { Jaraun fruit) 

Jambu aggravates vayu It is un-unctuous and consti- 
pative. It alleviates pitta and kapha. 


Tinduka (EHospyros tomentosa Roxb.) 

Tinduka is astringent, sweet and heavy. It aggravates 
pitta and kapha. 

STPTfTTT?^ W^ fsTETTH *TS stf^^ II 3* II 

Pnyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.) 

Priyala alleviates vayu and pitta. It is aphrodisiac, 
heavy and cooling. 


308 Materia Medica 

Parpatika (Physalis minima Linn.) 

The fruit of parpatika is astringent, sweet and sour. It 
aggravates vayu but not in excess. It also aggravates kapha 
and piita. 


'fsTrfasresr %rr *r* factor 5fr?wT i 

[garjcT: ^T Y^ : ?^] 


The fruit of k sin tree is heuvv, wind forming in stomach 
and cooling. It is astringent, sweet and sour. It does not 
aggravate vayu in excess. 


Phalgu (Ficus hispida Linn, f.) 

Phalgu is wind forming, sweet, unctuous, refreshing and 

Bimbi (Coccinia indica W. & A.) 

The fruit of 6//n6f alleviates pitta as well us blood and 
cures kasa (bronchitis), svdsa (asthma) and ksaya (consump- 

Sami (Prosopis spicigera Linn.) 

The fruit of saml is heavy, delicious, un-unctuous and 
hot. It causes the hair to fall. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Tadararmnda 309 

Mnhikd ( Vitts vinifvra Linn.) 

Mrdvikd is ?-weet, unctuou% cooling, aphrodisiac and laxa- 
tive. It cures rakta pitta t a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts if the bod}), jv, ra (fn\er)„ s>u$a (asthma), 
trsnii (moibid thnM). ddha iburnmc vvndrome) and ksaya 


The gostani type of drdksd shares all the above mentioned 
properties. In addition, it is heavy, aphrodisiac and alleviator 
of kapha. 

It has another varietj which is without seed.s. This is 
smaller in si/e. It shares all the properties of gostani type of 


Drdksd which grows on hills is, light and sour. It produces 
kapha and < auses amia pitta (hyperacidity in stomach). 

4 35 

'mm 1 ?! Tit 3TOT *q f i^^Tn^-MWi: I 
All green drill wv aggravate pitta and kapha. 


s to wi ' <H' wtf wpnrcr» ^ i^tP* w u e\ 11 


trKfrptf^ THfiif^r FTf'TT'r^Tfirr *t i 

310 Materia Medica 

Drak$a, Karira etc., 

The sour variety of drak§a, karira, karkandhu, badara, 
aruka and parusaka aggravate kapha and pitta. The sweet 
variety among them alleviates pitta. 

f«=prer f^xfi^^w.^^^n^^trfwi ii v^ ii 

Kadali (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) 

Kadali js sweet, cooling and wind forming. It aggravates 
kapha. It is unctuous. It alleviates pitta and blood. It cures 
ddha (burning syndrome), k?ata (phthisis) and ksaya (consump- 
tion). It alleviates vayu. 

The unripe kadali is un-unctuous, heavy and cooling. 
The ripe kadali is sweet and it alleviates pitta and vayu. 


Kasmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn ) 

The fruit of ka&nwiya is cardiac tonic. It relieves 
retention of urine. It alleviates pitta, blood and vayu. It is 
promoter of good hair, rejuvenating and promoter of intellect. 


•era-SRTFr^ fsr* f^of grow 3^ 1" 

40 41 

Ayurveda Sauk hyam of Toaarananda 31 1 

Kharjftiti ( Phoenix SjlYestrts Roxb.) 

Kharffu't; cures '</ u (phthMs) and Ixava (consumption). 
It is cardiac tonic, nourishing, refreshing heavy, unctuous, 
aphrodisiac and sw jet. Tt cure rah h< pitta (a disease charact- 
erised by bleeding from different parts of "he body). 


*F1?"V Ul-W^rm "JKHT-'lfejJFFTT 1 


'TPT^r^f^farwfTiTT %5t vr^rf^r TJT^*? tl *S II 

Kharjuri ( Phoenix dactylifcr linn.) 

Kharjurt is like the udder of a. cow. It has come to this 
country from other islands. In the we-tern part of this country 
it is called sakharika. 

44 45 

Another v;.net\ of it is called pinda khurjurikd and it 
grows in that country alo. 1 he third \ariet> is very small in 
size and it grows even where. 

•*nf^fafT 5fi<=r jt*t» 'srw-n i 

fairer >.f^ff;x g-?j ypc^jj^y ips ]| Yt; »| 

Hrr -T.':m^ if' ■?! F-i^spyysr i 

46 4 " 

^"ifTHT'Ti^- t ji^gH'vm?* ii '«. ii 

4.1 4J " 

jWTf*r r T|fT s ,TTfrcn r fT J T?5rTTfq^T"TI'T I 

J 50 
TT^ : s??fTtJ--f-T^TT?T^T^?I'sTf-5r^ II V,o |1 

All these thiei \:unlies of A lutrjuti are cooling and sweet 
both in taste and upaku. "I "lies are unctuous, appetiser and 
cardiac tonic. lhe> cure rtata (phthbis) and ksaya (consum- 
ption) The> aie hca\\ and nnnrishir« They cure rak ta pitta 

312 Materia Medica 

(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body). They cause corpulence and wind formation in the 
stomach. They produce more of semen, wind in the colon and 
strength. They alleviate external vayu and kapha. They cure 
para (fever), abhighdta (injury), ksut (morbid hunger), tfsnd 
(morbid thirst), kasa (bronchitis), svdsa (asthma) mada (intoxi- 
cation), murcha (fainting), vitiation of vayu as well as pitta, 
madatyaya (alcoholism) and vitiation of blood. 


The fruit of kharjurikd which is smaller in size is inferior 
in quality in comparison with others. 

52 53 

The juice of the tree of kharjurikd causes mada (intoxi- 
cation) and aggravation of pitta. It alleviates vayu and kapha. 
It is appetiser, digestive stimulant and promoter of strength 
and semen. 

The pith (majjd) of this tree from the top of the trunk is 
cooling, aphrodisiac and alleviator of pitta as well as blood. It 
cures ddha (burning syndrome). 


5T<S^FT sftrB PrTWRcT'mR'Rr II KR II 

Madhuka (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel.) 

The flower of madhuka is sweet, cooling, heavy and 
nourishing. It promotes strength and semen and alleviates pitta 
as well as vayu. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 313 


STf^' ?f??T ^qp^Tg^T^rer^SFTSTR II '<? It' 

[>rnrsr:?rrer: sn^rrf^^^r^'f a : £V€a»] 

Its fruit is cooling, heavy and sweet. It increases semen 
and alleviates vayu as well as pitta. It is not good for the 
heart. It cures trsd (morbid thirst), vitiation of blood, ddha 
(burning syndrome), svasa (asthma), ksata (phthisis) and ksaya 

*3TcZF f T'ftsr?srfT ^qT5TT57¥ ZW I 

Pariisaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.) 

The unripe pariisaka is extremely sour, slightly sweet, 
astringent in anurasa (subsidiary taste) and light. It alleviates 
vayu and aggravates pitta. 

The ripe pariisaka is sweet and it alleviates vayu as well 
as pitta. 

Tdla (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) 

Tola alleviates vayu and pitta. It is aphrodisiac. It cures 
krmi (parasitic infection), kustha (obstinate skin diseases inclu- 
ding leprosy) and rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the body). It is sweet. These are its 
seven attributes. 

314 Materia Medica 

The seed of tala is sweet in vipdka. It is diuretic and it 
alleviates vdyu and pitta. 


ipfr ^1^ ^ ^FSTf^wi^*^} II V,^ II 

The ripe tala fruit aggravates pitta, blood and kapha. It 
is difficult o f digestion and is exceedingly diuretic. It causes 
tandra (drowsiness) and abhisyanda (obstruction to the channels 
of circulation). It produces more of semen. 


5%BTT5ft srrafTrpar: W&fl *S^: WH: II Vs II 

The pulp of tender tala is slightly intoxicating and light. 
It aggravates kapha and alleviates vdyu and pitta. It is unctuous, 
sweet and laxative. 


?r^^ *rer ^mf^^frsr^sppr u k^ ii' 

The water of the tender tala is exceedingly intoxicating. 
When it becomes sour, then it aggravates pitta and alleviates 

m*rw t^ct^ ?3Tg: ^fer^fesR qr*r i 

The head of the trunk of this tree is sweet and it cleanses 
the urinary bladder. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 315 


Ndrikela (Coconut) 

The fruit of narikela is cooling and difficult of digestion. 
It cleanses the urinary bladder and causes wind formation in the 
stomach. It is nourishing and strength promoting. It alleviates 
vayu, pitta and blood. It cures daha (burning syndrome). 

The water of the tender coconut is generally purgative. 
It cures trsna (morbid thirst) and alleviates pitta. 

cpfw w^n ^rr§ TTT^r^f w^ ^r^m; i 


Panasa (Jack fruit) 

The ripe fruit of panasa is cooling and unctuous. It alle- 
viates pitta and vayu. It is refreshing, nourishing, delicious 
and promoter of muscle tissue. It aggravates kapha in excess. 
It promotes strength and semen and cures rak ta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), 
ksta (phthisis) and Isaya (consumption) 

64 65 

<JTff^T^: 3**t ^SrcftfsrasFrJT ti %~r n 

The unripe fruit of panasa is wind forming, aggravator 
of vayu, astringent and heavy. It causes burning sensation. It 
is sweet and strength promoting. It increases kapha and fat. 

316 Materia Medica 



*T^f<T ^^Tf*T «*E*P*Tf*T*nfH ^11 ^3 II ' 

The seeds of panasa are aphrodisiac, sweet and heavy. 
It causes retention of stool and helps in the elimination of 
urine and flatus. 

'*T55TT 3TqTfa fTrPSTf 1«T: S^s^nfT^TTf : I 


Its pulp alleviates pitta. It is aphrodisiac. It also alleviates 
kapha and vayu. Persons who are suffering from gulma (phantom 
tumour) and those having poor power of digestion should 
specifically avoid panasa. 

ikfoca (Musa paradisiaca Linn. Var. sapientum Kuntze) 

Moca is sweet in taste and astringent. It is not cooling 
in excess. It cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleed- 
ing from different parts of the body). It is aphrodisiac, appe- 
tiser, aggravator of kapha and heavy. 


Slesmdtaka (Cordia myxa Roxb.) 

The fruit of slesmataka is aggravator of kapha, sweet, 
cooling and heavy. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 317 


Puskara (Lotas fruit) 

The fruit of puskara is sweet, wind forming, strength pro- 
moting, aggravator of kapha and heavy. 


Udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn.) 

The fruit of udumbara is constipative and it alleviates vdyu 
as well as pitta. 

"jpr?; ^ zpqjq set ft^Tsf *nrrii WFJ^*T I 

'f**n6"^T ^ ^^TTT fw? ^5T^5q% II ^ ll" 

Valuka is sweet, astringent, unctuous and constipative. 
It produces sturdiness of teeth and it is visada (non-slimy). It 
is sweet in vipdka and aphrodisiac. It cures rakta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body). 

spqnrar fafff ^u% *£5 fw^^&PTfj; iivn 

Tinduka (Diospyras tomentosa Roxb.) 

Tinduka is astringent, delicious and heavy. It alleviates 
pitta and kapha. 


318 Materia Medica 

Priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.) 

The pulp of priyala is sweet and aphrodisiac. It alleviates 
pitta and vayu. 


Vibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.) 

The pulp of the seed of vibhitaka produces intoxicating 
effect and it alleviates kapha as well as vayu. 

Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.) 

The pulp of the seed of different types of kola is astringent 
and sweet. It alleviates pitta. 


Amalaka (Kmblica officinalis Gaertn.) 

The pulp of the seed of amalaka cures trsna (morbid 
thirst), chardi (vomiting) and vitiation of vayu. 

SWFg- V&isfaftvK: ftfRST. farnf'TSITT^: IIV9?ll' 

Bijapuraka, Sampaka and Kosamra 

The pulp of the seed of bijapuraka, sampaka and kos~amra 
is sweet in vipaka. It produces digestive power and strength. 
It is unctuous and it alleviates pitta and vayu. 


Vadama (Almond) 
Vadama is hot, exceedingly unctuous, alleviator of vdyu 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 319 

and heavy. It promotes semen formation. 


f^ift ^^sar. §fkror sfanfa" ii '^ ii 

The pulp of the seed of vadama is sweet, aphrodisiac, 
alleviator of pitta and vdyu, unctuous, hot and aggravator of 
kapha It should not be given to patients suffering from 
rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body). It is nourishing, heavy and appetiser. 


Pulp in general 

The pulp of the seeds generally follow the properties of 
their respective fruits. 

78 73 

5T#?fN" <W ^^TJTfiRf^^ ^ II V3K ll' 

Bad fruits 

Fruits afflicted with diseases and kftni (parasitic infection), 
fruits which are over ripened and which are unseasonal and 
fruits which are not fully matured should be rejected. 

ii ffar w^ ii 

Thus ends the group dealing with different types of 

320 Materia Medica 


2. *zm^ sftr WW*, tts: i 

3. TKBTTftr *% stfkt tts: I 

5. ^af qtsn^sn?nre 1 T ?Rr «rr^r tts: i 

6- ^rTCfRW ^fcT WfFcr^ TT5: I 

7. (5) trfwm 4»^r ^frr m^x tts: i 

8. ^^fcTfTHTSr^ ff?T 3TT^f TT5: 1 

10. apqi^tfrr: ffcf fS5ftT3?5l% Tra: I 

11. q-^Tfa^ %fa m^<£Z^ Trs: I 

12. iTSpTCSPT*: I^T TT 3 !^ <TIS: I 

13. ^arfpf c^T?rr ff?r WFFf <TTS: I 

14. ^^^StsgRTT wRf 5TPPT TT3: I 

15. TS ifcl 5TWT TR). I 

16. ?rr r ErT^rf^'sn'®f%^T?rf t r : rr§x:: ^fcr srwf <rra: i 

17. Tresieer^r ^far srr^f 7re; i 

18. ?r ff #f^r?r: ffcr *m»f tts: i 

19. T% «TT% ffa" STTfrf TTS: I 

20. **rcPT f fa STT^f TTS : I 

2i. *5T*5r fffT %?fnrg?gr% qrre: i 

22. facffa' ffcT W^T TT5: I 

23. qwrrr^ ?f<r siw? tts: i 

24. ¥§f ff% ?rr^T qrs: i 

25. q^^r^^f ^arB«ri^rErf'TWKor»j; ifcr siwf tts: i 

26. f%<sr^ sfcr fs?fo?s?5i% tts: i 

27. *Tf^rRT^isiTirs^ ^TfsqT^r^fcTWT^f TT5: 1 

28. fr^rswr^n ffg- ^5*3% tts: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 321 

29. '*&m *F>R*t' TOfsi f5tftJT$*5Pfr T>TW«Rt I 

30. #T^<W 1% fs^J?^% 7T3: I 

31. <R?*rsf 1% wnFT* TT5: I 

32. ^wrcrTT *r?rr *fir stff? qrs: i 

33. ^rrF^rPrfr^q; ffer "^33?^% m: i 

34. *r?: ffir stt^t tts: i 

35. fq-g-^TsreftTwr: sfa m^x tts: i 

36. STsaT^fk^p^r^^TRirrewTTfir ifir srpfrf tts : 1 

37. T^T^lfrr ^f?T sn^Ff TT3: I 

38. irqfw^^^f ^f?r Tnsrqrs^tit mz: 1 

39. ^fti^f 1% 5TFFT TT5: 1 

40. ^q^T 1% ?TT^^ TTS: I 

41. ^rsfi ^% srm^ TTS: I 

42. T^^rrf^FRrT wf% srrerf tts:i 

43. gwft%fcT ?% qr<553*?l% qrs: 1 

44. FTWST^f^T f% ffcftq"5^T% 7TS: I 

45. ^jsqir — 3rresr*FT5r: anrmfawsnf \s : ??s 1 

46. ^>STRFrfS^ ^fcT STFSf TT5: I 

47. ^T^^Trr^^TT^T f fcT WRF? TTC: I 

48. ^TTfcr^ajTTson sfa tw^T tts: i 

49. 'srcr^wfasrrc'PT 3% srnpf tts: 1 

51. Tf?ft"«it W^tt ^T'srsff^r *^rr ^r stfft tts: i 

52. ^fr^^ ^ t^ crT5: ' 

53. w%?r ^ftr STprf "tts- i 

54. srRrfTTrf^TRFriT ^fa ?rrerf tts: i 

55. ^T dP MTl ^ 5% amrf TT5: I 

56. q<^s5rcrf^¥srasrqT5T ffa srrerf tts: 1 

57. 5 Sfa SH^Pf 35: i 

58. fq-TT^r^^fcr^^^friT ffa wnn^5i% tts: i 

59. «RTTSfiTKF?^i^ ^fcT ?TT*FT "TO: ! 

322 Materia Medica 

60. f+d^HSfTt ^fcT VfTW>\ TT3: 1 

61. wf| **nft«rasfST5Rtor$^ ^Rr stct" its: i 

62. fassfi^sn: fftr srrcsn^er^-q; <rre: i 

63. TTRpTrr^TWirR ff?T STRrf <TT5: I 

64. 5THp*njr ff?r srresrg;^ qrs: i 

65. f^-^T'T fi% fgcftsrgscr^ ttc: i 

66. T^^TjcRterrfr ff?r srr^f qrs: i 

67. sr^rfsr^Tfa- ifcr stp?>t tts: i 

68. s^sir*? — TTresr^Rr: sTrsTrfe^sTspf vs : ^s. i 

69. faf 1% STTSFf TT5: I 

70. *&*§X ^SPFr f% STFFT <TT5: I 

71. 5ftfF^T tfi^T =!TTf^ f% STTSFT <U3: I 

72. f*TZTT?rir«rr wf?r stfft q<ss<pcr% ^ qrre: i 

73. twVgRTl" ffrT STFFT "TT5: I 

74. ^irr^sf fT^r^T^r %fa m^f to: i 

75. 'WRW^if f^crrfWPT^:' qTStsq- ^5 3*3% Ttq*mi% 1 

76. '^^^r ^facrsfo:' TTsYsif ^^s3=rt% ?rt<m«Tcr i 

77. sfof *Rf?T tfsr STFFT TO: 1 

78. f^ft^r ^j%- m^x to: I 

79. JTf^^*FT5T5r*T ff?r sn?5r3sg% qrs- i 

80. swnrfrr?!^ ^f>r stt^t qra: i 


f qsi gsq «B*f tth if« w^rssi ?t«tt i 


Saka (Vegetables) 

Saka is of seven types, viz., leaf, flower, fruit, stalk, 
rhizome and samsvedaja (those produced by moist heat). These 
are progressively heavy. 

^STTpT ^|^^!% g^f^'HTT^crrf'T *r II ^ II 

Generally all types of saka are wind forming, heavy and 
un-unctuous. They produce more of stool and help in the 
elimination of stool and flatus. 

^steitt *r#5fr«nsft aiNreft tt^t ffirr i 

Jivantf (Leptadenia reticulata W. & A.) 

Jvvanti promotes eyesight and alleviates all dosas. It is 
sweet in taste and cooling. 

324 Materia Medica 


TantfulTyaka (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.) 

Tandullyaka is sweet in vipaka and abhisyandi (which 
obstructs the channels of circulation). It cures visa (poisoning). 


'5r^r^Tr% f>f*r§T trsrrfT?r:g*r5r;§f;T. i 

tfSTTT: m^tq&ft WTSgqft fhPT: STT: II V || 

Vastuka (Chenopodiam murale Linn.) 

Vastuka is light for digestion. It cures krmi (parasitic 
infection). It promotes intellect, power of digestion and 
strength. It is alkaline. It alleviates all dosas and it is 
appetiser and laxative. 



Cili and Palankya (Chenopodium album Linn, and Spinacea 

oleracea Linn.) 

Cili shares the properties of Vastuka. Palankya shares 
the properties of tandullyaka. In addition it aggravates vdyu 
and causes retention of slool and urine. It is un-unctuous 
and is useful in the aggravation of pitta and kapha. 


'«H|*: *FPrr?rs?r: crr^n spwT«R: i 
f^W?T: farT^T: 3%rfi: »PTSFnfo: II \ |l' 

[^erws^nrw: mw%*s rr : ?-^] 

Kasamardaka (Cassia occidentalis Linn.) 
K&samardaka is sweet, alleviator of kapha and vdta and 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 325 

carminative. It cleanses the throat. It specially alleviates pitta 
and it is bitter in taste. 

Kakajangha (Peristrophe bicalyculata Nees.) 

Kakajangha cures visa (poisoning), rakta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), 
bhrama (giddiness) and para (fever). 

Methikd (Trigonella foecum-graecum Lino.) 

Methika is wholesome, laxative and alleviator of all the 
three dosas. It specifically alleviates vdyu. 

'f%retaJEFPft chtt "Bwmr^ft ^t^ftY i' 

[TFprsrsinrur: ssrppent R? : vs] 

[fl^ssw, sn^wt '^ : =; 1 
Kakamdcl (Solanum nigrum Linn.) 

Kdkamacl alleviates all the three dosas. It is aphrodisiac 
and rejuvenating. It is not very hot and is cold in potency. 
It is purgative and it cures knstha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy). 

Satina (Pisum sativum Linn.) 

The saka of satina is slightly bitter. It alleviates all the 
three dosas and it is pungent. 

326 Materia Medica 

ssnyrRTCi m^> g^t ^^ww* u 5. 11 


The saka of harimantha is sweet in vipdka as well as in 
taste. It is difficult of digestion. 

Kalaya (Lathyrus sativus Linn.) 

Kalaya is purgative, un-unctuous and sweet. It aggravates 
vayu in excess. 

*i*rawpwi> 5 fsrctaspnf w% 11 ?© u 
v(Tf% ?r^r ft-^ir 5[|iiT?jfffq-^TfTirFfr 1 


The 5<2fca of rajaksavaka , alleviates all the three dosas. It 
is light and constipative. It is specifically useful for patients 
suffering from graham (sprue syndrome) and arsas (piles). 

jpqTSTTWf^crT fa^ ?^T|f?RBT^T f^TT II ?? II 

Mandukaparni and Gojihvakd (Centella asiatica Urban 
and Launaea asplenifolia Hook, f.) 

Mandukaparni is astringent and useful in pitta. It is 
delicious, bitter in taste, cooling and light. 

Gojihvakd has similar properties. 

Sunisannaka (Marsilia minuta Linn.) 

Sunisannaka does not produce burning sensation and it 
alleviates all the three dosas. It is con§tipatjve, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 327 


^WTT WTqTTSRT ^rfiRt ! 5|Tf*5T5ta?ft II ?3 II 

Cahgeri (Oxalis corniculata Linn.) 

Conger! cures grahani (sprue syndrome) and arias (piles). 
It is sour and useful in the aggravation of vayu as well as kapha. 
It is hot, astringent, sweet and digestive stimulant. 


Kamcata alleviates vitiation of blood, pitta and vayu. It is 

12 13 

Modaka alleviates kapha and vayu and it is constipative. 

Fiar««a and Prapunnata (Crataeva nurvala Buch. — Ham. 
and Cassia tora Linn.) 

The saka of varuna and prapunnata alleviates kapha. It is 
un-unctuous, light, cooling and aggravator of vayu as well as 

Vatsadani etc. 
The .safcff of vatsadani, leaf of ftz/ra, sreyasT, tilaparni, 

328 Materia Medica 

gandira and cifraka is useful m the aggravation of kapha and 

Kdlasdka (Corchorus capsularis Linn.) 

Kdlasdka cures gara (a type of poisoning), aggravation of 
kapha and sotha (oedema). It is digestive stimulant and 

14 15 

Varsabhu (Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.) 

Both the type of varsabhu alleviate kapha and vdyu and 
they are useful in sotha (oedema), udara (obstinate abdominal 
diseases including ascitis) and arsas (piles). 


Cirabilva, Ankura and Asana 

The sdka of cirabilva, ankura and asana is digestive stimu- 
lant and it alleviates kapha as well as vdyu. 

18 19 

%ift: srKt #CTrs?rT: cpqrirf^ f^?Tf|5=r: I 

J'e/w Karira (Bambusa arundinacea Willd.) 

The karira of venu aggravates voyw and pitta. It is un- 
unctuous and pungent both in taste and vipdka. It alleviates 
kapha. It is astringent and it produces burning sensation. 

ctstt ifwrtfTrwTfT ^n»rfq?rfTr: *ym: nun 

Freshly sprouted karira is known to alleviate kapha and 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 329 

21 22 

Ataru§aka etc. 

Atarusaka, vetrdgra, guduci, nimba, parpafa and kirdtatikta 
alleviate the vitiation of blood, pitta and kapha. 

Vdrtaka (Solanum mclongena linn.) 

Vdrtaka is pungent, sharp, hot, sweet, alleviator of kapha 
as well as vdyu, alkaline, digestive stimulant, cardiac tonic and 
appetiser. It does not aggravate pitta. 

23 24 

cr^ Tins %%&$ spqj^raT»raTq-^r n ^ it 

The tender vdrtaka alleviates kapha and pitta. The matured 
vdrtaka is alkaline and aggravator of pitta. When over matured 
(brddha) it is heavy. The dried vdrtaka cures the diseases caused 
by kapha and vdyu. 



Vdrtaka burnt over charcoal reduces kapha, fat and vaju. 
It is very slightly light and digestive stimulant. It aggravates 
pitta. When mixed with oil and salt it becomes heavy and 

330 Materia Medica 


28 29 


Vartaku stimulates digestion, alleviates vdyu, promotes 
semen and blood and cures aggravation of kapha, kdsa 
(bronchitis) and ksaya (consumption). 


Brhati (Solanum indicum Linn.) 

The fruit of brhati cures kandu (itching), ku§tha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy) and krmi (parasitic infection). 
It alleviates kapha and pitta. It is pungent, bitter and light. 


"55T <sw facets ^ cTFT fa^R^T || ^ || 

Patola (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) 

The leaf of patola alleviates pit ta. Its stem alleviates kapha. 
Its fruit alleviates all the three dosas and its root is purgative. 

Karavellaka (Momordica charantia Linn.) 

Karavellaka is an appetiser. It alleviates kapha and pitta. 
It reduces virility. 



Karkopka and Hastikarkofika 
The fruit of karkopka shares the properties of karavellaka. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 331 

Hasti karkotika has similar properties but its fruits are bigger in 


fatr^r ^s*w*ffe ton? Wrofirer 11^11' 

Vandhya karkoti and Kevuka 

Vandhyakarkoti and kevuka cure vwo (poisoning) and 
alleviate kapha as well as pitta. 


Srfe f^G2T¥qffr«sirf?5 ?3T§qT?^3f ^ r 
Kusmdndaka etc. 

Kusmdndaka, kalinga, karkofi, ervaru t dindisa, trapusa and 
cfndka are wind forming, alleviator of kapha and vayu, purga- 
tive, abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels" of circulation), 
sweet in vipaka and taste and heavy. 

Kusmanda (Cucurbita pepo F.I.) 

The tender kusmanda alleviates pitta. The mature kusmanda 
alleviates kapha. The ripe kusmanda is light, hot, alkaline and 
digestive stimulant. It cleanses the urinary bladder and alleviates 
all dosas. It is cardiac tonic and wholesome for patients 

suffering from mental diseases. 

332 Materia Medica 


Alabu (Lagenaria siceraria Standi.) 

Different 'types of alabu are purgative, un-unctuous, 
coolmg and heavy. 

*P&i*ft ftm f«T frfr^mfwsrTT^T n 3^ n 

Kafu tumbl 

Katu tumbi is cooling and cardiac tonic. It alleviates pitta 
and cures kasa (bronchitis) and visa (poisoning). 


Trapusa, En am & Kakaru 

Trapusa, ervaru and kakaru are heavy, wind forming, 
cooling, delicious and un-unctuous. 

Trapusa (Cucumis sativus Linn.) 

Trapusa is diuretic and it exceedingly aggravates vayu. 
Trapusa when it is green alleviates kapha and pitta. When it 
becomes yellowish in colour, it aggravates kapha. When over 
matured, it becomes sour and it alleviates vata as well as kapha. 


srsrrcfqTn?r %«r sfttif^f ^pett^t it 3*. u 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 333 

Ervaruka (Cucnmis ntilissimus Roxb.) 

The ripe ervaruka cures daha (burning syndrome), trsna 
(morbid thirst) and srama (physical fatigue). It is alkaline and 
aggravator of pitta. 

Ervaruka whose stalk is dried up alleviates kapha. It is 
purgative, digestive stimulant and cardiac tonic. It cures anaha 
(flatulence) and plihan (splenic disorder). It is light. 



Kusmanda nddi 

The stalk of knsmanda is alkaline, sweet, appetiser and 
un-unctuous. It alleviates vdta as well as kapha and removes 
aimari (stone in the urinary tract). It is heavy. 

Alabu naiika 

The stalk of Alabu is heavy and sweet. It alleviates pitta 
and aggravates vayu as well as kapha. It is un-unctuous, cool- 
ing and purgative. 


Pafolikd (Trichosanthes cucumerina Roxb.) 

Paiolika is purgative, sweet, unctuous and mostly wind 
forming. It aggravates vayu and alleviates kapha. It is cooler 
and it cures aruci (anorexia). 

334 Materia Medica 

^eftfoffT ^TT f^TTSTT ST^rr *%«* qnft ffWT 1 1 3 S. 1 1 ' 

Upodika (Basella rubra Linn.) 

Upodika is sweet in vipaka and taste and aphrodisiac. It 
cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from diffe- 
rent parts of the body). It is laxative, strength promoting, 
aggravator of kapha and cooling. 


Aruka (Primus domestica Linn.) 

Aruka is alkaline, aggravator of kapha and heavy. 




Nirica is slimy by nature, cooling, wind forming and 
aggravator of vayu. It cures rak ta pitta (a disease characterised 
by bleeding from different parts of the body) and is delicious. 

50 51 



Marusa is sweet, cooling, wind forming, heavy and aggra- 
vator of pitta. It has many varieties, viz., red, blue etc. and 
all of them have the same properties. 

53 54 

Ayurveda Saukhyaih of Todarananda 335 

Kalambuka (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) 

Kalambuka promotes lactation. It is cooling, heavy and 

Hilamocikd (Enhydra fluctuans Lour.) 

Halamocika is purgative. Tt alleviates kapha and pitta 
and cures kustha (obstinate skm diseases including leprosy). 

Grisma sundara 

Grisma sundara alleviates kapha and pitta. It is bitter and 


Spf^Cfa^TT W^V ^5TT ^^ftfw^T II VV || 

Mula kapotikd 

Mula kapotikd is pungent and bitter in taste, cardiac 
tonic, appetiser, digestive stimulant, alleviator of all dosas, 
light and promoter of good voice. 


Mulaka (Raphanus sativus Linn.) 

Mulaka is heavy, wind forming and sharp. It produces 
dma and aggravates all the three dosas. When prepared along 
with fat, it alleviates all the three dosas. Its fruit alleviates 
Icanha and nitta and its flower alleviates kanha and vdta. 

336 Materia Medica 

AH types of saka, when dried cause wind formation and 
aggravate vdyu. Mulaka, however, is an exception. 


f^^>rs?rTf^Jrf^ 5IWT 3W<f3T ȣ5 II Y^ || 

Sarsapa (Brassica compestris Boiss) 

The saka of sarsapa alleviates all the three dosas (?). It 
is abhisyandi (which obstructs the channels of circulation) and 


cr#3r TTfswr fcTfRT wtsm q^fnsr: *r:: i 

Rdjika and Pancdngula (Brassica nigra Koch, aud Ricinus 
communis Linn.) 

Rdjika shares the properties of sarsapa saka. In addition 
it is bitter and sharp. 

The Saka of pancdngula is laxative. 

Kusumbha (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) 

Kusurhbha is un-unctuous and hot. It aggravates pitta 
and alleviates kapha as well as vdta. 


Masa (Phaseolus mungo Linn.) 

The leaves of masa are slightly bitter, sweet and promoter 
of semen. 

62 63 

Ahastini and Pati&ra 
Ahastinl and pattdrd are diuretics. They cure aSmari (stone 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 337 

in the urinary tract). 


Nyagrodha etc. 

The leaf of nyagrodha, udumbara, asvattha, plaksa, padma 
etc. is astringent, constipative and cooling. It is useful for 
patients suffering from paittika type of atisara (diarrhoea). 



Sarhsvedaja (Mashroom) 

Mushrooms which grow on palala (straw), iksu (sugar- 
cane), karlsa (cow dung), ksiti (ground) and venu (bamboo) are 
called sarhsvedaja. All of them are cooling, astringent, deli- 
cious and slimy. 


Mushrooms which grow on straw are heavy. They pro- 
duce chardi (vomiting), atisara (diarrhoea), jvara (fever) and 
diseases caused by kapha. They are sweet in vipaka as well as 
taste and un-unctuous. They aggravate dosas. 

68 69 


'[^TfcTStT^TTsNr:] $reTFcT«ft fe*rft?TT: WV>\\ 

Mushrooms which are white in colour, which grow in 
clean places or on wood, bamboo and cattle shed are not very 
injurious. Remaining types of mushrooms should not be 

338 Materia Medica 

71 72 

Another variety of mushroom is called khukhundaka. It is 
less injurious and it grows on the ground and in a cattle shed. 
It is aphrodisiac, strength promoting and nourishing, 


[TTsrsrssipj'Tr: srrspPT RR : J^-V*] 

All the mushrooms are known to be wind forming and 
they aggravate vayu. 

74 75 


Pinaki aggravates vayu. When it is green it is an appe- 
tiser and stimulant of digestion. 

Vidari (Ipomoea panicalata R. Br.) 

Vidari alleviates vayu and pitta. It is aphrodisiac, strength 
promoting and rejuvenating. 


Satavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.) 

Satavarf is an excellent promoter of strength and eyesight. 
It alleviates vayu and pitta. 


i^eft ^ for ^ »r«rrf^wwfsr5fV u *A n 
The bigger variety is a cardiac tonic and promoter of 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 332 

intellect, power of digestion and strength. It cures grahatfi 
(sprue syndrome) and arias (piles). It is aphrodisiac, strength 
promoting and rejuvenating. 

78 79 

Its sprouts cure kasa (bronchitis) and alleviate pitta. 
They are bitter. 

3W faflSTTaw 5Rts=rrT^f «S%WB[ I 

Visasaluka etc. 

Visasaluka, krauitcadana, kaseruka, spigataka and galo- 
<fkya are un-unctuous, heavy, wind forming and cooling. 

Pauskara (Lotus seed) 

The seed of puskara cures rakta pitta (a disease characteri- 
sed by bleeding from different parts of the body) and para 

cr«rr <rmsi*nf ^ ^sFrcresn-qf*? u «.=; u 
Tula pralamba (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) 

The inflorescence of tola cures urahksata (phthisis). 

81 82 83 

Munjdtaka (Orchis latifolia Linn.) 

Munjataka alleviates pitta and vayu. It is a cardiac tonic 
and delicious. 

340 Materia Medica 


Tf^fq- ^Tf#fTTf?r ^cFsngsFFCTfar ^ II ^o n 
Aluka (Dioscorea Sp.) 

Sankha, hastika, raktdnga, madhupindaka and sungaka — 
these are the different types of aluka. They cure rakta pitta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from_ different parts of the 
body). They are heavy, delicious and cooling. They promote 
lactation and semen. 


Pinddruka (Coiocasia esculenta Schott) 

Pinddruka aggravates kapha. It is heavy. It also aggra- 
vates vdyu. 


Surendra kanda (Amorphophalus sylvaticus Kimth) 

Surendra kanda alleviates kapha. It is pungent in vipdka 
and it aggravates pitta. 

88 89 

'*5*r: gjgrctn: ^*^§ srr?rftra?T: srer i' 

Kadali kanda (Musa paradisica Linn.) 

The rhizome of kadali promotes strength and it alleviates 
vdyu and pitta. 


Trow ^i% sjfof ^r «pj =srrfa sr^tRr^nr u^u 

Mdnaka (Alocasia indica Schott.) 

Manaka is sweet, cooling and heavy. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 341 

cfWq-: sreift ?™*r: 3>q^ft fwff <?m: i 

Surana and Bhukanda 

Surana is digestive stimulant, appetiser, alleviator of 
kapha, visada (non slimy) and light. It is specifically useful for 
artos (piles). 

Bhu kanda is exceedingly harmful. 

91 92 

Amlikd kanda 

The rhizome of amlikd is useful in graham (sprue 
syndrome) and arsas (piles). It is light and not very hot. It 
alleviates kapha and vayu. It is constipative and is useful in 
maddtyaya (alcoholism). 


sfTErpTT: f<reraT*PTT fer<n% *t*gn f^m-. u ^ n 

Kumuda kanda etc. 

The rhizome of kumuda, utpala and padma aggravates 
vayu. It is astringent, alleviator of pitta, sweet in vipdka and 

95 96 97 

iro^V f^ofr ifarr ^srfCTmffsftr?TTq-fT i 

Musali (Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker) 

MusalT is nourishing, aphrodisiac and hot in potency. It 
cures arsas (piles) and vitiation of vayu. 

342 Materia Medico 

99 100 

Vardha kanda (Tacca aspera Roxb.) 

Varaha kanda alleviates kapha. It is pungent in taste and 
vipdka. It cures kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) 
and krmi (parasitic infection). It is aphrodisiac and it promotes 
strength as well as complexion. 


102 " 

spsstttPt ^BirTfq- sftwsforsrsrfrr ^ II %* II 

C C\ G 


104 105 

S^I^fa STCT \m ^ftcTTfT ^fspofw ^ 1 1 %, S. 1 1 

Tola siras etc. 

The top portion of the trunk of tala, narikela and kharjura 
is astringent, unctuous, sweet, nourishing and heavy. It helps 
in the elimination of urine. It is aphrodisiac and vitalising. It 
is always useful for persons who have lost their strength and 
potency. It cures kdsa (bronchitis), rakta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), 
vitiation of vayu and visa (poisoning). It is cooling and 


Bad quality 

All rhizomes which are immature, unseasonal, old, 
diseased, eaten away by parasites and which are not properly 
grown should not be used, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 343 



The description of the properties of different type of 
dhanyas (corns and cereals), mamsa (meat), phala (fruits) 
and saka (vegetables) which is omitted here by mistake should 
be determind by the Wise by examining the taste and attributes 
of mahabhutas in them. 

n f% ■mm^m: n 

Thus ends the group dealing with different types of 


I. '3ft »r«NTq" T*T:' <TT5>OT ^^^% gq-JTRRT I 

4. Trmf^sr^sFT" ? fe srr^: fs^srp?r% ^ q-rs: i 

6. fTxTSFfiTTf T f fcT 5TFP^ <TT5: I 

7. *raxT 5% fSf*ftaS?5T% TO: I 

8. Tffifa^feq^TFr ^ftr arr^5??i%<5 to: i 
9- ^TcftT^MT ^f?r «rr«pt to: t 

10. qvwiig ff m i% srpFt to: i 

II. ^TF5TT ^% STFfT% TO: I 

12. *f?TTf *F ^T^T sftr 5?T^ TO: I 

13. ^OT ?% ^5^5?^ TO: ! 

14. *qff*»sft *f?r sn^tf^^f to: i 

344 Materia Medica 

15. f%€\ sft*fterrafcn*t ?fcr m^\ qrs: i 

16. ^^^T^JTTf^^Tf^^tf TT: ¥TT: f% 5TT^ TT5: I 

17. *P$n": ^fcT STT^ RTS: - 

18. ^TT: ?fcT STRj^ TT3 I 

19. ST^TPTT ^f% 5TT^ TT3: I 

20. ?rratf tfp^t^ ffcf sir^ tts: i 

21. faTRTf?reKrf|;3T ^far sm^ tts: i 
22 srf fqrFPwqi r. %T^ mwt qrc: i 

23. cr^r ^% srr?^ qrc: i 

24. 5 ?fcf STFF^ TT5: I 

25. ^^faW^oSIsf ?ffT SfT^ ^^cT^ -ST qT5: I 

26. ct^f w% wr^5??t% qrs: i 

27. TrT^cFTT^Rlr f% 3TT^ TT5: I 

28. sr^r^re^'TTspft ?fa m^ qrs: i 

29. ^T^ffa^lt ^% STFfrt qT5: 1 

30. qwftfr ^f?r ^g#3?^% qrs: i 

31 q-nstsr stt^ *frq"^q?r i 

32 ^TT%"?T5fr^^i-JT %fa stt^ qra I 

33. rrs<r 'j^cftT 1% m^. qrs- i 

34. efeq-sFpfe %?PP sf?T STT^ qT5. i 

^f'^r^T^fe: %=r ^rfcr fsdrTq^^ qrs i 
36 mm srwsfhr 5 *f%s qrq^Tg-fcra *rfa wt^ tts- i 
37. ^iffSr^TSTT^fa Sfa" ^gsfqr?^ qre I 

39. ^refsnt ^ ^r ■* ^r w |?r c^rfcr tfsr *tt^ ^gq-g^rl. *r qre: i 

40. ^r*r ?Rhf ^f ^wt Pttt^t *5jcw iftr arre^: qis. i 

41. sT^^w^iffrfjr f1% an"^ qrs. i 

42. f ^T^TC5^3<?<?PT ^% STT^ TTS: I 

43. #<wcr ere s^Tf ^q?r ^fq^g^ i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 345 

*raTW£tr ^wn ^Tgrfqg^Tq^r n ^% stf^ qrs: i 

44. f^TCTf^^rflpft ?fcT fartftar$RI% TT5: I 

45. 'f^^r^cT^TSTT'-'-q^tflT^r' "TTstsq- =^#3?gf% srfwfrq'rprci^ i 
46- sqtWr Ar fs5fhT3?g% tts: I 

47. fsprasq- ir-sttc srfovrwreT *pj [?] f% fgrcforqjcr^ qre: i 

48. S^vrreflTf^y: ifa src^ qT5: I 

49. ^Tg^rfsfar: ^fcr ^g^5?cr% zwfK =*r qre: i 

50. qvgwt fftr ^3^5^^% qre; i 

51. fqtr^ *pj: ?f?r stf^: qrs: I 

52. TrFrr5TR^f^r5% % ftr ?rr^; tts: i 

53. s^raw ^r ipff ^ ^#3?Fcr% qre: i 

c ^ 

54. gj^f ?>t ^f?r ^5#3^cr% qre: i 

55 ^?%^5T *RT f % 5TT^ qT3.' I 

^I^tF^t f err fftr fgcfteqj*<=r% qrs: i 

56. ^sfmf-^V %fa srT^ qrs. I 

57. f^^srfg-f^ ^ fcf ffcft5T3^ri% qrs: 1 

58 'vrf*^ ^^•prfcrcf' qTstsq- fecfrq-qj^ ffrqsn^ ) 

59 fepfw ^fifc^f^ ^fn 3TTSFT qT3: I 

60. ^^TT fcfffi: f fa STRr^ qrs: 1 

61. imw^ ^f% srnpt qTs i 

62. *ft§ ftcpflr ?ffr m^\ ^%mftt ^ qre: i 

63. w^T^-^hfcifr ^fa srr^ ^sfq^^ ^ qre: i 

64 5ftc!T- ¥fa 3TPF* qT3. ) 

65. q?T15T^TtQ'%F?T%^T: ^fcf ^3^3^% qT5: I 

66. '^Fr^reg ^^Tgfqfss^T' qretszf f5cft^"3^ci% TiqcT^rg" i 

67. q^MsrT: f % srr^: tts: i 

68. *pRWf ^% str^ qre: I 

69. sfn^swtsrsrar^r: sfa" an?5?f^cr%i qre. i 

70. qrstsq - ^^gj^cr^ Trqw^Tcr i 

71. Tfs^q^q^q-re^ ^fa srr^ qis: i 

346 Materia Medica 

72. '^Tf^>^^-"s^^^nre:' Trstsif fgtftag*a% sftw«i3r i 

73. ©wr iftr srrer* tts: i 

74. Prwrrifr ^rTcr^?r ffgr stt^ tts: i 

75. *TT?5T 1% m^rt TTS: I 

76. *wrr sRTprft i^rr 5% shrtS: <ra: i 

77. t^r sfir 3tt^I qrc: i 

78. ^FBf^fr^TftdTb I ^cT^^TT ^fcT 5TT^ T1S: I 

79. s^err. if?r m^ tts: i 

80. ?T¥5fsr^iT^#^T^R^^r ?f?r sn^t tts: i 

81. fT^raraft ^fa fswtspp?r% qra: i 

82. *pr. ffcT *Wt ^5«fS?cr^ ^ TO: I 

83. CTl^«rRW. ft% «TPP^ 7T5: l 

84. #^ft^^^^fa*§^'RnT i% srppt tts: I 

85. W^nncTF^RT^ ^f% *nW3?3ft><J TT3: I 

86. fWT5£ff 1% 31 T^: TT5: | 

87. ^s: *far srr^ its: i 

88. STSTflre^JFT W% *TFPt TTS: I 

89. 'sre*rr*"'Ercrr' <nstsf ^3^3*3% sftTsrHRj" 1 

90. fW ^fcr sn^g^n* qrs: 1 

91. ^r: ^f% srr^ qrs: 1 

92. ^%^re^r , ' , ?p=r I qrsTsr ^g^g^r jftq^pKr^ 1 

93. JnWPttFrr: f% 3TFF% qT3: l 

94. tt^-CT: 1% %n^\ TO: I 

95. ^T3ft 5% *rpf>% ^«T3??t% *T TO: I 

96. ^WfwiT55?ffsfq-^nT^T 1% qT^ TO: I 

97. ?T^q- 55ffavpn«F ! cn3[ '^ff^R^T^r: farTf TiT: l' TTStsif fefor- 

98. ^rTT^?: %fa 3{mrk. TO: 1 

99. f^M^Tt«|<sftwr: f<nra*T: *% «n^ "f^^r* *r TO:| 

100. mv wihi^TRfgr^ '^> ^htt: *%wr«r: f<TrTWt tw^t;' 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 347 

101. zrmm ff% fefta3*5r% tts: i 

102. sffaR sftir^TTpT ^ 1% %(T^ <TT<5: I 

103. SFPR %fa ^5«f3^cr% q-TS: ! 

104. isf^CTfa- f% stffS: qrs: I 

105. fs^r^^crwr: 3p?=r '-^fcr sttspwt:" ?% Tfof I 

106. ^T^f srTTxfa ?f% =^5^^% ITS: I 

107. 5T*TT<?T<r ^% 3TT^ TTS: I 

108. *T*rrf3rirc S3ipT?T?<Tff5: 1% 3TT^ qTS I 


'crfesfn- T^tfTT sftf^ar % *r 5*it?pi: i 

Dhanya (Corns and Cereals) 

Among the corns and cereals, sastika, yava, godhuma. red 
variety of sdli, mudga, adhaki and masura are the best. 

ttit: fpc*fr £f^q#erf¥rft<?r ! hr q^ ^r i 

2 3 

iTzr^ffanrferr ^cst *TT*TT'Jt<sr ^ h ^ u 

Mamsa (Meat) 

Among different types of meat, the meat of ena, kuraftga, 
harina, tittiri, lava, mayura, vargi (?) and kurma are the best. 


TTSTTCT *ng#rreH3"'T STflT^ II \ II 
Phala (Fruits) 
Among different types of fruits dadima, amalaka, draksa, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 349 

kharjura, parusaka, rdjadana and matulunga are the best. 


*ro3Wff sffa^rft 5TW?*f WS9% II V II 

Saka (Vegetables) 

Among vegetables, caiicu, satina, vastuka, cilia, mula- 
kapotika, mandukaparnl and jivanti are the best. 


Tpsr SrffafcT sf<S5 #=srHf ^gmij ^ I 

J&fra, Ghfta and Lavana 

Among milk and ghee, those derived from the cow are 
the best. 

Among salts, rock salt is the best. 

Sour and Pungent articles 

Among sour things, dhatri and dadima are the best. 
Among pungent things pippall and ndgara are the best. 


Bitter and Sweet articles 

Among bitter things patola is the best. 
Among sweet things ghee is the best. 

JSt Vr* ^ w* s^ ,, , u 

Astringent things 

Among astringent things, honey, pugaphala and parusaka 
are the best. 

3^0 Materia Medico. 


Sugarcane products and Drinks 

Among sugar cane products, sarkara is the best. 

Among different types of drinks, sura and asava are 
the best. 


sr^ftRPT^ 5 prefer Tresr <pw i 

qrSf "TTk^f STTW^Kp cr^f jtwt u' s II 


Among different types of dhanya (corns and cereals), those 
preserved for one year are the best. The meat of animals in 
their middle age is the best. Food which is not stale, which is 
properly prepared and which is taken in proper quantity is the 
best. Fruit which is matured is the best. The vegetable which 
is not dried, which is tender and fresh is the best. 

*T%*[ *%*:: «f«5: «P331T%<J ^TT: I 


Among different types of tastes, the sweet taste is the best. 
Among the rhizomes surar^a is the best. Among the different 
types of water, divya (which is directly collected from the sky) 
is the best. Among different types of fish, rohita is the best. 
Among the different typos of oil, til oil is the best. 

Thus ends the section dealing with different types of best 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 351 


1. ^fw. fa%TPJ5?W 1% m^ TT5: I 

2. T5I»srfiR>*rfJH- iftr ?TT^ 7T5: I 

3. *mr»r<Jr<* ^fa- srr^ <tt3: i 

4. *ngg^* t B553-»f i% ?tt^: tts: i 

5. ^w^^T^F-f^^yt^y^Trfcr^T: ^ fa srr^ qrs:i 

6. STFFsr'fi sr?q% ^ftr f§rcft2T3^cT% ITS: i 

7. SiH ^t f f% 5TR^ <tts: t 

8. ^TTT ^% 511^: 'TIS: I 

9. "reta*rrcrf% %fo srrc^: tts: t 

10. sn(5 ^% fe^Vq-g^ tts: i 
li. qT^r^% ^#3*3% m: i 

12. 3rq^fq^TTTF# ?f% qTC#p3%<| TTS: 1 

13. T%T"'^f<rf?r: TTStS5T fsdWj^J sft<ra«I% I 


Sweet Taste 

Sweet taste is a promoter of eyesight, pleasing, aphro- 
disiac and nourishing. It cures rakta pitta (a disease character- 
ised by bleeding from different parts of the body). It is reju- 
venating, heavy, cooling and unctuous. 

1 2 


fr?Fsftis<jfy [ 5 ] **ft erqr [srffa'] «rrafr vxmm^: i r i i 


Sour taste 

Sour taste is unctuous, hot, light and alleviator of vayu 
and vitiation of blood. It produces stickiness. It is sharp 
and laxative. It reduces semen, constipation and eye sight. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 353 


Saline taste 

Saline taste is purgative, promoter of digestive power, 
appetiser, unctuous, hot and heavy. 

^'stftsfrfffcrxi'f^r^ rfafW: *nfasre: sps: l|Y|| 

Pungent taste 

, Pungent taste is karsana (which eliminates by force), light, 
un-unctuous and hot. It cures krmi (parasitic infection) and 
reduces semen as well as kapha. It is an appetiser, stimulant 
of digestion, aggravator of pitta, chedi (which has the power to 
penetrate by incision), sharp and producer of dryness (iosa). 


t&$. ^ftcft SPjfcTtE: SfTTW Ff^T5fr?r^cT 1 15(11 

Bitter taste 

Bitter taste alleviates kapha as well as pitta. It cures visa 
(poisoning), stickiness (kleda), kandu (itching), kustha (obstinate 
skin diseases including leprosy) and para (fever). It is un- 
unctuous, cooling, light and drying (sosarid). It cures krmi 
(parasitic infection) and stimulates the power of digestion. 

9 10 

sp^TEf: sffaor: **T*ufr tfT^t TtTOT'fterr: I 

[TTTer^g-sinTur: ?$&$ ^Y : %-%] 

Astringent taste 

Astringent taste is drying, stambhana (which causes reten- 
tion), constipative, healing and pidana (which causes pain). It 

354 Materia Medica 

alleviates vitiation of kapha, blood and pitta. It is un-unctu- 
ous, cooling and heavy. 

II wfa srfSTT: It 

Thus ends the section dealing with the attributes of the 
six tastes. 


1. T3k3T ^fa" feftag*^ <TT5: I 

2. TS ?fa f^ffag^r TT5: I 

3. snpq?<ft ff?r fe^t^cr^ wrs: i 

4. %*fW. fasfsTRT^fe^T f% r5^3^T% TT5: I 

5. t%: if?r sn^: qrs: i 

6. ^jfrs^rfq^r^ : 5%?Tr cfrspr: sfrqt ^?: «par: if%- srr^ tts: t 

8. s^ft STWfe^rT;: ^fa 3TT^ TT5. I 

10. TtTirsfWnT: ff?r ^q^^ <tts. i 




Manda is prepared by filtering once, twice or three time*. 
Thus, it is of three types. 


io/a manda 

Ldja manda is prepared either after frying or without 
frying the ldja (fried paddy). Before preparing lajd, the rice 
should be made clean. Thereafter, for its preparation water is 
added four, three or two times. The former varieties are lighter 
than the latter ones. 

t-rrewr^t fsr^FTt q-sir: qr^prfrqR: II ^ II 

Ldja manda is wholesome for a person whose body is 
cleaned by the administration of elimination therapy. It is 

356 Materia Medica 

carminative and a digestive stimulant. 


When added with pippalf and nagara it helps in the eli- 
mination of vayu through the downward tract. It is a cardiac 

qr^TT sftcRspiNr fq-rR^^riwr'Tf: n 3 u 


Dhanya manda 

Dhdnya manda is carminative, digestive stimulant and 
alleviator of pitta, kapha and vayu. It cures §ida (colic pam), 
anaha (flatulence) and vibandha (constipation). 


q-TcT ^rr sranfc f<ref *rr*r 3T crw*^ 11 v 11 


Vafya maiyda 

Vafya manda mixed with pafola and magadha is useful in 
the aggravation of vayu, kapha and pitta, in ama and in the 
beginning stage of jvar a (fever). 

Vafya manda is prepared by fried barley and laja mapda is 
prepared by fried iali. 

, 8 

9 10 

*f*St ^^f 11 ^ W^jft TrBfTrTSr^T^T: II ^ II 

Raktasali manda 

The manda prepared of red variety of Mi etc., is sweet and 
cooling. It is the most wholesome, refreshing and strength 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 357 

promoting. It alleviates rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body). 

f^5^ft#?«T^f|-i|d<H Jl ft?W *rf: f%q% ^T^: mall 

S^RTTfrft ^^ftfxTf ^TT 3W 5T%?«S2»F»r> ^ IPS: ll^ll 

Asfaguna manda 

The manda prepared of two prasrti of good quality rice 
and half in quantity of mudga mixed with kafutraya (sunfhi, 
pippali and marica), kustumbari, saindhava, hingu and oil is 
called astaguna manda. 

It promotes appetite and cleanses the urinary bladder. It 
promotes vitality and blood formation. It cures jvara (fever) 
and aggravation of kapha, pitta as well as vayu. 


TTfjfTrTft ?rrfV SSTCTcfarr-WM^H: II 5. II 


The manda prepared with the help of the hands and a 
piece of cloth and sprinkled with the powder of saindhava cures 
rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different 
parts of the body). It is constipative and cures jvara (fever) and 
atisara (diarrhoea). 

*Ffsf>frfcr #crtftr ?ki w^FRTfa u ?o u 

Manda stimulates the power of digestion and helps in the 
elimination of vayu through the downward tract. It softens the 
channels of circulation and pfbduces sweating. 

358 Materia Medica 

[msR-SS^T'T'Jr- q-os^sf ^U. : ?-??] 

After fasting, purgation, and digestion of the potion given 
for oleation therapy, if the patient feels thirsty, then manda 
helps m the sustenance of his life because it is a digestive 
stimulant as well as light. 

u ?fcr w^n- II 

Thus ends the group dealing with different types of 


1. ^fef¥rf?^r ?1% srrer^ ^5^3?^% ^ qrs: 1 

2. "Tftsf*?^- ifa 5TT^ TT5- I 

3. ^WT ?fa STF!^ TTS: I 

4. Pr^^TTiRTf^5r- 5% WPP* <TTS: I 

5. TT^Ffs: 5% STP^ ITS' 1 

6. 3T?t°to ifcr ?rr^ qrs: i 

8. TrR5rT?irTf^ftTsrW^TgT %fw 3TT^ TTS: I 

9. ^ST: *f?pfm ST?*TT TxfiF<TTr5rerF?T: ¥fa ^q^cT^ <TT5. I 

10. TrRfaxi" srg-T^r: f fcT 317^ TT5: I 

11. ff ?fa m^ tts: 1 

sr ^fcr ^«rg/Fa% tts: i 

12. ^wtarrerTw: f% ?tt^: ^3^3*3% =sr tts- i 

13 ^TSiTcfr ^fcT ^TT^^rT^^ TT5: J* 



^I^Tf^TSr^TsfV ^ETT ^Tcr^^fsg^ftJPTffV II ? II 


Peya cures ksut (morbid hunger), trsa (morbid thirst), 
vitiation of vdyu, weakness and diseases of the pelvic region. It 
causes sweating, stimulates the power- of degestion and helps 
in the elimination of vdyu and stool through the downward 


Vilepl is refreshing, a cardiac tonic, constipative, strength 
promoting, wholesome, sweet in taste, light and a digestive 
stimulant. It cures ksut (morbid hunger) and trsa (morbid 

360 Materia Medico. 



Yavagu cures trsna (morbid thirst). It is light and a 
digestive stimulant. It cleanses the urinary bladder. In para 
(fever) and atisara (diarrhoea), yavagu is always useful. 


JTCFFTFrfq- 3m: [qTsrcrl^srereir: i 


Pdyasa, krsara etc., are the different varieties of yavagu. 
Payasa is also called ksaireya, ksira and paramanna. 

"w^TsrcofcfaPT: wrer =arf^r?rT i 

crT^^i^wsT'TirFs^TRr fafspftfrr^ iiv.ii 

Yiavagw is prepared by adding different drugs and when 
properly prepared yavagu enhances the properties of these 


Payasa is wind forming and strength promoting. It in- 
creases fat and kapha. It is heavy. 

^farRTn - *T?qT f^Tfa^T%?fr II ^ II 


Krsara aggravates kapha and pitta. It promotes strength 
and alleviates vayu. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 361 



Delicious variety of anna promotes pleasure, strength, 
corpulence, enthusiasm, refreshment and happiness. 

The anna which is not delicious acts other wise. 

4 5 

gsftaw^r: f^??r: srerijfr fa5jrs> «nj: i 

If the rice is washed well, boiled and after boiling the 
residual water is removed then it becomes visada (non-slimy) 
and light. 

The odana, which is hot, is wholesome; otherwise it is 


7 8 

zpsftrn: cf^#f^prr^5ft cffazTc^fT II 5. M 

If the fried rice is washed once twice or thrice, then the 
odana becomes progressively lighter and more stimulant of 

irT-cfr g-'fwr q-cirr *r ^ sfrvr<Tsn-feraT. u ?o u 

If the anna is prepared with fat, meat, fruit, rhizome, 
pulse, sour thing or milk, then it becomes heavy, nourishing 
and aphrodisiac. 

9 10 

362 Materia Medico 

Anna, which is exceedingly hot, reduces strength. If it is 
cold or dry then it becomes difficult of digestion. If it is 
exceedingly sticky, then it produces glani (tiredness). If it con- 
tains unboiled rice then it is difficult of digestion. 

Ghola bhakta 

Ghola bhakta (curd mixed rice) is cooling, sweet and sour. 
It cures arsas (piles). It is an excellent stimulant of digestion. 
It cures srama (physical fatigue). It is refreshing, -a cardiac 
tonic and appetiser. 

sftersf *mii ^sr stt'st <rfof q^ | 


Freshly prepared rice soaked in water is cooling, sweet, 
un-unctuous, alleviator of fatigue, refreshing par excellence, 
light and easily digestible. 

fa5>PFtq-T ^r T?r^;3r*f q^q i 

?%^%^:^q?t^^rf^ ^m^nf MST *rft«qcnT ll?V||" 

[*TT«FrSwpjTir: ST^SRr R\ : V-?3] 

If this prepared rice is soaked in water and kept over 
night, then it aggravates all the three dosas. It is un-unctuous. 
It produces more of stool. It is a diuretic par excellence. It 
increases sweating, fat and kapha. 


II ff% qrrf^if: II 

Thus, ends the group dealing with various types of peyd 
and allied preparations. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 363 


1. s^rsurT^TfH^^qf f^rdirf^fnrftpft ^ftr stpp^: tts: i 

2. qr«t>*tf<T33T: ^f% fefftrp^ <TT5: i 

3. ^^pr^w'T^Tf if?r wk#3^ci% tts. i 

4. fa^d^r. ^t% fscfN"3^ci% tts: i 

6. *£S£5nj^r5T#er fsrf%rerffq- ^fcr sttc^s^ <rra: i 

7. q-sft^nC^T^^ift^ - ifg STRSfg^cT^ ire: i 

8. sratf^pftefft f fcT ^gsfg^rr^ tts: i 

9. srcg^TT'f ^fa =^3^cT% *rre3: ^ rrs: i 

10. ^f% ^t% ^afs*^ 5TT^ ^ TTS: I 

ll. srwts^r ff?r stt^: *rre: i 

12. *%Sf3r<?: ffg- STT^JfcT^I ITS: I 

13 tp*sttV. if?r fefTT3*?r% q-^; , 

W% SFTWT : %fa Wftft TT5: 1 




The ,s5/>a prepared of corn which is well steamed, dehus- 
ked and fried, is light and useful. If it is mixed with the juice 
extracted from steamed vegetables and with fat then also it is 

If the supa is prepared of corn which is not steamed and 
which is not mixed with fat, salt and juice of vegetables, then 
it is not useful. 

f%?5^f^- WW% m WZPHW;: fr?TT: I 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 365 

Yava saktu & Canaka saktu 

Saktu prepared of fried yava or cariaka along with their 
husk is very useful in summer if taken along with sugar and 

sfsssc: srcferavrm ^f^r snret ff^r: \ 

3 4 

T^[^T:] inffift fSTT: ^mm *?fct ^ K T: 1131 1' 

&z/i saktu 

Saktu prepared of s&li is digestive stimulant, light, cool- 
ing, sweet, constipative, cardiac tonic, astringent, appetiser and 
promoter of semen, 


zmxr. *repr sffar: srarer: ^rrf^Rf^r^T: i 


Another view 

Saktu prepared of s&li is sweet, light, cooling and consti- 
pative. It cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the body) trsna (morbid thirst), chardi 
(vomiting) and para (fever). 

^re fon i <<S£^ i% fwtr^Mrerqr^r i 

Laja saktu 

The saktu of laja cures chardi (vomiting), atisara (diarr- 
hoea), trt (morbid thirst), dsha (burning syndrome), visa 
(poisoning), murcha (fainting) and jvara (fever). It becomes 
more effective in these conditions when this saktu is mixed 
with honey and sugar. 

^q^Rrq^PTirr: ^r^^^ra^r ti %. it 

366 Materia Medica 

Yava saktu 

The saktu of yava is depleting, digestive stimulant and 
un-unctuous. It aggravates vayu and cures diseases caused by 
kapha. It helps in the elimination of vayu and stool through 
the downward tract. 


<ftcrr: srcnftfrr fsrn sreft f| wsrcsfrr: i 

^rcrrfrq'T^'sirTJrm^fti^TqrT sPTTTfT u vs n 

When used as a drink, j>av<2 saA^M is refreshing and a 
cardiac tonic. It promotes strength instantaneously. It alle- 
viates the fatigue of persons who are emaciated by exposure to 
wind, sun, walking and exercise in excess. 

iff Frit ^TRJr«f srseft w*r faqr^qrcr i 

If it is used in the form of a bolus (pindf) then it is very 
heavy and un-unctuous (khara); otherwise it is light. 


Avalehika prepared of saktu gets digested early because of 
its softness. 

8 9 

JTTfasCsft ?TTftrcrFsff *«T ^Tf?pftT?r II 5. II 

Saktu kneaded with ghee and mixed with water is called 
mantha. It is neither very thick nor very thin. 


^^R^rerrg^. fq-gfw*FR«pr i 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Toaarananda 367 

Mantha promotes strength instantaneously and cures 
pipasa (morbid thirst) and daha (burning syndrome). Along 
with, sour things, fat and guda, it cures mutra krcchra (dysuria) 
and ndavarta (flatulence). Along with sugar, sugarcane juice, 
honey and draksa, it cures diseases caused by pitta. Along with, 
draksa and honey, it cures diseases caused by kapha. Along 
with the three groups of drugs, it helps in the elimination of 
stool and dosas through the downward tract. 

STRtHSTT: prere: *^^Rftft«r: I! \R II 

Dhanolamba is very light and it reduces kapha as well as 


«PI¥pTrT5n?PflRT ^^ ^^ fl.TT: II ?3 II 


Laja cures trt (morbid thirst), chardi (vomiting), atisdra 
(diarrhoea), adiposity, meha (obstinate urinary disorders inclu- 
ding diabetes) and aggravation of kapha. It cures kasa (bronchi- 
tis) and alleviates pitta. It is a digestive stimulant, light and 



Prthuka is heavy, unctuous and nourishing. It aggravates 
kapha and promotes strength. When impregnated with milk, it 
alleviates vayu and works as a laxative. 

$6g Materia Medica 

«HTT fwfWi - ^«TT ?FT<jft tpjnft 1^: I 

Dhana is wind forming, un-unctuous, refreshing, deplet- 
ing and heavy. 

t Cg & fc& t "$? "%*£ faWTTSTSf tB5T«T II ?*. II 


The fried fruit of nispava is wind forming, difficult of 
digestion, un-unctuous, cooling, aggravator of vayu and consti- 


Tayxdula pisfa 

All types of pastries prepared of tandula cause sandhdna 
(union of tissue elements), krmi (parasitic infection) and meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes). 


If freshly harvested tandula is used for this purpose, then 
it is extremely difficult of digestion, it is sweet in taste and 

[*ftr IJTTfont:] 

Thus ends the group dealing with different types of supa 
and allied preparations. 


l. ^3- 5;% srrsf^: errs.- 1 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda %69 

3. *r% 3f?T ^TJRT* TT5: I 

5. mpj *TTC Wfcr *TR^5«I% 7T5: I 

7. srsfr^fasrsfTr: fftr src^ tts: i 

8. TTfcTS^rr ^f?T 3TT^ ITS: \ 

9. TTferarrer f fa arre^: tts: i 

io. srFs^gst ^f% fcfta3*cr% <rrc: i 

11. Twflnaftwrr sfa sr&X <tts: i 

12. gcinr: w#7;^RTTf ^ra^rr fflr srpf3: qrs: i 

13. ^m^fcT^TrTT ?% *r§«T3??T% 7T3: I 

*fsTFT^f? c r5£'TI*f %fb STT^ TT3- I 

14. SWTf^s^t ffa SfPPt TT3: 1 



fW TTO ffjf 3?*f f'ftrf Tt^^f ST^T II ? II 

Meat boiled with fat, milk, dhanyamla, phalamla and 
kafuka (spices having pungent taste) is useful, strength promo- 
ting, nourishing, appetiser and light. 


?F%^r *fr*srreT^ gTf*rsT3irsrefi'cr*r i 

If meat is prepared with milk and added with fragrant 
spices.< then it reduces (?) pitta as well as kapha and increases 
strength, muscle tissue and the power of digestion. 


ifTSTWP fwt f^T«f 5T<fw sffrnf T^ I 
Dried meat is sthira (which produces stability), unctuous, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 371 

refreshing, pleasing, heavy and appetiser. It promotes strength, 
intellect, digestive power, muscle tissue, ojas and semen. 


If the meat is burnt on the fire and then fried, then it is 
called ulapta. It shares all the properties of dried meat. In 
addition, it is the most wholesome as a promoter of digestion. 


m *R3T %f3=^csrf^ q^q-rw: n h. ii 

If the meat is burnt over charcoal then it is called Sulika. 
It is heavier because it gets excessively burnt. 


'^■cciT^^f ^ q-«?r mfo^ 5 qr *ti i 

Different preparations of meat viz., utplusfa (burnt), 
bharjita (fried), pis{a (made to a paste), pratapta (heated), kapu- 
pacita (boiled with pungent spices), parisuska (dried), pradigdha 
(excessively burnt), sulya (burnt over charcoal) and similar other 
preparations are always wholesome for persons having strong 
digestive power. Khaniska type of meat preparation is 
exceedingly heavy. 


Meat prepared in oil is hot in potency, aggravator of pitta 
and heavy. 


372 Materia Medico 

Meat prepared in ghee is light, digestive stimulant, car- 
diac tonic, appetiser and promoter of eyesight. It is not hot in 
potency. It alleviates pitta and is pleasing to the mind. 

9 10 11 

Saur&va type of meat nourishes all the tissue elements. It 
is specially useful for patients having mukha&osa (dryness of 
mouth). It is an excellent curative for ksut (morbid hunger) 
and trsna (morbid thirst). It is delicious and cooling. 


Mamsa rasa 

Meat soup is refreshing and vitalizing. It cures §vdsa 
(asthma), kasa (bronchitis) and ksaya (consumption). It alle- 
viates vayu, pitta and fatigue. It is cardiac tonic. 

It is useful for persons having less of memory and ojas, 
imperfect voice, para (fever), ksfya (emaciation), k§ata (phthi- 
sis) and broken and dislocated joints. It is also useful for thin 
persons and those having less of semen. It causes nourishment, 
samhanana (joining of tissues) and promotes semen as well as 

mrfrnprt *pr: tf*$cft 3Jta*rp?rJT: n \\ w 

The meat soup prepared along with dadima is aphrodisiac 
and alleviator of do$as. 

Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todarananda 373 


The meat, from which juice is extracted, does not produce 
nourishment and strength. It is wind forming, difficult of 
digestion, ununctuous and aggravater of vdyu. 

14 15 

Meat is always useful for persons having a strong power 
of digestion. It is very heavy. 

16 17 

TtVi faTftT ffFTKf g^jfafe ^fW^ II *V II 

19 20 

^e*f m^^rsF^ erg; wtrrafarfa"^?!; u? K.n 


The meat which is free from bones, which is triturated in 
a pastle and mortar after proper boiling and which is prepared 
by boiling together with pippali, marica, sunfhf,' hingu and ghee 
is called sorava. 

ii i% irraTf^PK: n 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of meat 
and their different preparations. 


1. fFRsf ^fcT STFP^ ITS: I 

f*raj ^% fscftag^r ms: i 

374 Materia Medico 

5. t%f^cT Sfferef 1% 5TT^ TT5: I 

8. %f& ^^r^t^fcR '?r«r TresRnrr : — 
STfatf «Tf%W ft*WT srir|w%cf tst: I 
[frftnj] ^ citt ^ ^ gerowf i 

afsnf *TT*f ff sr?*r s^ g^of ftrrTf?r^Tq-f | 

^rref farr qnp ^% arefrRfar ^rst i 
s^wrfW *&t ^nr ^t^t 2* i 

srcfts*re f eft t: Pp¥t TmssrHFPnrfw 5«r *r?n<r sFHT^jMprjr 1 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 375 

<re<n%T VW$ 5F*mf <TT^5f> TT I 
rtimftM *<**;«« TO. 

ft <\ *» 

w "S Cs Cv 

9. ^r^wrq-^: *fa «TT^ <TT5: I 

10. 5TT??r: 5% fefta 1 ?^ TT3: I 

11. sfttTT: ffcr 3TT5r#re<r% TT5: I 

14. ^gr^Tfarg'ifa" f55fta<Tsa% »ns: i 

15. ^taTFftaT *TC: TTStsq- =erg«f<T*cl% ^ftT^TRt I 

16. ^Tft*T T ffcT fafol^5T% TO: I 

17. ifomf ^fgr fi?ftq^?i% tts: i 

18. ^fofffsfhsrofcm*r sfa farefta^?^ <tts: i 

19. tT^^T ifcT fafa»$R[% TTS: I 
t^sf lf% *RJ<f^Fcl% TO: I 

20. *ffal«rmfcr f % fs<fcFPRl% TO: I 




Mudga yusa 

Mudga yusa alleviates kapha, stimulates digestion and tones 
up the heart. It helps in the elimination of dosas even for 
persons whose bodies are free from dosas by the administration 
of elimination therapies (?). It is wholesome par excellence. It 
is of two types viz., kj-ta (which is fried with ghee etc.,) and 
akrta (which is not fried with ghee etc.,). 

3 4 

g- spszft ^q-qpF!i=sr ^WrqT*rfsrctw?r II R ll' 

[Tr^ms-s^T. qrfprensnf ^\s : ^£.-3 ?] 

Raga sadava 

If mudga yusa is added with d&dima and mrdvikd then it 
is called raga sadava. It is aphrodisiac and light for digestion, 
It does not aggravate dosas. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 377 


The rdga s&dava prepared of masura, mudga, godhuma, 
kulattha and salt does not aggravate kapha and pitta. It is 
extremely useful in diseases caused by vdyu. 


The rdga sddava prepared of mrdvtkd and dddima also 
alleviates vdyu. It is appetiser, digestive stimulant, cardiac tonic 
and laghu pdki (which is easy for digestion). 

Papla yusa and Niinbu yusa 

The yusa prepared of patola and niinbu cleanses kapha and 
medas (fat). It alleviates pitta. It is digestive stimulant and 
cardiac tonic. It cures krimi (parasitic infection), kustha (obsti- 
nate skin diseases including leprosy) and jvara (fever). 

gf% SflRT^WRT SF^^tT^^fFr II % II 

Mulaka yusa 

The yusa of mulaka cures iva-rat (asthma), kasa (bronchitis), 
pratisydya (chronic rhinitis), praseka (excessive salivation), 
arocaka (anorexia) and jvara (fever). It reduces kapha and 
medas (fat). It also cures gala graha (obstruction m throat). 

t^PEFTf: II V9 || 

378 Materia Medica 

Kulattha yusa 

The yusa of kulattha alleviates vdyu. It cures sarkara 
(gravels in the urine), asmari (stone in urinary tract), tuni (a 
disease characterised by acute pain in intestine, anus and 
phallus), pratuni (a variety of tuni in which pain starts from 
anus and moves to the intestine), kdsa (bronchitis), arias (piles), 
gulma (phantom tumour), meha (obstinate urinary disorders 
including diabetes) and aggravation of kapha. 

tT^^FgfeTTT^TT "T^GSW 31% || t; It 


q^^wfep ^m 5rTcrf¥cRT<ETT^: I 


5iwr ^rew* m ^t% 5*n% ^ qft ii 5. n 

Panca musfika yusa 

Panca musfika yusa is prepared by taking one musfi (hand- 
ful) of each of yava, kola, kulattha, mudga, mulaka and sunthi 
(instead of five, six items are included in the text) and boiling 
them in eight times of water. It alleviates vdyu, pitta and kapha 
and is useful in gulma (phantom tumour), sula (colic pain), kdsa 
(bronchitis), svasa (asthma), jvara (fever) and ksaya 


^pfnirrwrt ^ g^c*^ *Tq> Tsrfift ^qjflr^^rr II ? o it 

Navdnga yusa 

Navdnga yusa is prepared of mudga, dmalaka, yava, 
dadima, karkandhu, mulaka, sunthi, kand and kulattha. This cures 
diseases caused by kapha. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 379 

Other varieties 

The yusa prepared of dadima and amalaka is cardiac 
tonic, alleviator of dosas, light, vitalising and digestive stimu- 
lant. It cures murccha (fainting) and medas (adiposity). It 
specifically alleviates pitta and vata. 


The yusa prepared of mudga and amalaka is purgative and 
it alleviates pitta as well as kapha. 

The yusa prepared of paitcakola (pippall, pippali mula, 
cavya, citraka and nagard) and kulattha is a promoter of 
good voice and alleviator of vSyu. 

ir*^\ St^^ WFTTffasFSppT II ?3 II 

Fora manda 

Yava manda alleviates vayu, pitta and kapha. It is car- 
minative and digestive stimulant. It cures sula (colic pain), 
anaha (flatulence) and vibandha (constipation). 

Sarva dhanya marida 

The marida prepared of all the types of dhanya is nourish- 
ing and vitalising. 


Khada and Kambalika 

Khada and kambalika are cardiac tonic. They are useful 
in chardi (vomiting) and aggravation of vsyw as well as kapha. 

380 Materia Medica 

The yusa which is prepared by adding dadhi, matsya and 
articles having sour taste is called kambalika. 



Dadimamla promotes strength, alleviates kapha and vdyu 
and stimulates digestion. 


Dhanydmla is digestive stimulant, cardiac tonic, aggravator 
of pitta and alleviator of vdyu. 


Dadhyamla aggravates kapha and promotes strength. It 
is unctuous, alleviator of vdyu and heavy. 


Takramla aggravates pitta and visa (poisoning). It 
vitiates blood. 



iff to and .<4&f to yusa 

The ywsa which is not mixed with fat, salt and pungent 
spices is called akrta. Kfta yusa, on the other hand, is prepared 
of pungent spices, fat and salt. 


Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todarananda 381 

Other varieties 

The yusas prepared of milk, dhanyamla and the yusa of 
sour fruits are progressively lighter. Whether fried or not they 
are useful. 



Sandaki is prepared of oil cake, dry vegetables and ger- 
minated corns and cereals. They are heavy and they aggravate 
pitta as well as kapha. 

?r^> !£^>tt ^qr fsrr Tt*FPfrT*rr. i 

*prs«S<i«irt*ft8r*rwrT ww wi n \° ii 

Raga sdndava 

Raga sdndava is light, nourishing, aphrodisiac, cardiac 
tonic, appetiser and digestive stimulant. It cures bhrama 
(giddiness), mrtyu (apprehension of death ?), trsa (morbid thirst), 
chardi (vomiting) and srama (physical fatigue). 



Rasdld is an appetiser, strength promoting, unctuous, 
aphrodisiac and extremely nourishing. It causes oleation of the 

*%^?f *[*«i£cb* tpf stsufqwrf*? ii ^? ii 

If prepared by adding guda and curd, then it is cardiac 
tonic and alleviator of vayu. 

382 Materia Medica 



Panaka of gutfa (whether added with sour things or not) 
is heavy and diuretic. 


Panaka prepared of khanda, mrdvlka, iarkara and sour 
things is extremely sharp and cooling. It is not harmful. 

TTffa 5 «PT?T JTS^feT^TCTT^T II R3 II 

Panaka prepared of mrdvika alleviates srama (physical 
fatigue) and cures murcha (fainting), daha (burning syndrome) 
and jvara (fever). 

cpscrsFTUTt ^Ffarq-f f ST fassfr^T TFreW I 

The panaka prepared of parusaka and kola is cardiac tonic 
and wind forming. 


S3iRR>Fgr^n:Fr frr^r *rm ^ *sp^n\ i 


Depending upon the ingredients and the method of 
preparation, the heaviness and lightness of a panaka should be 
ascertained and their dose should be determined accordingly. 

TWPTT: SftTfrcTT 3T?qT ^qT [ f SIT: ] ^rf^R: I 
27 28 29 

*T5Tf?T: sfe^T ?ft«FTT ^T^Rm: II ^X. II 


Different types of bhdk?ya prepared of milk is strength 
promoting, aphrodisiac, cardiac tonic, fragrant, adahin (which 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 383 

does not produce burning sensation), digestive stimulant and 
alleviator of vayu. 



Gkrta pura 

Ghrtapura is instantaneously vitalising and a cardiac tonic. 
It aggravates kapha and alleviates vayu as well as pitta. It is 
aphrodisiac, heavy and promoter of blood as well as muscle 



foSTf^T: PTtPPTT ffiTT: wnfrr. II ^ II 

Gu4a bhaksya 

The bhaksya prepared of guda is aphrodisiac, heavy and 
alleviator of vayu. It causes burning sensation and aggravates 
pitta. It is nourishing and aggravator of kapha. 


35 36 

*T^> f ^TT^T »Tt?^T^TfT f#TT: II ^ \\ 

Madhu sirsaka etc. 

Madhu Sirsaka, samyava and pupa are specially heavy and 

Modaka is difficult for digestion. 


384 Materia MeAica 


Saffaka is appetiser, digestive stimulant, promoter of good 
voice, alleviator of pitta as well as vdyu, heavy, extremely deli- 
cious and vitalising. 



Abhisyanda is cardiac tonic, fragrant, sweet, unctuous, 
aggravator of kapha, heavy, alleviator of pitta, trptikara (which 
causes satisfaction) and promoter of strength. 

39 40 41 

^TT: Twr^rmT^Tt WTO <B»WTTO II \\ ll' 


Phenka etc. prepared of §ali rice are nourishing, alleviator 
of vdyu as well as pitta, strength promoting, aphrodisiac, cardiac 
tonic, extremely wholesome and light. 


Phenaka prepared by filling with vesavara of mudga etc. is 
wind forming. If it is filled with the vesavara of meat, then it 
is heavy and nourishing, 

41 44 

•#nwrd *j* ftfrnsft ww>r*r*prTO i 
Vesavdra is heavy, unctuous and promoter of strength as 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 385 

well as plumpness. 


Palala and Saskulf 

Palala aggravates kapha. SaskuII aggravates kapha as 
well as pitta. 


<?qsT wsprr ^irr ^rf^sr: sfte«r<fcft i 

Parpafa and Kslra parpati 

Parpafa is light and appetiser. Ksira parpati is light par 


'fawfanr. PrfRra- s^s^t fjpsnr^a- i 

Paisfika bhaksya 

The bhaksya prepared of pastes is hot in potency and 
astringent. \i produces more of wind and causes flatulence. It 
aggravates pitta and alleviates kapha. It is laxative. 

48 49 

fo$S*F$5TT ?TSm »[^>sfa5yf<TTRT: 113*11' 


Virudhaka bhaksya 

The bhaksya prepared of germinated grains is heavy. It 
aggravates vayu as well as pitta and produces a burning sensation 
as well as stickiness in the body. It is ununctuous and it 
vitiates eyesight. 


386 Materia Medica 

52 53 

Another variety 

The bhaksya prepared of fruit, meat, vasa (muscle fat), 
vegetables, oil cake and honey is a cardiac tonic, strength pro- 
moting, heavy and nourishing. 

54 55 


Pupaka prepared of milk and sugar cane juice is heavy, 
refreshing and cardiac tonic. 

56 57 


wrr w?5TR=f i^rra^ wt % *r^r: wmi ii^ii 

Other varieties of bhaksya 

The bhaksya prepared of gug*a, tila, milk, honey and sugar 
is strength promoting, aphrodisiac and extremely heavy. 


f^T: g^TftsRt HPSTT srsraft ^rqTf^TT: I 

STTcrfq-TT^T ^m ^^ffesTgrp^T: II 3£ II 

The bhaksya prepared by frying with ghee is cardiac 
tonic, fragrant, aphrodisiac, light, alleviator of vdyu as well as 
pitta and promoter of strength, complexion as well as eyesight. 

60 61 

3^TT 5RT^cr^f^H?TT: fa^^JFPJTT: II Vo u 

The bhaksya prepared by frying with oil produces burning 
sensation. It is heavy, pungent in vipaka and hot. It reduces 
vdyu and eyesight and vitiates pitta as well as rakta. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarancmda 38? 

The bhaksya prepared by adding fruit, meat, sugarcane 
products, tila and masa is strength promoting, heavy, nourishing 
and pleasing to the heart. 


The bhaksya prepared by frying on a piece of earthen pot 
over charcoal is light and aggravator of vayu. 

64 65 

The bhaksya prepared of kilata (a milk product) is heavy 
and aggravator of kapha. 

66 67 


Kulmasa aggravates vayu. It is ununctuous, heavy and 

66 69 

5^07 ir^piftg ^s^rwf *rTf«rerr: \ 



A physician should know that the attributes and the 
potency of a type of bhaksya is based on the attributes and 
potency of the ingredients by which it is prepared. 


II ffcT wfeff: II 

Thus ends the group dealing with various types of yusa 
and allied food preparations. 

388 Materia Medico 


1. ^PRTTTfa ?% fS#=PJ??r% TT5: I 
gSRT ?rfbRmPr 5% OTP* <TT5: i 

5 - ^t^^^^^W. ^fcT 3TR5^ TO: I 

6. ^cgtRtsfrsrTf^t ?fa stfjtI to. i 

7. q#f>t ffcT Wr^\ TO: I 

8. ^rafTrr^R f^cr: sl% w^: to: I 

9. 1^Ktl?W ff% STR^ TO: t 

10. TWTT: ^T STT^ TO: | 

11. ^qj^nrafsrq; ff% srr^ to: i 

12. ^^to*rf£*f<j f% ?rr^ to: i 

13. ^TSTFrf%^«r5q; ?% s an^g??i% to. i 

14. ^w^f^ amrt ^#5*?!% ^ to:, 

15. ^FfiFr^ft fftr wr^ tts: i 

16. ST^^"! 1% aTT?#5?cT%^r TO: I 

17. *ppr ^far «tr^ to: i 

18. Tfa?f 1% 3TT^ TO: I 

19. *f*foft f% ^3*<3T% TO: I 

20. ^ f "s"fr sftr ot*^ ^<p3^% ^ to: i 

21. ^ 3% 3TPf3: to: 1 

22. ^t sftr wrcft: TO: I 

23. 5gff # ?fcT srr^ TO: » 

24. s«rcN ! frnrc*TTRr5ftr m^: to: i 

25. arenfrt ffcr wr** to: i 

26. spqr^iTT: 1% fftftag^ TO: I 

27. gf^nrr: 1% sTTwr*: to: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Tofarananda 389 

28. <frpTT: ?fcT STHit TTS: \ 

29. fTrRT^T sfir STf^" ITS: I 

30. ^ftit f fir 5TT^5^r%^ <rrc. i 

31. •CTbMI-H^T lf?T ?IW^ =^5^c!% ^ TT5' I 

32. f ^*rr Tftfe^r: vreqr: ^qft^rV^RW^r: <^fir srr^t Tre: i 

33. Pm^T ft% 5TT^: <TTS: I 

34. Tf srH^rarr 1 fir ?tr^ tts i 

35. ift^TCg; f fir stff^: <rre: i 

36. gf^TT: f fir 3TT^ TTS: I 

37. ^q;^T: sfir ftRffarjRpfr tfs: i 

38. Frcntftfl^faRTst ?fir ff?foi$Ri% <TT5: i 

39. *mTB& ^fir 5TT^ <TT5: 1 

40. *rTf*rar: ^fir 3tt^: ^5^5?^% ^ 7T5. I 

41. fi^T ^raPmwTT writ strt*?j snftRrr ifir mw$ tts: i 

42. '^^TTf^W^rwnsg ^f'l^r:' ttstsjt T^rr^E^ ?flM<au<a i 

43. srvfTT^Tf *^W: f fir ?!T^t5^r%g TT5: I 

44. sreq- jt^ftpt^t't 'frrat%^i%sraf^^ 7^ *rf^rf&Rf 1 

* w *—■ ft CV 

45. S^PSJFSFPTT: f fir ffRF^ q"T5 1 

46 ^sin firtnrr srTfirchrsrr: 5% srr^Fr tts: i 

47. qffiSH^ffT TTSST: ^^f t TTTSr^tT' J TT. sfir STHf^ Tre I 
48 fir^S^^cO": ifir Wfft 7TS I 

49. faMfNnr. »r^"tsfiRfTrT$rT qrorsq- =^g;q-g^% ^<r?nrcrcr 1 

50. ^stt: ^fir srnjrt qrs- 1 

51. wm^tfT^^q-^^k^cm ^fir srT^T$F?r%'j to: 1 

52. "STSF2TT: wfir m^C VT5: I 

53. f "^JiT^qT ^fir STFf^ <TT5: I 

f'^rR*RTT sfir ^#3^% its- i 

390 Materia Medica 

54. i^CTtatfrrr- ifa stt^ <tt5: i 

55. #%SFiwrwr %fa ^gq-3^% m: ! 
56- ^fo^nwr % fir ts?ft*rpa% qrra: i 

57. tfSTT^?W?;r: f% mwk TIS: ) 

58. ^r^fr Tern ^fir stt^ tts: i 
59- *r«n: ifir arret tts:i 

60. 3T*rr: ifir arret trj: i 

61. fTcFrT^sr^ir: % % TTw^s^Fpir tts: i 

fafrfir%^mwf<T*Fff^T: ^fir arret ire: i 

63. ^TTffrcTepreg; sfir fwte3?<re qrs: i 

64. ^remsrcift ^ fir srret qrs: l 

65. *rerr: ^fir m^: tts- i 
66 ^«?rr: ifir srret tfs: i 

67. *rcjre5frP?*rr*F?n:'T 'srrfsr^g sra^infad "R *3cf ?tt. i 
t*tt: ^%fert<rrt tfrspTFiftfirer T^cr j 
TtfsreT ^q^rg^jrrfq-xr^T ^rcrgc^re: i 

fffararr f^=rt%^r: istrtt *rs-qfr f^qcrscrg: i 
^RT5rT5i5Tirr%s: ^part ^^ffprr i 

^s^t^r^jr^r **rar ^rfefafrrar i 
tTcns; ^jttt% t^t fa^qNrrcsFrejT i 
smre^^^r w?itt f *^fr ^st?tt *iw. i 

tfstrt fq-fe^r *ts;>tt <frf>reT ^scrjfr wm i 
^fireT fwn-^arrg- ftsrwrr [f«raTjT%*rrq?- i 
'^shtt ^qift ^c=qT ssrwr f fit t^^t i 
P>r??T^JT5TFF?r ; ^^:fqrxr^^sr?r: i 
^qfr^rfep^T^rw^^^TftrH^ i' 

[msrsrerer: ¥crF s T^'T ^ : v^-v^] 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 391 

%fsn? storwr sftm %*znt Tirefr wf : i 
sFwfos ffcnrewft f^f^rfcTTrwrfTift" 1 

392 Matena Medica 

%f^FT cffccr snrfV 1 5f^rf r rrrTf^?TTq"^T i 

fwffc*T?ft f^TT Tffd^raTf^iTl^iTR I 
<$f%3fr ?T^T #cTT ^TT *Tjff *Fft*pCT I 

^nrror: gg^rR^RrPr^rfwr^rT f err: i 
q^^wf^ yftfk qfesrefrerr t 

^rfw^r vr^T srsm nTTf *r<f TfftTT: i 

53- %-^pirw1%^t fatrwRTpft ^r: I 
g-ftra-T ^fsrerr Rsrit sfef ^rrsFrTcr^: i 
qfTWJTqfx^nrq- q f^ T ^crg-fqftr i 
%^r: ^?q-T fsTTcRirr faff ftt ^pwrr ffgr: \ 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 393 

ncrRWsrm %fe %? T^r f arrfNcr I 

srfiraT srfqm ^rer spnaw^ gaT 1 
33T «fft<r srwfT ?rfc?r^T TfT^Tf^crr 1 

^T^pTvRv?: fofqR^^q- ^f^ftspT l 

^sfq.^% 5rfsnpirq5r**r?r 1 

68. ^5^1 ufcT m^\ <TT5. I 

69. JTS^ror =er ?fcT 5TT^ qTS. I 

70. -ff^Tft^f^?^ -^fcf STP^ TT5: I 

71. 1% q-FTW?^*?: ^ffT m^k TT5 I 


12 3 

4 5 6 


Cold water, hot water, asava, alcohols, yusa, phalamla, 
dhdnyamla, milk and juice — these are generally used as anupana 
and these should be used in proper quantity after ascertaining 
their utility, the nature of the disease and its stage of manifest- 

?T^f5TT%1 5TT JreffcT Srsrf jt^tw ^f^^rmT?^ II ^ II ' 

Among all the anupanas the water which is kept in a clean 
pot is the best. It promotes intellect. 

^s^q-T-r ^sft*T sr3r Jfm^: q~?:*r u 3 n 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 395 

If there is aggravation of vdyu, anupanas which are 
unctuous and hot are useful; in pitta sweet and cooling anupanas 
are useful and in kapha ununctuous and hot anupanas are useful. 
If there is ksaya (consumption) meat soup is the best anupana. 

After taking oil, ghee etc. hot water should be used as 
anupana. The oil of bhallataka is an exception to this rule and 
cold water should be used after this oil. 

sfhrte* srrfsmq- fq-seT^sr *r snfsr: iik.ii 


" Er«hr «? i 

After honey and pastries (pistdnna) the anupana should 
invariably be oil, yusa, amla kanjika or cold water. Similar types 
of anupana are useful after the intake of dadhi, pdyasa and 
alcohol and in visa (poisoning). 


%f%fcps£*T^ 5TTgig«TH g#<?«Pf II ^ II 

According to some scholars ordinary water should be used 
as anupana after taking pastries (pistd). 

12 _ 13 

Milk and meat soup should be used as anupana for persons 
taking idli, mudga etc. 

DLanyumla or dadhi maslu is useful as anupana for persons 
taking masa etc. 


T^nrnEftf^FrnTf =* t^^t^sft^ ii «; ii 

396 Materia Medica 

Alcohol is useful as anupana for persons suifering from 
weak digestive power, sleeplessness, drowsiness, iosa (consum- 
ption), bhrama (giddiness) and klama (physical fatigue) and also 
for persons who are habituated to alcohol and meat. 

Persons who are not accustomed to drinking should use 
water or phaldmla as anupana. 


^qm^T^^qr^T^^q^ft: mil 


Milk is extremely wholesome for persons who are fatigued 
because of fast, excessive walking, talking or sexual intercourse 
and exposure to wind, sun ray or excessive exercise. 

Madhudaka should be used as anupana by persons who are 
emaciated because of excessive drinking and also for persons 
who are obese. 

17 18 

For healthy persons anupana should be used in the middle 
'the food. 

%f s&tfwcrfTfbptr: sflrftreTTar^rr n ?? u 

Patients suffering from sonita pitta (a disease characterised 
I j bleeding from different parts of the body) should use milk 
l sugar cane juice as anupana. 


Patients suffering from poisoning should use the dsava of 
aksa, selu and sirisa as anupana. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 397 



When anupana is used in excess quantity, then it is 
injurious and heavy. If anupana is used according to the pres- 
cription, then it helps in easy digestion of food. 




Anupana is invariably appetiser, nourishing and aphro- 
disiac. It helps in the detachment of all the dosas from the 
tissue elements. It is refreshing. It produces softness and cures 
physical as well as mental fatigue. It produces happiness, 
stimulates digestion, alleviates dosas, reduces thirst and promotes 
strength as well as complexion. 

If anupana is used before food, then it causes emaciation. 
If it is used in the middle of the food, then it keeps the dosas in 
their proper positions. If it is used after food, then it produces 
a nourishing effect. Keeping these facts in view one should 
administer anupana. 



^•^■^iTRTsrrsR'Tfr'Tq'R'Tcr: fq%r u ?^ n 

29 30 

398 Materia Medica 

If food is taken without any drink, then it remains there 
without undergoing the process of softening. Therefore one 
should use anupdna. It should not be used by patients 
suffering from svasa (asthma), kasa (bronchitis), diseases of the 
head and neck, urafy ksata (phthisis), praseka (excessive sliva- 
tion) and impairment of voice. 



One should not indulge in drinking, walking, talking, 
reading and sleeping in excess. By doing so the stomach gets 
vitiated and the dosas situated in the throat and chest prodtlce 
indigestion, vomiting and many such diseases. 

34 35 

[jmnrssipTir: spj^Rfafsr r* : v-^ \ \ 

In diseases caused by kapha the anupdna should be 
administered in a dose of one pala (48 ml.). In diseases caused 
by vdyu its dose is two palas (96 ml.). In diseases caused by 
pitta the dose of anupdna is three palas (144 ml.). 

II 5?3r<J<TT?Tfaf«r: II 

Thus end the section dealing with the method of 
administration of different types of anupdna. 


l. *r%fesf *rfre*f sr^r fm% m^m crt sfcr «rr^ qrre: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 399 

3. W % % ^5^5^r% TT3: I 

4. STSJTTfw % % %cftT3*cT% TTS: I 

5. fe^tr i% srr^: <tts: i 

6. q^qrfa- ffa fefte3sa% its: i 

7. iffatf ff?T f5<ftq"3*cl% TT5: i 

8. STgTFf ^^5^1% ifa 3TT^ qT3: I 

9. 3%i%snra3: qrs: i 

10. 5f^T^^Tf%f5pspj;# s«hr =s %$s mwK tts: t 

11. %f%f?^?rTT ^% %?fV3T3?cr% qrs: i 

12. 3T<sft *rf*R3fr ^f?r srr^: ^ci;sT3?i3% ^ tts: i 

13. ^f^^fezfrfcrcr^ % fcr srreRfg^j <rra: i 

14. 5f*ra£i*ro^: ffir wra* to: i 

15. sq^Ttfi^^Piwsft sfa fk^T3?^% to: i 

16. ^qTs^cPT ^r qr^ <TT5: I 

17. fenr ffcr srra^ qTS: I 

18. sreresr^r ?fa sm^: =^3*3% ^ tts: i 

19. «T=P$Tf %T>TTWf *mr*TC<J faqrri%<j ifcT iTK^cT% <TTS: I 

20 ?fta ^ wfa qr^3^% tts: i 

21. STsfHfcT ffcT STT^: TTS: I 

22. 'XV^H ^^RT^^' TTStsq- ^5^3^% ^"tq?n:q% I 

23. Sf£w*T^ S% fefta$E3% TT5: I 

24. c^gTTff ffcT STT^t TTS: I 

25. cPT^fta wftr fk^Tj^r <tts: 1 

26. ^r^^rsft^rfRT^TRTcr: f % srrc^^ <rre: i 

27. ?T fft g«^5T^" ?% 5»T^: TTC: I 

28. SRftTSSp: $% 3TT^: TI3: I 

29. T: ^^rs^t^^^T: 5% STFf^: TT5: | 


Materia Medic a 

30. <fi^i^m^r^^to^«TF=T % f% srr*^ ^5^3% =*r <tts: 1 

31. sn^srnriw ?f?r snwgs^ qro: 1 

32. *reTfrT*rre®3rM^T ^frr stt^: tts: i 

33. 5P3<TTq ^fcr arr^ <rre: I 

34. t fJ55-'T ffe fScft^^cT^ 7TC: I 

35. ^TTTTf«nnT: ?i% =^g#jfgr% tts: i 


If citraka is not available, then in its place danti or the 
ksara of sikhari should be used. 

In the case of non-availability of prsra parni, one should 
use siriiha pucchi. 

If bhdrngi is not available, then talfsa or the root of 
kanfakarT should be used in its place. 

5r*n% sTfcTTTOSur ^^n =f f^ra^ n R 11 

If dhanvayasa is not available, then duralabha should be 
added in its place. 

In the place of the drug which is known in the western 

402 Materia Medica 

regions as pumjata, one should use talavit. 

If nata or tagara padi is not available, then in its place 
veiju should be added. 

sttt% criR^rrfa f*s g; srfe^c?r?T 1 

If tagara is not available, then kusfha should always be 
added in its place. 

If karikana is not available, then one should use in its 
place kukkufa mastaka. 

If the sattva (essence) of abhraka is not available, then in 
its place kanta lauha should be used. 

*!>FcmfrT% cfapiTsftf *fta$ter #srarT*r: 11 «, u 

If kanfa lauha is not available, then an expert physician 
should used tik§na lauha in its place. 

If murvd is not available, then in its place the bark of 
jingini should be used. 

^q^iffcrwr ^nn% ?nwt vz: 11 % 11 

If the latex of arka parnl etc. is not available, then in its 
place the yu$a of these plants is recommended. 

An expert should use vahni patra in the place of langali if 
the latter is not available. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 403 

If ahimsra is not available, then in its place mana kanda is 
to be used, 

srernwr 3tw% % H^w^rer Terr i 

If lak$mand is not available, then the root of mil kanda 
should be used. 

*rer t ^Hn: *j*r f*s wt^j .prr ^#: u =; u 

If puskara niula is not available, then in its place kugfha 
should be used by the Wise. 

^f^m^rfq-cq-eq 5 !- fcrcq-sftsrsfcr^r ?*Rfr i 

Cavikd and gaja pippall have effects like pippali mula. 

■*re<?rTcPFr*r^ 5 T^^frrrcRT 11 £ 11 

If a person is not able to tolerate bhallataka, then he 
should be given rakta candana. 

5PT1% sftTTFJJTPFg ST3?;TT3'qvyf TOT I 

If somaraji is not available, then in its place the fruit of 
prapunnada is recommended. 

q-<*T T STrar ^fa^TT ?HST ^TT faW ?§: 1 1 ? ° 1 1 

When daru ntia is not available, then the Wise should use 

If rasdhjana is not available, then in its place darvi is used. 

SfkF^STRift ^JTT *f>fe?fr eHS'TiIT 5T#: II \\ I 1 

If saurdspi is not available, then in its place kafibhi which 
has similar properties should be used. 

If amla vetasa is not available, then in its place cukra 

404 Materia Medica 

should be used. 

^^mrwr ^r^rr^r ^srt tH^^ ii \r ii 

If rucaka is not available, then m its place pamsu lavana 
should be added. 

cr=r sfr!^ ^.Ttftr fVpsr^ §j sr? % fe^sm:* 1 1 ? 3 1 1 

If the bhasma of suvarna or rupya is not available, then in 
its place an expert physician should give tow/ia. 

If suvarna is not available, then in its place the physician 
should add maksika. If, however, maksika is not available, in 
its place svarna gairika should be used. 

The sattva (essence) of hema maksika is similar to svarna 
bhasma in properties. 

The white variety of maksika is certainly like rajata in 

WTO* § *!FF5f 3w. sfsrrfa *r - 1 

If va/ra is not available, then the sages use vaikranta in its 

If karpura is not available, then granthi parna is used in its 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 405 

3r<sT?r c§rcTzft#%: srf^srfvsp^nr; n ?V9 n 

If srikhanda candana is not available, then in its place 
karpura should be added. If both of them are not available, 
then the Wise should use rakta candana in their place. If xakta 
candana is not available, then the freshly collected usira is used 
in its place. 

If tdlisa patra is not available, then in its place svarna tali 
is useful. 

If ridga puspa is not available, then padma kesara is to be 

If kasturi is not available, then the Wise should add 
kakkola in its place. If kakkola is not available, then the flower 
of jati is useful in its place. 

5ft5ft5T5lT'TPTT%' 5 gpT5f %5TT*T5q% II 3.0 || 

If nilotpala is not available, then in its place kumuda 
should be used. 

If the flower of jati is not available, then in its place 
lavanga is added. 

If vandhuka is not available, then in its place the flower 
called punndga should be added, 

406 Materia Medica 

If bakula is not available, then in its place kalhara, utpala 
and pankaja can be used. 

If draksa is not available, then in its place the fruit of 
kasmari should be added. If both of them are not available, 
then the flower of madhuku should be used. 

If both the types of each of meda, jivaka, kakott and rddhi 
are not available, then in their places yasfi, viddri, aha- 
gandha and vdrdhi should be added respectively. 

srrerfrr^ ^wt^ ^q-^RT^t *r?r: 11 V* n 

If varahl is not available, then in its place carmakaraluka 
should be used. 

If dadima is not available, then in its place vrksamla 
should be used. 

sft^nrrt 73ft *ftsr*r. *ng**T ^t snfmfr u v-t u 

If milk is not available, then the juice of mudga or masura 
should be used. 

If the oil of rucaka is not available, then in its place the 
oil of aruskara should be used. 

^tCT^TT% fiaftfaTctf *TrfiFgf%; ?r ^V: II ^ l| 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 407 

If mukta is not available, one can undoubtedly use mukta- 
sukti in its place. 

SPT^TWHR^I ^^T: WIcT %$: II Rs II 

If honey is not available, then in its place old guda is 
recommended. If honey is either not available or not suitable 
for the patient, then in its place the Wise should use the juice of 
rambha puspa or water mixed with khanda. 

TR^TF'^nErre'^fr sirra; fore-fHr ftra-^^r irrii 

If matsyandi is not available, then in its place a physician 
can give white variety of sarkard. 

A person proficient in medical science should use siddhar- 
tha in the place of sarsapa. 

3T*pt% %crr3TT^r 5^: wi sgsircr 11 ^s. 11 

If sitd is not available, then the Wise should use khanda. 

i^nfhrsr *r*n%sfqr |*fcn*?f ?FTTf%$ra; n 3° \\ 

If vetasdmla is not available, then in its place catxakamla 
may be used. If both of them are not available, then in their 
place, the use of hemantamla is advised. 

T^crr , *rr%fwqTs'*n% %3Ts?rm- fcre ^r<r 113? 11 

If ativisa is not available, then in its place musta should be 
used. If siva (haritaki) is not available, then in its place siva 
(amalaka) should be used. 

408 Materia Medica 

If it is prescribed in the text to give bhavana (impregnation) 
by the juice of the leaf visamusti, and if it is not available, then 
in its place the decoction of this drag six times in quantity can 
be used. 

If sali dhdnya is not available, then in its place sasfika etc. 
should be added. 

*P5tnrr«ra"t **nq; srar^n^mft" n 33 n 

If mas urn is not available, then in its place the juice of the 
meat of sasa, harhsa and dkhu can be used. 

jft^JTrr^cRmi^ cR fsfa 3rT5TcTT II 3"* 1 1 

The substitute drugs described in this chapter can be used 
by a wise physician when the original drugs are not available. 

^qT^f^^JT'T^Ssq^lT^f^^TUT II 3*. II 

A physician well versed in materia medica should decide 
substitutes of similar other drugs by taking into consideration 
their rasa (taste), virya (potency), vipdka (taste after digestion) 

In the- place of modd, yavanika should be used if the for- 
mula is meant for internal cleansing and ajamodd should be 
used if the formula is meant for external cleansing. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 409 

3rf^ *F*rT3f?r #s* sr^fl^TRT [? ] *rcf*Tfaftr: [? ] m ^o u 

In the place of vaca, kulinjana is used if the formula is 
meant for internal cleansing. For external cleansing, however, 
vaca as such can be used in the formula. 

sift s^ f**re[»ft <sftoF: w^ [&*%] ii S^ 11 

If any food preparation or medicine is described to be 
prepared by adding krsna jlraka, then in its place white variety 
of jiraka should be used by an expert physician. 

liff?r 5Fpr?*re'f:u 

Thus ends the chapter dealing with various types of substi- 
tutes and allied topics. 


^t^^tt — 'aczrir^pffr crfrgrT i 

TSmTTTfr A*ft ^ "TaTT^fefr^rTWT: 11 X II 

Charity, good conduct, compassion, truthfulness, celibacy, 
gratefulness, rejuvenation therapy and friendship — these cons- 
titute the group which promotes virtue and longevity. 

^rsirtTTrsrqr arar^cr: f%ir?r 3>rcf%ftiw**3r irii 

Description of groups of drugs according to Susruta 

What has been described in brief before clearly shows the 
way for the treatment of patients suffering from diseases caused 
by vayu etc. even to a less intelligent person who is not 
acquainted with Caraka etc. It js not necessary to describe the 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 411 

usage to which these drugs can be put by an intelligent physi- 
cian who is specialised in the treatment of internal diseases. 

crff!pR'T t M*T ftrcrf**nfa*h5<rair. ^"fta: u \ w 




It has been stated by the sages that the human body which 

suffers from diseases is a conglomeration of dosas, dhatus (tissue 
elements) and malas (waste products). If there is morbidity in 
this body, the physician should alleviate these ailments by the 
administration of drugs. This has already been stated before 
in brief. Now some of these drugs are being described by 
putting them into different groups for the convenience of treat- 
ment. These groups are thirty-seven in number. After ascertain- 
ing the predominance of either vdyu, pitta or kapha and the 
nature of the compound, disease and the patient, the physician 
should administer these drugs after proper selection. 

These drugs can be used in the form of medicated ghee, 
medicated oil, powder, paste, unguent, spray, bath, drink, 
asthdpana type of enema, amivasana type of enema, inhalation, 
collyrium and suppository. 

*£> so 


<Ts!rfejTsrT'?rT£?rFcrT Trorr^T^reg sf??rTT nun 

^12 Materia Medica 


Depending upon the nature of the do§as involved in the 
manifestation of the disease, the physician should prescribe 
drugs described in these groups either separately or jointly. 
Even drugs of all the groups can be used together. 

'cra«n — 

\. f*rerfriraT firerft ftrar^rr sn^rr szipsp <r«r^qoff syjnarfcrjfrr 

(1) Vidarigandhadi gana 

This group includes vwfan gandha, vidan, visvadevs, saha- 
deva, hadarhstra, prthakparni, srgala vinna, satavari, sariva, jivaka, 
rsabhaka, mahd saha, ksudra saha, brhati, kanfakdrf, punarnava, 
eranda, harhsa pad!, vrscikall and rsabha. 

5ft^q-FTT?M^r?T^ra-f<?rM?r: iis.ii 

Drugs of this group alleviate pitta and vayu, and cure sosa 
(consumption), gulma (phantom tumour), anga marda (malaise), 
urdhva svasa (dyspnoea) and kasa (bronclutis). 

tE^TfsT g,cpft %fcT 1 1 ? o || 

(2) Aragvadhadi gana 

This group includes aragvadha, madana, gopa ghonta, 
kantaki, kutaja, paths, patala, murvd, indrayava, saptaparna, 
nirhba, kuranfaka, guducT, citraka, sdrngistha, parusaka, both the 
types of karanja, patola, kirata tikta and susavl. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 413 

Drugs of this group alleviate kapha and poisoning, and 
cure meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), para (fever), 
vami (vomiting) and kandu (itching). They also help in the 
cleansing of ulcers. 

^%f?r it \\ ii 

(3) Salasaraadi gana 

This group includes salasara, ajakarna, khadira, kadara, 
kala skandha, kramuka, bhurja, mesa s.rngf, tinisa, candana, 
kucandana, simsipa, s~irisa, asana, dhava, arjuna, naktamala, 
asvakarna, saka, guduci and kaMyaka. 

srr^TTrfsrPTr^ *m: ^femwt: i 

^q-Ti^nr^T: spq&tft fa$ft«nT' II ?3 II 

Drugs of this group cure kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes) and pandu (anemia). They also cleanse kapha and 
medas (fat). 


%fa u V* u 

(4) Varunadi gana 

This group includes varuna, artagala, Mgru, madku sigru, 
tarkari, mesasrngf, putika, naktamala, morata, agnimantha, both 
the types of saireyaka, bimbi, vasuka, vasira, citraka, satavari, 
bilva, ajasrngi, darbha and both the types of brhati. 

414 Materia Medica 

Drugs of this group alleviate kapha and reduce medas 
(fat). They cure Hirahijula (headache), gulma (phantom tumour) 
and abhyantara vidradhi (internal abscess). 


(5) Viratarvadi gana 

This group includes vlrataru, both the types of sahacara, 
darbha, vrksadanT, gundra, nala, kuia, kasa asmabhedaka, agnim- 
antha, morafd, vasuka, vasira, bhalluka, kuranpka, indivara, 
kapota vankd and svadamsfra. 

^Rprffefato" »mfr 'TTarfaronrc'Tft i 


Drugs of this group cure diseases caused by vayu, asmarl 
(stone in urinary tract), sarkara (gravels in the urinary tract), 
mutra krcchra (dysuria) and mutraghata (anuria). 


*F5*3reraT: ^^ft %fo II \* II 

(6) Rodhradi gana 

This group includes rodhra, savararodhra, palasa, ku^an- ■ 
nafa, asoka, phahji, kafphala, ela valuka, sallaki, jinginf, kadamba, 
sola and kadali. 

T>^T«fWfT: f^tft spraff fa«srfa?mR- II H n 

Drugs of this group reduce medas (fat) and kapha. They 
cure yoni dosa (ailments of female genital tract). They promote 
the power of retention (stambhana) and complexion. They 
cure visa (poisoning). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 415 

(7) Arkddigaiia 

This group includes arka, alraka, both the types of 
karafija, ndgadanti, mayuraka, bhdrgi, rasana, indrapuspl, ksudra- 
svetd, maha svetd, vricikdli, alavand and tdpasa vrksa. 

srctff^t Tift f> ^B^tf^rrqr^: i 

frpTfSSWJT'jft f^%qrcr ww^: n "R? II 

Drugs of this group reduce kapha and medas (fat). They 
cure visa (poisoning), krmi (parasitic infection) and kusfha 
(obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). They specially help 
in the cleansing of ulcers. 

^T^TTSTt f^mfe^%fcT II ^ II 

(8) Surasddi gana 

This group includes surasd, sveta, surasd, phanijjhaka, 
arjaka, bhustrna, sugandhaka, silmukha, kalmdla, kdsamarda, 
ksavaka, kharapuspa, vidanga, kafphala, surabhi, nirguridi, 
kuldhala, unduru karnikd, phanjT, prdclbala, kakamdci and 

srftiwr«rre^rwT?Riwsft ^orator: u R3 u 

Drugs of this group alleviate kapha and cure krmi (parasi- 
tic infection), pratiiydya (rhinitis), aruci (anorexia), ivdsa 
(asthma) and kdsa. They help in the cleansing of ulcers. 

S.. ^^q^WT^^^f%^^^^^^^T¥f^r ( TR^STTfl : ^qi5IT %% URY»I 

416 Materia Medica 

(9) Muikakddi gana 

The group includes muskaka, palasa, dhava, citraka, 
madama, vfksaka, iimsapa, vajra vrksa and triphala. 

*TfFSh TTOf^Hpsr: SFfaTOT. T*:' II ?* II 

Drugs of this group reduce medas (adiposity) and correct 
the vitiation of sukra (semen). They cure meha (obstinate 
urinary disorders including diabetes), ar§as (piles), pdndu 
(anemia), and sarkard (gravels in the urinary tract). 

q-TSTTTT^W^TT^T^TfeS'Tq-fcrf^t^W. II R^ II 

(10) Krsnadi gana 

This group consists of krsna, granthika, cavya, citraka, 
vi$d, vi§vausadha, ajdji, pdtha, rdmatha, renuka, madhurasa, 
siddhdrtha, tikta, usana, dtekka, §akra yava, ajamoda, trti, bhdrgl 
and vidanga. 

jj$ps*TEifr ^fsRnT3?r 3=r?:^T: spEurrfc ^tBT TOT:' IR<3II 

Drugs of this group stimulate the power of digestion. 
They cure gulma (phantom tumour) and §ula (colic pain). They 
help in the pdcana (metabolic transformation) of dma. They 
alleviate kapha, produce appetite and cure jvara (fever). 

\ ? . ' tTWr^TTTf E5TT?fr«3TTir^c^^q-W?rFI qsqrftre^gforergrrm d ® % - 
^7^#T^Sre^fprTfr S^TT^R %% II R* II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 417 

(11) Eladi gana 

This group consists of eld, tagara, kusfha, mamsi, dhya- 
maka, tvak, patra, naga puspa, priyahgu, harenukd, vyaghra 
nakha, hikti, canda, sthauneyaka, srlvestaka, coca, coraka, 
valuka, guggulu, sarja rasa, turuska, kunduruka, aguru, sppkkd, 
usira, bhadra ddru, kumkuma and punndga kesara. 

Drugs of this group alleviate vayu and kapha, cure visa 
(poisoning) and promote complexion. They also cure kandu 
(itching), pidaka (pimples) and kotha (urticarial rashes). 

(12) (13) Vacddi and Haridrddi gana 

Vacadi gana consists of vaca. ativisa, jimuta, japd, ddru and 

Haridrddi gana consists of haridrd, ddru haridrd, kalasi, 
yasti and the seed of kutaja. 

Drugs belonging of both these groups help in the purifi- 
cation of the milk and alleviate ama as well as atisdra (diarr- 
hoea). They specially help in the pacana (metabolic transfor- 
mation) of dosas. 

418 Materia Medica 

(14) Kakolyadi garia 

The group consists of kakolT, ksira kakoli, jivaka, 
rsabhaka, mudgaparni, ma$apami, meda, maha meda, chinnaruha, 
karkafa srngi, tugsksfrf, padmaka, prapaundarika, rddhi, vrddhi, 
mrdvikd, jlvanti and madhuka. 

Drugs belonging to this group alleviate pitta, blood and 
vdyu. They are vitalizing, nourishing and aphrodisiac. They 
produce more of milk and kapha. 

(15) Dsakadi gana 

This group consists of usaka, saindhava, Mlajatu, guggulu, 
both the types of kasisa, hiftgu and tutthaka. 

OTsjrrfe spq?* ff% *rqt irsftfe^ftq-or: 1 

Drugs belonging to this group alleviate kapha and help in 
the depletion of fat. They cure asmari (stone in urinary tract), 
iarkara (gravels in the urinary tract), mutra krcchra (dysuria), 
sula (colic pain) and gulma (phantom tumour). 

%fa II %S 11 

(16) Sarivddi gaita 

This group consists of sdrivd, madhuka, candana, kucan- 
dana, padmaka, kaSmari phala, madhuka puspa and usfra. 

s-rfT^nrfe; PTTrarTsrt TrRfT^ft *m: 1 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 4l9 

Drugs belonging to this group cure pipasa (morbid thirst), 
rakta pitta (a disease characterised by bleedmg from different 
parts of the body) and pitta jvara (fever caused by pitta). They 
specifically cure daha (burning syndrome). 

Va. 3T^3T^T?TT3^^^r^Tsq-f5rq^H^ft?q tf ^^fcR%5ir?;Tffrr Tf^> 
%% II ^ II 

(17) Anjanadi gana 

This group consists of anjana, rasanjana, ndga puspa, 
priyangu, nilotpala, nalada, nalina, kesara and madhuka. 

fesfrT^nn- ^ fa-f^rw^^n: *p*pt ii 3 s. n 

Drugs belonging to this group cure rakta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body) They 
cure visa (poisoning), and acute form of abhyantara daha (burn- 
ing sensation inside the body). 

%fcT II Vo u 

(18) Parusakadi gana 

This group consists of parusaka, drdksd, katphala dadima, 
rajadana, kataka phala, saka phala and triphala. 


[ger^; ^ ^ : 3.5(.-vv] 

Drugs belonging to this group alleviate vayu and cure 
mutra dosa (urinary disorders). They are cardiac tonic. They 
cure pipasa (morbid thirst) and produce appetite. 

420 Materia Medica 

(19) Brhatyadi gana 

This group consists of brhati, kanfakarika, kufaja phala, 
pafhd and madhuka. 

<TT^«ft*fr srfcqrfe'ftfr: PrenfSTsrnf^: i 

Drugs belonging to this group are carminative. They 
alleviate pitta, vayu and kapha. They cure arocaka (anorexia), 
hrdroga (heart disease) and mutra krcchra (dysuria). 

(20) Guducyadi gana 

According to Arogya cintamani 

This group consists of guduci, nimba, dhanyaka, padmaka 
and rakta candana. 


According to SuSruta drugs belonging to this group cure 
trsna (morbid thirst), daha (burning syndrome), aruci (anorexia), 
chardi (vomiting) and jvara (fever). They also stimulate the 
power of digestion. 

(21) Vatsakadi gana 

This group includes vatsaka, ativisa, murva, bhargi, eld, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 421 

katuka, usana, vacd, syonaka, ugra, panca kola, ajamodd, vella, 
ajagandha, siddhdrtha, both the types jiraka and hingu. 

Drugs belonging to this group alleviate vayu and kapha, 
and cure gulma (phantom tumour), arsas (piles), para (fever) 
and siila (colic pain). 

(22) Mustadi gana 

The group consists of mustd, pafha, both the types of ntea, 
tiktd, vacd, eld, ruk, visa, cara, dp, eld and sdrngisfha. 

5?^: THTT' ??F*r: ^^Vt^RT^: II V\9 It 

Drugs belonging to this group help in cleansing (sodhand). 
They are carminative and galactogogue. They cure stana roga 
(diseases of the breast) and jvara (fever), 


ipj«F %fcT fa^T^fatrafcfft^: II Vt; ||' 

(23) Utpalddi gana 

This group consists of utpala, kumuda, padma. kalhdra 
red variety of utpala and madhuka. 

Drugs belonging to this group alleviate pitta and blood 
and cure visa (poisoning) and chardi (vomiting). 

r*. 'fteft ^nrerar ftpfarc? <?,*pspt*t i 


^renf «tt =srra«PFt fw^T^ra" sr^Rrar u k° ii' 

422 Materia Mediea 

(24) Triphala 

Fruits of three drugs viz., harftaki, amalaki and vibhitaki 
taken together are called triphala or phala trika. For this 
purpose, one part of harftaki, two parts of vibhltaka and four 
parts of amalaki should be taken. 

[gsrjr : <§pn* : *»] 

Triphala alleviates kapha as well as />itta and cures meAa 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) as well as 
kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). It is laxative, 
promoter of eye sight and digestive stimulant. It cures vi?ama 
para (irregular fever). 

^r ytm fecftar ^ fw?rr *r?csRTfsf*r: nx.^11 

According to some, the fruits of draksa, kharjura and 
kasmarya taken together are also called phala trika. This second 
variety of triphala is described by Caraka etc ,. Th ,- s type of • 
triphala is useful in the treatment of diseases like rakta pitta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 


(25) Tryusana 

Pippali, marica and sttrithf— these three drugs mixed to- 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 423 

gether are called tryusana. It reduces kapha and medas and 
cuies meha (obstinate urinary diseases including diabetes), 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and tvagdmaya 
(skin diseases). It is digestive stimulant. It also cures gulma 
(phantom tumour), pinasa (chronic rhinitis) and mandagni 
(suppression of the power of digestion). 

(26) Tri karsita 

Ndgara, ativisd and musta— these three drugs taken together 
are called tri karsita. It alleviates kapha, pitta and vayu and 
cures jvara (fever). It is constipative and digestive stimulant. 

(27) Amalakyadi gana 
This group consists of dmalaki, abhayd, krsna and citraka. 


Drugs belonging to this group cure jvara (fever). They 
are promoter of eye sight, aphrodisiac, purgative and digestive 

(28) Trapvddi gana 

This group consists of fr-opw, sxra, tdmra, rajata, krsna loha, 
svarna and loha mala. 

Drugs belonging to this group cure vitiation of blood, 
krmi (parasitic infection), pipasd (morbid thirst), visa (poison- 

424 Materia Medica 

mg), hrdroga (heart disease), pandu (anemia) and meha (obsti- 
nate urinary disorders including diabetes). 

^Tmc^TFnmrr %fcr u «.$. u 

(29) Laksudi gana 

This group consists of laksa, arevata, kufaja, asvamara, 
kafphala, both the types of haridrd, nimba, saptacchada, malatl 
and trayamdna. 

^WTirfcrTF^WT: ^jdwrf^nn^FT: 1 

Drugs belonging to this group are astringent, bitter and 
sweet. They alleviate vitiation of kapha and pitta. They cure 
kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy) and krmi 
(parasitic infection) They help in the cleansing of dusta vrarta 
(suppurated ulcer). 

(30) Ksudra pahcamTda 

Groups having five ingredients 

Prsni parni, sala parnl, both the varieties of brhatl and 
goksura— all these drugs taken together are called kaniyas 
panca mula. It is nourishing, alleviator of vdyu and pitta and 
astringent, bitter as well as sweet in taste. It cures diseases 
caused by the simultaneous vitiation of all the three dosas 
(sannipata) and sirorti (headache). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 425 

3?. f^^sfwr*F«r. sqfapp: 3>T$*rfr mzm t^ct i 

(31) Mahat panca mula 

Bilva, agnimantha, syonaka, kasmari and pdtala— these five 
drugs taken together, constitute mahat panca mula. It stimulates 
digestion and alleviates kapha as well as vdyu, 


wi%f f^%s %f ssr^Srcra; n ^3 n' 

Dasa mula 

Drugs of both ksudra panca mula and mahat panca mula 
groups, taken together, constitute dasa mula. It generally allevi- 
ates all the three dosas and is effective specially when vdyu and 
kapha are aggravated in excess. It is also useful in kasa (bron- 
chitis) caused by the simultaneous aggravation of all the three 
dosas, siroruk (headache), svdsa (asthma) and kikka (hiccup). 

3^. 'fasrft wrfrwT wnistf" ^rarefr f^^rr i 
^pnf fa^rfa^f ffirrgfeHsr qs^ipranr u^yi! 

(32) Valhja panca mula 

Viddri, sarivd, chaga srngf, vatsadanl and msa — these five 
drugs taken together are called valhja panca mula. 

It is aphrodisiac and it alleviates pitta as well as vdyu. 

33. ^XT5^#Ttq-f^?^icTTWfr I 

426 Materia Medica 

(33) Panca kantaka 

Kara mardaka, sairlya, tri kantaka, satavarl and grdhra 
nakhl — these five drugs taken together are called panca kantaka. 
It cures rakta pitta (a diseases characterised by bleeding from 
different parts of the body), sopha (oedema), sukra meha 
(spermaturia) and sukra dosa (vitiation of semen). 

3<iT<T3*OT?f 5TJT ^T^SrepT?* f|cPT II 

i 20 

(34) ly-na panca mula 

Kusa, kaSa, nala, darbha and kandeksu — the roots of these 
five drugs taken together are called trna panca mula. It is useful 
in the treatment of daha (burning syndrome), vitiation of pitta 
as well as. urine and visa (poisoning). It cleanses the urinary 

SRfOT ^<n°Sc^f^fa«mf: II ^ II 

(3 5) Kadambadi gana 

The group consists of kadarhba, vdji karna, karanja, ksa- 
vaka and guda. They cure vitiated kapha, pandu (anemia), tvak 
roga (ordinary skin diseases), kus\ha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including 
diabetes) and visa (poisoning). 

3V qJTsft ^gsNNfcrcpr^ffac d m « i °t» i : i 

^^iss^T'SfefWd^ns^fftqw: II ^5. II 

(36) Karahjadi gana 
This group consists of karanja, vatsa, sairlya, susayi and 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 427 

sapta parna. They cure meha (obstinate urinary disorders inclu- 
ding diabetes), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), 
para (fever), chardi (vomiting), visa (poisoning) and vitiation 
of kapha. 

stafor. ?^cfr wt: 5Rwfa3r*T3rr<Tf: n \s° n 

(37) Panca kola 

This group consists of pippali, pippali mula, cavya, citraka 
and nagara. They • stimulate the power of digestion and cure 
diseases caused by kapha and vayu. 

In brief these are the various groups of drugs. Keeping 
in view the strength and otherwise of the dosas, their details 
will be described in the section dealing with the treatment of 

Thus ends the 37 groups of drugs as described in Susruta. 

Pdcana gana 

The fruits of sana, mulaka and sigru, tila, sarsapa, saktu, 
kinva and atasi — these drugs help in suppuration (pdcana). 

428 Materia Medica 

Ddrana gana 

Cirabilva, agnika, danti, citraka, haya mdraka and the stool 
of kapota, kanka and grdhra — these drugs help in the incission 
of the abscess. 

ffsqrqt PrfSsSSTHT "* c^R"^ S'fatf ' 

qr^ift^WTFTnirt ^TJTffa ^ SFRTffcr: II ^sV II 

Prapidana gana 

The bark and root of drugs which are slimy and the 
powder of yava, godhunta and masa help in prapidana (which 
takes out pus by exerting pressure). 

5CTt«T5TTf5T ^qTUTfir ^NfaTlTr 5r«rrftft» : II OV. II 

Sodhana kasaya 

Sankhmi, koda, sumanas, katavira suvarcala and drugs 
belonging to dragvadhddi group-— their decoctions help in the 
cleansing of wounds. 

sr3r»r?£rr ^ *&ft ^ 'ra'refir srnrenprT i 
<mNr^^qiSTf^sr|f i 5rr|^rsr: u ^ 11 

^S^IT 5ER"8frrd 5RTTf?T *R:f%HT I 

spT*ftsf fVfivTT 5???ft ffXcTTST 5TT"Sf5TT II ^ II 

Sam&odhana varti 

Ajagandha, srfigJ, gavaksT, langala, putika, citraka, patha, 
vidanga, eld, harenu, trikafu, yava ksara, various types of salt, 
mar.ahsila, kdsisa, triphald, danti, haritdla and surastrajd — these 
are the ingredients of the jpotion of suppository for cleansing of 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 429 

These drugs can also be used through different other 
pharmaceutical processes for the cleansing of wounds. 

Pahca gavya 

The urine, dung, milk, curd and ghee of cow taken to- 
gether (in equal quantity ?) is called pahca gavya. 

If these are collected from goat (a/5) then the collective 
term used for them is pancaja and if collected from buffalo 
(mahisa) then they are called pahca mahisa. 

^T#g"^Ttflwr: ^Rft^SffTS^t: II ^o II 

Medicated oil & Ghee 

Medicated oil and ghee should be prepared of either 
pahca gavya or pancaja or pahca mahisa by adding kasisa, 
katu rohini, root of jati and haridra. 

^f^r*3ftefft fqnsrq-r ^rdrPTFirfT u=;?ti 

Samsodhana ghrta 

The best variety of arka should be made to a paste by 
adding the latex of snuhi. To this, the best of alkalies and the 
root of jati, both the varieties of haridra, kasisa, kafu rohini and 

430 Materia Medica 

panca gavya or paHcdja or panca mdhisa should be added. With 
these drugs the medicated ghee which is useful in cleansing of 
ulcers should be prepared. 

Sodhana taila 

The medicated oil which is prepared of mayuraka, rdja- 
vfksa, nimba, kotetaki, tila, both the types of brhati, sila and 
a/fl is useful for cleansing of ulcers. 

#§r ssqrffrr *r>qrft- wfor ^ cr*rr sjw i 

Sodhana ciirna 

The potion prepared by adding powders of kdsfsa, sain- 
dhava, kinva, vacd and both the varieties of rajani is useful for 
cleansing ulcers. 

Sodhana rasakriyd 

The rasakriyd prepared of the drugs belonging to sdla- 
sdradi group, pafolf and triphala is useful for cleansing ulcers. 

22 23 

Ropana kasdya 
The boiled and cooled decoction of astringent barks 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 431 

which are not very hot in potency and which are exceedingly 
ununctuous is useful for healing ulcers. 

JsflrfrsrfllpTfT ^ *r&ft ^ucn: sertt: u =;*s u 

Roparia varti 

The suppository prepared of soma, amrta, asva gandha, 
drugs belonging to kakolyadi group, praroha (adventitious root) 
of ksiri vrksas helps in the healing of ulcers. 

spttt ^ftJrarsTT *fr*ra?*mr ^f?^T i 

Roparia kalka 

The paste prepared of samanga, soma, sarala, soma valkd, 
candana and the drugs belonging to the kakolyadi group is use- 
ful in the healing of ulcers. 

Ropana ghrta 

The medicated ghee for healing of ulcers is prepared of 
prthak parm, atma gupta, both the varieties of haridra, mdlatf, 
sita and drugs belonging to kakolyadi group. 

Ropana taila 

The medicated oil for healing of ulcers is prepared of 
kalanusafi, aguru, both the types of haridra, bhadra ddru, 
priyangu and lodhra. 

432 Materia Medtca 

fwpr fTqj^rr syfter' sFT^ftg *smw^n 1 

TsrfiFiT ■dq-iTTsf ftresfta' q-«n^>*PT u u u 

Ropana curna da Rasa kriya 

The powder of kimSukd, triphala, lodhra, kasisa, Sravana 
and the bark of dhava as well as aha karna is useful in the 
healing of ulcers. Rasa kriya of these drugs also helps in the 
healing of ulcers. 

3rq"T*n*rf$5r'Fsn" *r errerT'ft g^wr i 


Apamarga, asva gandha, tala patrl, suvarcala and drugs of 
kakolyddi gana help in the filling up of ulcers by granulation 

5TWc«IH^t^ ST5!r?aT«Wr«TOT II S.V II 


When there is granulation tissue m excess, then to bring 
it to proper level, drugs like kdsfsa, samdhava, kiska, kuruvinda, 
manafisila., kukJcufanda kapala, buds of sumana, fruits of sirisa 
and karanja and powder of metals are useful. 

*FRWPf*rsf ^t q«n*rnpr'*nfq- ^t i 

Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todardnanda 433 

Selection of drags 

The physician should select either the whole group or 
half of it or whatever is readily available out of these drugs 
and use them in therapy. 


II 5% *F&F&^*{ II 

According to* CikitsS kalika 

Barks of five trees viz., vatf, vata, udumbara, vetasa and 
asvattha cure ulcers and inflammation. These are called pdnea 

'it ^r^ift -5ft3w: srr-sh": "fir — 

?*r-f T5"f mfe [ ? ] ^cfe^ -f "pit j 

ll ar^^nf: H 

Asfa varga 

Two varieties of kakoli, jivaka, rsabhaka, both the varie- 
ties of meda, rddhi and vrddhi — these eight drugs taken together 
are called asta varga. It alleviates pitta, promotes conception 
and nourishment. 

II ■frT'SS-fW^WH; II 


Jivaka and rsabhaka grow in the peaks of the Himalayas. 

434 Materia Medica 

Its kanda (underground stem) is like that of the garlic. Its 
leaves are thin and fine. 

According to another text 

Jivaka has the shape of a kurcaka (brush). Rsabhaka is 
like the horn of a bull in shape. 

FLddhi and vrddhi which are well known in ko$ayamala are 
the roots of creepers. These roots are covered with white 
hairs. They are certainly laxative. 

'ffe*3 ^fTm^WFT^f^frcf II ?°o || 

Rddhi is like a knot in the root and its fruit takes an anti- 
clock wise turn. On the other hand, vrddhi has fruits which 
take a clock-wise turn. 


Maha medd, which is a root, looks like a piece of dried 
ginger. It is unctuous, sweet and cooling. It has a foul smell of 

Medd is white. It can be cut with the help of finger nail, 
hlooks like fat tissue. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda. 435 

Kakoli and ksira kakoli have roots like those of pivari. 
They contains milky latex and they are fragrant. The lower 
part of it is known as kakoli where as the upper part is called 
ksira kakoli. 


Kakoli is slightly white in colour where as ksira kakoli is 
yellowish white like milk. 

Thus ends the description of drugs belonging the group of 


11 ffcsreffasft 11 


From another Text 

Kusfha, mdmsi, haridrd, murd, saileya, campaka, vacd, 
karpura and mustd — these drugs taken together are called 
sarvausadhi. It alleviates the afflictions of bhuta (evil spirits), 
pretas and graha. It cures /vara (fever). It endows the person 
with auspiciousness. It also cures pdma (eczema) and prasveda 
(excessive sweating). 

436 Materia Medica 


If the fruit pulp of dmalaki is added to the group of 
drugs called sarvausadhi then it is called sugandhamalaka. It 
cures diseases caused by the vitiation of pitta. 

Tri sugandhi & Cdtur jdtaka 

According to Dhurjafi 

Sdluka, tuttha and sri puspa — these three drugs taken to- 
gether are called tri sugandhi If sdluka patri is added to it then 
it is called cdtur jdtaka. It alleviates kapha as well as pitta and 
removes foul smell of mouth. It is highly praised by persons 
who are well versed in the science of cooking. 

f55rwf^r^f«?^Tcre§r^ft *Tcr ii ?°s. ii 

u i% fTgTf^r^T5'3rfci% ii 

Another view 

Tvak, eld and patra— these three drugs taken in equal 
quantity are called tri sugandhi or tri jdtaka. If ndga keiara is 
added to it, then it is called cdtur jdtaka. Both of them cure 
hrlldsa (nausea), visa (poisoning), durgandhi (foul smell) and 
vitiation of vdyu and kapha. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 437 

[jt>r^ttsr:: <t*3 5.5.] 

Panca sugandhi 

Kankola, puga phala, lavanga, jati phala and karcura — these 
five drugs taken together are called panca sugandhika. 

Varardha & vlifya puspak a 

Candana and kumkuma taken together in equal quantity 
are called varardha. If three parts of kumkuma is added then it 
is called adya puspaka. 

W^Tgirf^fiTc^tfi" STHTcft TSTWIW 11 ??^ 1 1 

[jfT^RcfTT^T: TOU] 

Maha sugandhi 

Kumkuma, aguru, karpura, kastun and candana — these 
drugs taken together are called maha sugandhi and named as 
yaksa kardama. 


srnsrR?! fprssnssf *raq*ir*nnf cr*r n \\\ w 

The potion prepared of drdksd, dadima and kharjura 
mixed with sugar and powder of laja along with honey and 
ghee is called samtarpana or refreshing drink, 

438 Materia Medica 

sfstwt t^i^ f^^ft^^^^r: ii ??v ii 
^Ft^Tf^f^s^Tf^m 1 ^ ^^Twfl" i 

*rsr%$rfa3rrcTfar tt^^^^t^^ttt i 

apnrra *revfr*rt*f tftfo^ «ftr*rfaz: i 
fsreT^rs^rer^Msif *«rd *rar: ii \ ?is n 
^tt ^fr^^^i i 
Classification of drugs according to their taste 

Group of Sweet Drugs 

Ghee, milk, muscle fat, marrow, salt, godhuma, sastika, 
kaseruka, srngata, gilodya, ervaru, mutrala drugs, drugs belonging 
to kakolyadi group, alabu, kalaka, kataka, kasmctn, bhaksa, 
kharjuraka, draksa, padma, karkatika, madhuka, sugar cane 
products, rajadana, three varieties of bald, payasvini, tola, jaya, 
payasya, goksura, kusmanda, kadali, meat, mukta, ksira morata, 
priyala majja and vatama— these belong to the group of sweet 

Jaya is popularly called kapi kacchu. 

^fwf«rm^ f^-^r ?rt«T5[Jt?TT-5rfir|cpq; u i^ M 

wrrsrenp ^^ ^crpfrrtsr ^r^tf^r^q- i 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 439 

Group of sour drugs 

Dadima, matulunga, pr.aclnamalaka, dadhittha, amalaka, 
dried, nipa, kosdmra, nimbuka, bhavya, palevata^ kola, Iakuca, 
fruit of vetra, badara, jambira, karuna, amla vetasa, rajata, amra- 
taka, canakamla, kanjika, cdngeri. takra, dadhyamla, sura, 
sauvlra. suktdka, tusodaka, dhanyamla etc., belong to the group 
of sour drugs. 

Tsrarrr} iirsrecf esrfspfrr *Fmn?sr. i 

Group of saline drugs 

Saindhava, aksa, vida, poky a, romaka, sdmudra, yava ksdra, 
kha prasuta, svarjika and navasdraka— these belong to the group 
of saline drugs. 

sfr^spfrwr *jw ll HR II 

^ 28 

Group of pungent drugs 

&#«/, drugs of surasadi and pippalyadi groups, vyosa, 
amaya, rasona, canda, sumukha, mulaka, surdhva, fruit of 
abalguja, extract of kola, langalT, piluka, suka nasdhva, lavanga 
etc.,— these belong to the group of pungent drugs. 

Vyosa is popularly called sata puspi. 

440 Materia Medica 

gfyg raw i * i ^ ^h^rftpft' ii ?rx. ii 

cT«TT ^PFffaTpT f^T SRcftT^ II ?^ II 
TPHTTOT *fTOT5ft fWRt TTfePT ^1 

wjs<ft *m*r^ cr«rr Tr^fq-cq^f)- n n=? ii 
&n%$&ft f^sfrsfrg-^: i s^%?fV ^fa^r ii?3°ii 

Group of bitter drugs 

Drugs of vyddhighnddi and guducyddi groups, mdndukT, 
vaijayantika, both the varieties of haridra, sakrahva, varuna, 
iksura, sarhkhini, dantl, dravantl, bjhati, syamd, saptacchada, 
vyaghri, kosaphala, tiktu, karkofi, karavellikd, vdrtdku, kdravi, 
gopd, kafabhi, sasf, vdtikd, vetra, karira, sumana, karavira, 
trdyatndna, vrscikdlT, kumdrl, patikd, vrsd, samkha puspi, mcm- 
srngT, markata, pippali, svddu kantaka, kastuii, bimba, nirgundi — 
these and such other drugs belong to the group of bitter drugs. 

Svddu kanfaka, is called vikankata vrksa. Sankhinl is 
known as yava tiktd. 

*wrsrTf?r. faiNTfe ^nwrsrTfc^crsrr i 

^^TTnw^T^^^"Tf^f-55Tfq- ^ II ?3? II 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 441 

^r^^5Tf^¥: ^frsnf5[^: 11 fr'3?ft °hhHi<: 11 

Group of astringent drugs 

Drugs of nyagrodhddi, priyahgvddi, kdkakoladi, and 
ambasfhadi groups, fruits of triphala, jambu, amra, vakula, 
sphurja, ndga vadhu, saka and vanaspati, drugs of sdlasdrddi 
group, fruits of kataka, jhinta, sukuridali, cilli, jivanti, stmisa- 
nnaka, kalambusa, nipdlankl etc., mudga, nivara etc., — these 
belong to the group of astringent drugs. 

Kdkakoladi group is the same as lodhradi group. Kundali 
is called kancanara. Sphurja is called tinduka. Ndga vadhu is 
known as sallakl. 

ii ^fer wf^rrfT s^m w 

Thus ends,the description of drugs classified according to 
their tastes. 

v&\ fr ?| °b K^^W^greref ^T ?T%?Tgqqp H S Rl < W : I 

<|Rfrr^3Tf^?T^'!Tfrfra ^^T^TT^^^S**^^: 1 1 \ \ %\ I 


Pc hcdgni 

Murva, amhkd, daltana, suratia and saindhava — these drugs 
taken together are called pahca hutdsana. It cures durndman 
(piles), manddgni (loss of the power of digestion), yakrdroga 
(diseases of liver) and grahdmaya (diseases caused by the 
affliction of grahas). When taken in the form of a linctus, it 
cures ddhya vdta (gout) successfully. 

442 Materia Medica 

ansr ^f^ft«T5TT^ % q- Tfr^ *r=5®f% wrfaq; \\%\\\\ 

Groups of drugs for samsodhana etc., 

Now groups of drugs used for elimination of dosas are 
being described so that no mistake is committed in the 
administration of therapies. 

Drugs for Emesis 

Madana, kutaja, jitnutaka, iksvdku, dhdmdrgava, lodhra, 
krtavedhana, sarsapa, vidanga, pippali, karanja, prapunndta, 
koviddra, karbuddra, arista, asva gandhd, madhuka sdra, vidula, 
bandlm fivaka, svetd, sana puspi, bimbi, vaca and both the varie- 
ties of indra vdruni — these drugs help in the elimination of 
dosas through the upward tract. 


11 l$* II 

Drugs for purgation 

Trivrt, danti, dravantf, saptald, samkhini, visdriikd, gavdksi, 
chdgaldntri, nilini, phala, snuk, suvama ksiri, citraka, kiriihi, 
tilvaka, kampillaka, campaka, ramyaka, pdfald, puga, hantaki, 
dmala, vibhitaka, lingi, kanaka phala, guda, eranda, putika, 
mahd vrksa, sapta cchada, arka, dragvadha, patra, jyotismati — 
these drugs help in the elimination of dosas through the down- 
ward tract. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 443 



^nfk ii ^^RT^-srzft: <rmfw n sftfwf 
MHroftfa ii ?3§. ii 

Of drugs from tilvaka upto pdfald, roots are to be used, 
from puga upto eranda, fruits are to be used, of putika and 
dragvadha, leaves are to be used and of other milky plants the 
latex is to be used. 

SFH^?fYcg r^ eft SH m%TT% II l?Tt S3T53T f^r II ?Yo|| 

Drugs which are both Emetic & Purgative 

Kosdtaki, saptald, samkhini, devaddll, hemdhvd and kdra- 
velli — these drugs help in the elimination of dosas through both 
the upward and downward tracts. 

The juice of these plants is to be used. 



snFf Tr?R0TJT€r3r??H^T*frfcT ftrdfa^Rvftfer 1 1 \ v ? 1 1 


PippalT, marica, vidanga, madhu sigiu, siddliurthaka, 
sirlsa, karavira, bimbl, girikarni, kinilii, vacd, jyotismati, karanja, 
arka, alarka, lasuna, ativisa, srngavera, tdlisa, tamdla, surasd, 
arjaka, ihgudi, mesa srngl, matulungi, pllu, tinisa, sdla, tdJa, 
madhuka, laksd, hingu, lavana, madya, sakrt rasa and urine — 
these help in the elimination of dosas from the head. 

IsrratoT ^cq-ifw I! i^ II 

Of the drugs from karavira upto arka, roots are to be used 
and the flowers of matulungi, murahgi, pilu and jdti are to be used, 

444 Materia Medica 

Group of drugs for alleviation of vayu 

Bhadra dam, kustha, nisa, mesa srngt, bald, atibald, arta- 
gala, kalaka, kacchura, sallaki, kuberaksl, vlrataru, sahacara, agni 
mantha, vatsddanT, svadamstra, erarida, asma bhedaka, arka, 
alarka, satavan, punarnavd, vasuka, vasira, karcura, bhargf, 
kdrpdsi, vrscikali, dhattura, badara, yava, kola, kulattha etc., 
drugs belonging to the viddrigandhddi group and both the 
varieties of panca mula —these, in brief, are the alleviators of 

Group of drugs for alleviation of pitta. 

Candana, kucandana, hrlbera, usira. manjisthd, payasya, 
viddrikd, iatdvari, gundrd, saivdlaka, kalhdra, kokanda, utpala, 
kadali, murvd etc. and drugs of kdkolyddi, sdrivddi, nyagrodhddi, 
utpalddi and trina panca mula groups these, in brief, are the 
alleviators of pitta. 

^T%JT^rT^fcr5yqq%cs|f^g;r^Vcr^l =1 kM ^trtt- 

SPT:.!I ?v* II 

Group of drugs for alleviation of kapha 

Kdleyaka, agaru, tila parnl, kustha, haridra, sfta, siva, sata- 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 445 

puspd, sarala, rdsnd, prakiryd, udaktryd, ingudi, sumanas, 
kalcadani, langalaki, hasti karna, munjdtaka, lamajjaka etc. and 
drugs belonging to valli panca mida, kantoka pafica mulct, pippa- 
lyadi, muskakddi, vacadi, surasadi, aragvadhadi groups — these, 
in brief, are the alleviators of kapha. 

^RRffcf i cn=*ji<*w^ fk^^sm II ?V^ ||' 

Proper dosage 

If all these drugs are used in excess of the strength of the 
disease, then after curing the disease, they produce other 
ailments. If these are used in excess of the digestive power 
then they, being undigested, cause flatulence. If they are used 
in excess of the strength of the individual then they cause 
mental fatigue, fainting and intoxication. Therefore, these 
should be administered in appropriate dosage. 


snffifH% <Tft^i ii ?vu ii 

Unwholesome food for a patient 

Freshly harvested corns, mdsa, tila, kulmdsa, kulattha, 
ni?pdva, green vegetables, ingredients having sour, saline and 
pungent tastes, pastries, dried fish, dry vegetables, meat as well 
as musale fat of goat, sheep and animals inhabiting marshy 
land and water, cold water, kr§ard, pdyasa, curd, milk, butter 
milk, alcoholic drinks etc., should be avoided by a patient. 

asPFcfr q-^^FTTf^W "SfTf ^TH2T: T7I 


446 Materia Medica 

^rfi* ^ fflFF %fa WT* ?fTcW faf: II ?Vg. || 

Ingredients enumerated above from freshly harvested 
corns upto butter milk aggravate dosas and they cause pus for- 
mation. Kujheraka, Mgru, surasa, sumukha, suci, bhustrna, sukta 
and cukrika — these are called haritaka. 

war: H^JTifiRwrr^RT'l' m 3r«rf55irct i 

-^zrr^<3T^T?5|f)r^rcf^T*rTerT?^, f^-fterFpT- 
#?srt ?Tf¥m*r5s*Rf^pf: [?], srfreq - - 

ft ¥#5TTfiT^T m»TT?5Tcr: q*q<W: II U» II 

Wholesome food & regimens 

(a) Rakta Sah, sastika, kanguka, kumudaka, panduka, 
karamardaka, sugandhaka, kalama, sattapuffi, kumodaka, mvdra, 
kodrava, udddlaka, syamaka, nandfmukhT venuyava, (b) ena, 
harina, mrga, kuranga, mdtrka, svadamstra, karala, viskira, harita, 
tittira, lavaka, kapinjala, vartimka, (c) mudga, makusfha, vartula 
kalaya, masura, mangalya, canaka, ajdhaki, satina, masa 

(d) citli, vostuka, nisannaka, jivctfiti, tanduliyaka, manduka parni, 

(e) cow's milk, ghee, rock salt, dadima, amalaka, (e) celibacy, 
sleep in a non-airy place, hot water, sleep and exercise — these 
are, in general, most wholesome for all living creatures. 


s?r*ft srr^i ^rcrn^FPrrsq^ sr*rpr^ it u? it 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 447 

Among the samf dhdnyas (grains), masa is considered to 
be the most unwholesome. This view is not correct because 
masa cures diseases caused by the vitiation of vdyu, sula (colic 
pain) and adhmana (flatulence). It promotes strength as well 
as virility. Why should it be treated as unwholesome ? 


Disease have different varieties and stages. Therefore, 
physicians who aim at preservation of health do not fix a 
particular drug for a particular ailment. There are however 
things which are extremely good or extremely bad. For example, 
milk is always useful whereas poison is always harmful both 
for healthy persons as well as patients. 


1 . This is the 12th Chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in 
Todarananda and the opening invocation reads below : — 


2. Twrq-f^^r>^T^^|«Hf'T^^'' ffcr tf*r*rgscT% TT5: I 

3. ^^Tc^^^^?^tf^f'#^ir^Tcrf : qrTr^^Ta[' ff?r *«r*pjfcr% <rrs: i 

4. 'fvpsrsr:' %fa fs^ftzpjScT^ TT3: I 

448 Materia Medico 

8. 'WT' ^fcT 5T«rW'T^^3 ; Fcr^'ft: TT5: I 

10. <«ftsr' ?f% 5r«rTT^*r5?cr^jft: qrs: i 

11. ffsssTH; ^srjen $T: 3* : RVR3 I 

12. 'f^t^t ^fasn?:' TTstsif sr^nrrwr^cRnit: sfMrwi^ i 

13. sre:5ir*r g^gr: ^ ^ : *°-m i 

14. ff^sqir %%(Ji: ^ 3«? : X.Y-SU I 

15. 3rs£»nr g«r,?r: ^Ms : !<3 i 

16. sT^sqir ^«T o rr: g^T ^c; : s^^, zfto^Rrc: *{*$ l\3 I 

17. sraszFfj; tfSTcT: f^ 3* : H* I 

18 SCRIPT SrsTcT: ^T ^c : \o-\$ | 
19. S 1 «sS3q-*r 5ET«r cl": STT 3* : ^-^° | 

*N S3 S> Cs 

20 &■&&* *r«r?r sm ?«; : vs^-o^ I 
21- '^cTT' ffcT snTT^TJ^cRTEft. <TT5: I 

22. '*«Tn>rt ff?r f%cfto3*a% tts: i 

23. 'srfr' ^ftr fsdfajs^ <TT5: i 

24. jf^s^ T>TT?Tr?FT: <T*5 £>5 I 

25- "^fe^cf TSR^cra" Sfa JT^Tq^fr^cf^ift: "TT3: I 

26. sP^EpiT WT^sr^T^r: ^fTrpTTTfe^'f. ?R? I 

27. 'g-TSqTTSiT ' %fk STR^: TT5: I 

28. era^r sfcr fe^q^^srg^cr qrre: i 

30. 'flTiqWTOT^ft' Wfa ST«nrPr»rgs5PFift: VT5: I 

'fir^aTOTPrcrdt' s far stt 5 ^ to: i 

31. 'fwSRTT^f' sftr %^5^cT% q-rs: l 

32. '%«rmr' ^f<r wt^: irs: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toa\irananda 449 

33. This is the end of the 12th chapter in Ayurveda 

Saukhyam of Todarananda and the colophon reads as 
below : 



cr?frKT^TmTfT m&r*% ^4fo&% u ? u 

Physicians resort to therapeutic measures only after 
obtaining the knowledge of the names and properties of medi- 
cinal substances. Therefore, for successful accomplishment of 
the treatment of diseases names (synonyms) of therapeutically 
useful substances are being described 

f^TT fXfasFt <T*TT %cT3?r fasT^T 5TCr I 
2 3 

jttstt sR-arrrfrm ^t^^tt 5rpireT*r<rr 'n r h 
srzpF«TT Tf*r fMhn £*rcft frfi«ft <=r*rr n 3 n 


Siva, harltaki, pathya, cetakl, vijayd, jaya, prapathyd, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfardnanda 451 

pramathd, amogha, kdyasihd, prdnadd, amrta, jivaniyd, haimavati, 
putand, amrtala, abhayd, vayastha, nandi, sreyasi and rohini — 
these are synonymous. 


Dhatri phala, amrta phala, amalaka, sri phala and siva — 
these are synonymous. 

f^nfto^: *m*m\ ^rra": ^rsrr: u v n 


Vibhitaka, karsa phala, bhuta vdsa, kali druma, vasanta, 
aksa, vindhya jdta, samvarta and tila puspaka — these are syno- 


fw«wr crq^^r ^ttstt #cst ^wt^rTT iiu.ii 


Haritaki, amalaka and vibhitaka are called triphald, when 
taken together. Vara, sresfhd and phalottamd — these are the 
synonyms of triphald. 



Bhu dhatri, vahu patrd, jatd, tdmalaki and siva — these are 
the synonyms of bhumyamalaki. 

452 Materia Medica 


Pracindmalaka, pracT ndgara and raktaka — these are 


Vasa, vrsa, simha mukhu bhisanmdta, dtarusaka, tiukla, 
haimavati, sirhhdsya and vdj'i dantaka — these are synonymous. 

*r<NY z&s?ft f^rr ^^srm^esrfr i 

fttwft^raT fe'^^fTfgTT ^TflfTTftRt II c II 


Guduci, kundali, chinna, vayasthd, amfta vallari, chinnod- 
bhava, chinna ruha amrta, para vindsim, vatsddani, candra hdsd, 
jivanti, cakra laksand — these are synonymous. 

f^r: srcTTff *Npt TT<?n:^r senw: n £ u 

WSFfHwt *Tsr*nr: 5ltfe?ir: ^2-# jt?T: I 


Btfva, Mafu, sattusa, malum, sadd phala, laksmi phala, 
gandha garbha, sandilya, kantaki— these are synonymous. 


Agni mantha, jaya, keii, arani and vaijayantikd— these are 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 453 

Patala & Kdslhapdtdld 

Patala, kdma diltl, kumbhikd, kdlavintika, sthdlyd, amoghd, 
madhorduti, t&mra puspd and ambu vdsini — these are the syno- 
nyms of patala. Another variety of it which is called kasthapd- 
tald has two synonyms viz., phale ruhd and sveta kumbhikd. 

sfnnft *Frwd |tTrenwft TTsrTf^fJT 11 ir 11 


KdsmasT, sarvatobhadrd, sri parm, krsna vrntikd, kambhdrf, 
kdsmarf, hird kdsmari and bhadra parnikd — these are 


^zffaFF: qsrfjjrer: &uk g;^ra: ^z^z: 1 

^cr^SPfsr mz3T*r. z'zwr. ^??Rrr^j: 1 

TT^TT^wt m*r%: fsrchsffcr: ^z^x. 11 ?3 11 


Syondka, prthu simba, suka ndsa, kutamnafa, bhuta vrksa, 
khapdnga, tuntuka, sallaka, aralu, mayura jangha, sdluka 
priyamjiva and katambhaka — these are synonymous. 

454 Materia Medlca 

Mahat panca mula 

Bilva, arani, patala, gambhari and syonaka — these five 
drugs, taken together, are known as mahat panca mula. They 
are the promoters of digestion and metabolism. 

*mi*z: WWvimz: <sr§T: sn^f^HP: II U II 


Goksura, trikata, kanta phala, svadu kantaka, go kantaka, 
bhadra kanta, brikanfa, vyala damstraka, svadamstra, sthala 
stngafa, sadanga, ksuraka and trika — these are synonymous. 

srrrsrpjff tar wt €fa*rT fsrqnff qfajfY frsqrr i 


fa5TlT'fsrTfcr*reT ^wsiw*rcqfq- n \\ u 

Sali parni 

Sali parni, dhruvd, saumya, tri parni, pi tarn, sthira, vidari- 
gandha, ati guha, dirgha mula and amsumati — these are 

Print parni 

Prsni parni, krostu puccha, dhdvani, kalasi, guha, srgala vit, 
vrtta lata, pfthak parni and parnika— these are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 455 

^'?n^t =Rr^ft ftr^t qfe^t Trs^TTfsft u ?=;u 

Brhat kantakari 

Brhati, sthula bhantaki, visadd, mahotika vrntdki, mahati, 
sithhi, kantaki and rdstra nakuli — these are the synonyms of 
brhat kantakari. 

^anf^FT spaf^RV ^re^rd fa-fefTsr^rr I 

§ :^<rerf srrcr?ft srsT ^K-^isft % isnrftpift 1 1 hi i 

Laghu kantakari 

Kantdrikd, kanfakim, kantakari, nidigdhikd, duhsparsd, 
dhdvani, ksudra, vydghri and duhpradharsini — these are the 
synonyms of laghu kantakari. 


%cTSTST ^"sf^NrTr WSHm SffWff^pin' 1 

Sveta kantakari 

Sita ksudrd, candra hasya, laksmana and ksetra duiika — 
these are the synonyms of sveta kantakari. 

Laghu panca mula 

Goksura, sali parni, prsni parni, brhat kantakari and laghu 
kantakari — these five drugs, taken together, are known as laghu 
panca mula. 


The ten drugs, included in these two groups viz., mahat 

456 Materia Medica 

panca mula and laghu pancamula, taken together are called 
da&a mula. 


J[fc£//z j ant/ vrddhi 

Both #dy/z£ and vrddhi (jsukhd) are called laksmi, siddhi 
and .yarva jam* priyd. 


^fsr^sft TlWteft ^Tf^TRfV ^ifcepft WRRU 


Kakoli, madhurd, vira, kayastha, vira suklika, dhvdnk?a koli, 
vaya&oli, svadu mamsl and payasvini— these are synonymous. 

/fafra kakoli 

The second variety of kakoli, which is known as kslra 
kakoli has two synonyms viz., satdhvd and ksirinl. 

%?T ¥1T STTWPJff TpTfecrrsvrqTerTT II R3 II 


Meda, sdlya parni, mani chidra, abhaya and adhara — these 
are synonymous. 




Maha meda, vasu chidra, tri danta, deyaM and maqi— these 

Ayurveda Saukkyam of Todarananda 457 

are synonymous. 


Jivaka, madhura, srngi, hrasvdnga and kurca sirsaka — these 
are synonymous, 

Rsdbha, dhira, indrdksa, visani, durdhara and v?§a — these 
are synonymous. 

Asia varga 

JFlddhi, vrddhi, kakolT, ksira kakoli, meda, maha meda, 
jivaka and rsabhaka— these eight drugs taken together are called 
asfa varga. They are cooling and exceedingly spermatopoetic. 

^rT^«f<ssT affair *ti?jtt sfrsra^ft n ^ i» 


JhantT, jivanl, jlvd, jlvaniyd, yasaskarf, sdka sresthd, 
jlva bhadrd, mangalya and jiva vardhini— these are synonymous. 


n-gipsfV w^ftcnr^ *T«st*rw T^f^FT i 

■^ ^S* s» sj *o 

458 Materia Medica 

Madhu yasti 

Madhu yasti, klitanaka, yasti madhu, madhvlika, yasfyahva, 
madhuka, yasti madhuka, jalaja and madhu — these are 

m < wf f ^p^ctt ^>t¥>^fr fspjfs^T i 


imrRm %^*reft ^t^rt^t ^t^t ii r* ii 

Masa parni 

Masa parni, krsna vrnta, kdmboji, haya pucchika, marhsa- 
masa, sirhha mukhi, svadu masa and maha saha. — these are 

g^TfqTiff ^g-^T ^Toff IJXfrpfV I 

^m ifmt f%5ft %^V ^Ml^ifim ii ^s. n 

Mudga parni 

Mudga parni, ksudra saha, surya parni, kurangini, vanajd, 
rangini, simbi, simhi and marjara gandhika— these are synony- 

?T% W^fcT T£TT> sfV^JT^'fr *nj: II 3° tl 

Jivaniya gana 

Jivanti, masa parni, mudga parni, kakoli, ksira kakoli, jivaka, 
rsabhaka, meda, maha medd and yasfi madhu — taken together, 
they are called madhura gana (group of drugs having sweet 
taste) or jivaniya gana (group of drugs promoting vitality). 
They are heavy {guru). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 459 


Eran-da, dirgha danda, varuna, vardhamdnaka, citra, 
pancdngula, vydghra puccha and gandharva hastaka — these arc 

14 15 

WPTT'ft ^s^fcT: STFF^ 5f^f«T: II 3R II 

Rakta eran-da 

Rakta danda, hasti karna, vyaghra% vydghratara, rubu, 
uttdna patra, durvdta, dma vain and vacamcula- — these are the 
synonyms of the red variety of eranda. 

?rrfw?in" fTOTriT5TT vra^rq-mf^r n 33 u 

Two varieties of Sdriva 

Sdriva, suradd, dsphota, gopa kanyd, pratdnikd, gopdrigand, 
gopa vallT, latahvd and kdstha sdriva — these are the synonyms 
of sdriva. 

There is another variety of sdriva whose synonyms are 
krsna muld, bhadra candana and sdriva. 

460 Materia Medica 


Ydsa, marudbhavd, anantd, dirgha mula, yavasaka, vdla 
patra, samudranta, dura mula, ati kantaka, dhanva ydsa, tdmra- 
rriuli, duhsparM, durdlabhd, durdlambhd, yasaka, kacchurd and 
dhanva yasaka — these are synonymous. 

JT^m'^t sfhfnrtaT f^rcrfafa-sFT ptctt \ 

16 17 

^srj'sft t'^ =5T 'Tor: srfipf^spp: 11 3^ II 

Malta mundl 

Mahd mundl, lobhanlyd, chinna granthinikd, bhuta vrksa, 
kulahala, lambu, sdluka kantaka, kaddmba puspi, mundl and 
bhumi kadambaka — these are synonymous. 



Apamarga, sikhari, kinihi, khara mahjan, adhafi salya, 
saikharika, pratyak puspi and mayuraka — these are synonymous. 


Rakta apamarga 

Rakta phala, vasira and kapi pippali—thess are the 
synonyms of red variety of apamarga, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Totfarananda 461 



KampUa, recana, rakta curnaka, vrana sodhana, rohita, 
rakta samana, reel and rahjanaka — these are the synonyms of 

grftrrr f?rf'^ surfer?^ Vtost n 3£ u 


'T^HF g?T«flfV SRlRiWqY ^TJf^FT UV°il 


Danti, ghuna priya, ndga danti, iighra mukulaka, upacitra, 
nikumbha, visalya, udumbara cchada, akhu karni, vrsa, eranda, 
dravanti, samvan, musikahya, suta Sreni, pratyak sreni and 
kaphanjika — these are synonymous. 



Jayapala, danti ~bija and cincini phala — these are 


$veta niSotha 

Trivft, kumbha, arund, tryasra, bhandl* kufara vdhini. 

462 Materia Medica 

sarvanubhuti, trivrtd, tripufd, sarald and sita — these are the 
synonyms of the white variety of trivrt. 

ggfon ^F^Mf^^T T^CT f^^TT TcTT II VR II 

Sydma nisotha 

Trivrt, kald, kdla mesi, kdla parni, ardha candrikd, susend, 
mdlavikd, masurd and vidald — these are the synonyms of black 
variety of trivrt. 

23 24 

^sfWT^iT^ 3T1|T fSTOTSfr *RT3?ft I 


i$*fa' sprasn - fwra^ft - fwrfeffV n *3 u 

Indra vdru&i — two varieties 

Indra varum, indrdhvd, vrsabhdksu gavddani, indrairvdru, 
ksudra phala, visald, aindri and visddani— these are the 
synonyms of indra varum. 

There is another variety of indra varum whose synonyms 
are citra phala, citrd, maha phala, dtma raksd, ndga danti, trapusi 
and gaja cirbhifd. 


sqrJWcT: ^fw^R: w^tfT: I 


snrVq-fwr swra: : ^™ff *fKwft *r?r: ii y* u 

Aragvadha, rdjavrksa, sampdka, krta malaka, vyddhi ghdta, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 463 

karriikdra, pragraha, caturangula, drogya Mthbi, svamadru, karni 
and dirgha phaJa — these are synonymous. 

iftfspft ?ftf5*spT smart sftwT wn=rTf|ift i 

^spf? "MfVl'+T ^TT p> p*TT fasftsRt IIV^U 


NilinT, nillkd, grdmyd, sri phald, bhdra vdhini, rahjani, 
kalika, meld, turn, tutthd and visodham — these are synonymous. 

*r?*ifafrr =ft^t srwnraT fg^rifwr 1 1 vu 1 1 


Katukd, rohini, tiktd, cakrdngi, kafurohinf, matsya pitta, 
kdnda ruhd, vrsna bhadra and dvijdngika — these are synonymous. 


Ankolaka, tdmra phala, pita sdra, nikocaka, gupta sneha, 
virecf, bhusitd, dirgha kilaka— these are synonymous. 


Sehupda, vajra tunda, gandira, vajra tundaka, snuhi, sdmanta 
dugdha, asipatrd, vajri and maha taru — these are synonymous. 

464 Materia Medico 


$f?ra>: snfcftasr: fT^rf: srw?^: n *° 11 

Nimba, niyamana, neta, arista, pdribhadraka, sutikta, 
sarvatobhadra, picu marda and prabhadraka — these are 


Tftf?T«ft f%SR3f>: *PF*r» fesnrf^: I 

Maha nimba .^a-p ■,, 

Maha nimba, nimbaraka, karmuka, visa musfika, ramyaka, 
girika, udreka, ksira and keia musfika — these are synonymous. 

f^RlfcTcR: 4?V3t *|f%«r. vm^fW>: I 

^farfitsffclW: ^rrff5T?Tf\: ^ftrTTcTfT 11X^11 

Kirata tikta 

Kirata tikta, kairdta, bhummba and ramasenaka — these are 
the synonyms of kirata tikta. 

There is another variety of kirata tikta whose synonyms 
are naipala, nan tikta, parantaka, kanda tikta, urdhva tikta, 
nidrari and sannipataha. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 465 


Kutaja, mallika puspa, kalinga, giri mattikS, vatsaka, 
kofl vrksaka and sakra bhuruhci' — these are synonymous. 

^^W S^W sf^EBt TTsrqrEIWTT u k* II 

Indra yava 

The fruit of kutaja is called frufcz yava. Its synonyms are 
kalinga, kaufaja, sakrahva, puruhuta and bhadra yava. 

h^t: ®f>: fast xrs: fqgtenF: <k<jr; i 

sparer* mv. ^T^ft f^-cryq-^T: II X.X. II 

Madana phala 

Madana, chardana, pindi, raffia, pinditaka phala, karahdfa, 
tagara, salyaka and visa puspaka — these are synonymous, 

30 31 

5?ft-*r# igxi; jm wwr T^^ww^ u x^ ii 


Kamkusfhaka, kaka kusfha, recana, rahga nayaka, sobhana, 
culaka, rasa, varanga and kimnubalaka — these are synonymous. 

sftfTTt ^F^T^ftTt ^<Tiff =3" *tf*Wt II U.U II 


Hemahva, kanaka ksfri, hema dugdha, himavati, ksirini, 
kdncana kslrl, kafu parnj and karstni — these are synonymous. 

466 Materia Medica 




Satala, vimala, sari, saptala, vahu phenika, carmasahva, 
carma kasa, phena, dipta and nalika — these are synonymous. 

ASmanta, mdluka patra, yugma patra, amla patraka, 
slaksna tvak, asrna yoni, kusali and papa naiana — these are 


srreqnteftersRr: *3?<t: %?r^ sffanfr %n 1 1 ^ ° 1 1 

Kancanara, kdncanaka, pakari and rakta puspaka — these 
are the synonyms of kancanara. A variety of this plant is called 
kovidara. Its synonyms are kuddala, kundali, kuli, asphota, 
udyalaka, svalpa, keiarl, srimari and hita. 


Nirgwrfi, sveta kusuma, sinduka and rfmft* varaka — these 
are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of fodarananda 467 


^cr^^Tfr ?rV^r%|^r ?ft?r3^r=p: ( 


The blue variety of nirgundl is called bhuta kesi, nfla 
sinduka, nfla puspaka, sephalika, slta bhiru, dhanaka and nfla 

Afasa .s/Tigf 

Afera srngi, mesa valli, sarpa damspa and aja srngika 

these are the synonyms of mesa srngi. There is another variety 
of it whose synonyms are daksindvarti, vrscikali and visdnikd. 

3?R3T 5%cT*rar "TSTtSFt ?fr#T^F: I 

Sveta punarnava 

Punarnavd, sveta inula, prthvika, dirgha patraka, visakha, 
dirgha varsdbhu, punarbku and mandala chada — these are 

Rakta punarnava' 

Synonyms of the red variety of punarnava are rakta puspa 
and kafhillaka. 

4^8 Materia Medica 

Cv -O Cv — * 

Ksudra varsabhu 

Kruraka, ksudra varsa bhu, varsa ketu and sivdtikd — these 
are the synonyms of the small variety oZpunarnavd. 


f^^mfcRSTT sfircft §31T ^ST II ^st II 

Rdsnd, rasya, yukta rasa, rasand, gandha ndkulT, sugandha 
mala, atirasa, Sreyasi, suvahd and rasa — these are synonymous. 

^TT^iff ^VH ^ZTT ^T3ft«FTr ^«TT II ^ II 

Aiva gandha 

Asva gandha, turangdhvd, gokarnd, asvavarohaka, varaha 
karni, varada, balyd, vdjikari and vrsd — these are synonymous. 

wak»\\ ttsrstt ^T^Toff srcnfr^rr I 

XVtft 5TRifV vrsqiiff grrSKT SRT II ^V9 || 

Prasarani, raja bald, cdru pat ni, pratdnikd; sarani, sdrani, 
bhadraparni, suprasard and sore —these are synonymous. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 469 


m Satdvari, bhiru patri, dvipikd, adhara kantaki, ndrdyarti, 
sata padi, satdhvd and vahu putrikd— these are synonymous. 

Mahd satdvari 

Pivari, divari, vari, abhiru, vahu putrd, mahd purusa dantikd, 
sahasra viryd, kesi, tungini and suksma patrikd — these are the 
synonyms of mahd satdvari (bigger variety of satdvari). 


Bald, vdfyalaka, slta pdki, pddyodana, bhadraudani, 
sabhangd, samdmsd and khara yasfikd — these are synonymous. 

^tspst grtrgsqr sr^nr sprs^nr i 

^TeETTJT'ft %W$fT ^T^T^Rfh^q^: II \9 ? II 

Mahd bald 

Mahd bald, vira puspd, sahadevd, brhadbald, vdtydyani, 
devasahd, vatyd and pita puspaka — these are synonymous. 

npf^t tptst^t fa^enr q%«r^T u \»^ n 

470 Materia Medico 

Ati bald 

Vdlika, ati bald, bhdradvdji, vfksa gandhini, gdngeruki, 
ndga bald, visva deva and gavedhukd — these are synonymous. 



Tejasvini, tejavati, tejanya, kavalkald, mahaujasi, pdrijdtd, 
sitd, teja and ati tejini— these are synonymous. 

Jyotismati, vahni ruci, kanguni and kafubhf — these are 

•JT5=FT>S3 ^^5T: %%*[ 5PP?T^ ^ It ^ II 

Deva tf*ar« 

Dewz ddru, surdhvd, bhadta ddru, sura druma, bhadra kdstha, 
sneha vrksa, kilfma and sakra ddru— these are synonymous. 


qfcnjrc: qfcresft JTSTcfhr: ^fosspr ii \s^ ii 


Sarala, nandana, citrd, nameru, dipa vrksaka, puti ddru, 
puti vrksa, mahd dirgha and kila druma — these are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda All 

Puskara mulct 

Pauskardhva, padma patra, pauskara, pauskaranghrikd, 
kdsmira, puskara jafd, mTda, vira and sugandhika— these are 



Kustha, rogdhvaya, vapya, kauvera, pdribhadraka, pdrihdrya, 
pdribhdvya, utpala and hari bhadraka — these are synonymous. 

^spfe^qT J^TsfrjJ ^^T^ft ^TcTFqfq- UVSeill 

Karkata srngi 

Srngi. kulira srngi, vakrd, karkata srngikd, karkafdkhyd, 
mahd ghord, srnginamrii and natdngi — these are synonymous. 

ev v. cv c\ c. *» 

Rohisa trna 

Bhuta, rohisaka, bhutf, bhutika, sarala, trna, sydmaka, 
yugala, paura, vydmaka and deva gandhaka — these are 


472 Materia Medico 


Katphala, kumudd, kumbhi, sriparni, soma pddapa, soma- 
valka, inaha kumbhi, bhadrd, bhadravatT and siva— these are 





Bhdrgi, bhrgu bhavd, vdsd, kdsaghni, bhdrga parvani, khara 
saka, sukra mdtd, phanji and brdhmana yastikd — these are 


Pasana bheda 

Pasana bheda, pasana, asmari bheda, asma bhedaka, sild 
bheda, drsad bheda, naga bhid and naga bhedana— these are 


fqi^?f f^q'^yfr ?rFTf[?ir srsfftf%Tcr- ii =;3 n 


Musia, vdri dhara, mustd, meghdkhya, kiuuvindaka, vardha, 
avya, ghana, bhadra musta, raja kaseruka, pinda musta, visa 
dhvamsi. — these are the synonyms of mustd. Another variety of 
it is called ndgara. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 473 


Dhdtaki, kunjari, sindhu puspd, pramodini, pdrvatiyd, 
tdmra puspT, surakhya and madya vdsini — these are synonymous. 


c c 

5PHT 5Taf5TT MfaSPfSTT sft^rFsft q-5Tf%w=fV I 

Vidarl kanda 

Vidarika, vfksa valli, Vfksaka, ddviddlikd, srgdlikd, kanda 
valli, svdduka, papa nasaka- — these are the synonyms of viddri- 
kanda. It has another variety whose synonyms are sukld, ksira 
sukld, ksira valli, payasvini, iksu valli, mahd svetd, ksiia gandha 
and iksu gandhikd. 


48 49 50 51 


Mdyikd, rail La, dusta, sad danta, sathamvikd, amvasthaki, 
siici mukhi, kasdyd and idkafa mukha — these are synonymous. 

cTCST: sp^: «Pf3a7te?rm' sr^^r^: 11 ■<=,- II 

V drain kanda 

Vdrdhi, mddhavi, grsti, saukari and vana mdlikd — these are 
the synonyms of the plant vdrdhi kanda. 

474 Materia Medica 

Its root (tuber) is called kafi kroda and samvara. 

*ref?RBT q-FT%??V «f*reft f^s^for^i n =;€. n 


Patha, arhvastha, vrhattikta, praanambasthaki, rasa,, 
vara tikta, papa cell, sreyasi and viddha karnika — these are 

*p3r? ^ft *nmnr ^r^ift jtwwti 


Murva, devi, madhu rasa, deva srenT, madhu srava, snigdha 
parni, prthak parrii, morata and pflu parnikd. — these are 



Manjistha, vijaya rakta, raktahgi, kala mesika, rakta yasfi, 
tamra valli, samanga, vastra bhusana, manjula, vikasa, bhandl, 
chadmika and jvara nasini — these are synonymous. 

52 53 

fret "ftcTT ^TW^rfV fw ^fw^TTftir^fV u ^ I) 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 475 


Haridrd, ranjanl, gauri, rajani, vara varnini, piy,di, pitS, 
varna vatf, nisa and varna vinasini— these are synonymous. 


Another variety of haridrd is called daru haridrd and its 
synonyms are ddrvf, pita daru, pacampaca, kafankaferi, pitadru, 
svarna varna and kafankafi. 

g^Erfr Titt JW$^r: jsSfr'cTT: II 5.V ii 

Cakra marda 

Prapunnada, edagaja, cakra marda, prapunnafa, dadrughna, 
mardaka, mesa kusuma and kustha kfntana — these are 

tftWtFft ffOTrqjijrrspr'nsr: ^TST^fopr II £* II 


Vdkuci, candrikd, soma valli, putiphald, ambara, somardji, 
kfsna phald, avalguja and kdla mesikd — these are synonymous. 

^HrTnsfr Sra^Tsft *tr#t. %srwr: i 


?prp:^ ^'»R73ft ^f*»TT^: swaw II *^ l| 

476 Materia Medica 

Bhrnga raja 

Bhrnga raja, bheka raja, mdrkava, kesa renjana, angdraka, 
bhrngahva and surya vallabha — these are synonymous. 



Parpata, kavaca, rerju, pitrahd, yava kantaka, vara tikta, 
parpataka, sprstika and carina kantaka— these are synonymous. 

,3j* TO^ft ^) writer . 

^?3^ ^T^TST ^fST^^jf^T^T II 5.=; II 

Sana puspi, mdlya puspi, dhavarii, sana ghanfikd, vrhaf puspi, 
svalpa ghanfd, ghanfa sabda and uru puspikd — these are 

tUPTPTT ^S^mT WUTcfr f*rforFJ3JT I 

srsnrar ffispmrr snfw wrtft^ ii 5.5. 11 

Traya ma«<5 

Tray a mdnd, suhrt trdnd, trdyanti, girl sdnuja, bala bhadrd, 
krta trdnd, vdrsika and trdya mdnaka — these are synonymous. 


Mahd jalini 

Mahd jaUnikd, carma rangd, pita kalikd, avarttakf, tindu- 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 411 

kini, yibhaij.da and rikta puspika — these are synonymous. 

Ati visa 

Ati visa, Sukla kanda, visd and prati visa — these are 
synonyms of ativisd. 

There is another variety of it whose synonyms are syama 
kanda, sitd. srngi, bhangurd and upa visanika. 

♦ HHWl 

sptsftN^ sfT^Tfn^t sfrnrsffar «t%^5Tt i 

T^^JTTT ^fgrBT ?qT5WpP?ft WZ: II ? o R 1 1 


Kakamdci, dhvanksa macl, kuma blja, ghane phald, 

rasayana vara, sarva tiktd, kakini and A-a/M — these are 

sister ^Rfarfgr ^T^f^r^r §5ft*reiT i 

59 60 


Kaka jaiighd 

Kaka jangha, nadf kdntS, kakatiktd, suloma§a, pdrdvata 
padi, kakd and madadhmd-karmani — these are synonymous. 


478 Materia Ueiica 


Lodhra, tirifa, kanma, tUvaka and santarodbhava — these are 
the synonyms of lodhra. 

It has another variety whose synonyms are ghana tvaksdra 
and aksi bhesaja. 


Vrddha d&ru 

Vrddha d&ru, maha syama, jangala, jirna valuka, antah 
kofara puspT, avegi and chagala — these are synonymous. 


fcrotft ^>ra?teft %*rcrWt ttrtT i 



Deva dali, vfnta kosa, devatdnga, garagarl, jlmuta, taraki, 
venl, jdlini and dkhu visapaha — these are synonymous: 

f'ETq-T^t ^r<rel ^<rr?ft fTq-Tfe^r i 


sr^rfefft #£*nrr ^t^frnrT w^xwx u \o\s ii 

Hamsa padf 

Harhsa padi, hamsa padf, rakta padi, tri padika, prahladini, 
klfa mart, ki(a ndmd and madhu srava— these are synonymous. 



Soma vatti, yajfia netd, soma ksiri and dvija priyd — these 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 479 

are synonymous. 



Ndkuli, suvaha, sarpa gandhini, gandha nakuli, nakule&a, 
sarpa netra and clrita patrika — these are synonymous. 


src<nft ift^ft *Jrra; sfhnft Twdt irtt i 

Fa/a patrl 

Vafa patrl, moham, dipani and raivati — these are 

5T*^l«i«ffff?ft FT^T *$fejJ ifs^nfT'jft I 

*TTFf>pft StlwW^T SW^TT TrCTTfe^T I ! ? o £ 1 1 


Lajjalu, mohini, sprkkd, khadira, gandha karini, namaskari, 
samipatra, samangd and rakta padika — these are synonymous. 



Musall, khalini, tola patrika, cana puspika, maha vrsa, 
vr?ya kandd, kharjuri and tola muliks. — these are synonymous. 


480 Materia Medica 

72 73 

-cfc'MTrerT mm&t ir^fr wr** s"Mt i 

Kapi kacchu 

Kapi kacchu, svayam gupta, kandala, duravagrahd, canda, 

atma gupta, languli, markafi and harsani — these are 

j^nsftcft TfaRt 5Tfe3<s>ft^TSFr: II \%\ II 

Putranjfva, garbha kara, yasti puspa and artha sddhana — 
these are synonymous. 

Vandhyd Karkotj 

Vandhya karkotakT, devT, human, visa ndsini, manojna, 
ndga damani and vandyd yogesvan — these are synonymous. 

Visnu krdntd 

Visnu krdntd, nlla puspT, jay a, vasya and apardjitd — these 
are synonymous. 

3n5T3*ft sf^rcfV fktft€l ^rrftrffV i 

^5^tV ^rfcrff ?rr *t«rr ^nrf^^Tf^fV 1 1 ?? 3 1 1 

Samkha puspf 

Samkha puspi, samkha ndmni, kiritj, kambu mdlim, karhbu 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 481 

pu§pT, smrti hitd, medhya and vana vildsinT — these are 


Dugdhikd, madhu parnl, ksmriT and svadu puspikd — these 
are synonymous. 

WTS'ft spTWfncrf sr^r^wT Mrfew i 

Arka puspT 

Arka puspl, krura karma, jala kama and bhiriridikd- — these 
are synonymous. 


5T5^^cr«TT5^: ^TTTsfrrg^ snj: ll ^ II 


Bhalldtaka, anala, bhalli, vira vrksa, agni vaktraka, arus- 
kara, aruska, tapana, agni mukhi and dhanu — these are 


76 77 


CerapotT, dlrgha patri, kuntali and tiktakd — these are 

sftoTTGtft S^^F: TTfecft efrcpftfaspr I 
^^■Tftr^f^r^T sfTuTT ^%=3fT ^STIT^: 1 1 ? ^ V, 1 1 

4g2 Materia Mcdica 

Drona puspT 

Drona puspi, svasanaka, palindi, kumbha yomka, chatra, 
atichatrika, drona, kaundinya and vrksa saraka— these are 


JTiSSFqqjf Vfrgzft c^st f^TT TT^ksft 1 
sp<ffa^T *jf?H?T STTWTT tftT^Spft II ?R^ II 


Brahmi, sarasvati, soma, satyahvd, brahma carim, manduka 
parni, mandukl, tvasti, divyd, mahausadhi, kapoia va/ikd, munika, 
lavanya and soma vallari — these are synonymous. 

gcr=s^<vrTWsptcnr stft g^f^raiT % *=fte*p=rT i 


Suvarcala, arka kantd, surya bhakta, skuhodbhava, surya- 
varta and rati pnyd — these are the synonyms of suvarcala 
Another variety of this plant is called brahma suvarcala. 




Matsyaksi, vahlika, matsya gandhi, matsyadani, toy a pippalf, 
ambu valll, paMra, kacata, gojihva, gojikd, gobhi, dirghikd and 
khara parnim— these are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 483 

'Naga damanT 

Nagahva, damanT, naga gandha and bhujaga parnini — these 
are synonymous. 


TJ3TT ftPjff^FT cTTWr TfrF^T ^T^rf^r I 


Gunja, sikhandika, tdmrd, raktika and kakanantikd — these 
are the synonyms, of red variety of gunja. Synonyms of the 
white variety of gunja are cakrikd, ciida, durmasd and 
kaka pTlukd. 

82 83 


Vellantara, dirgha patra, viradru and vahu patraka — these 
are synonymous. 


STWrpft ^TTSre: ^Tf^qr^ftf^nfr II l\R II 


Vanddka, vrksa ruhd % sekhari, kdma vrksaka, vrksddanT 
kdma taru, kdmim and apada rohini— these are synonymous. 

85 86 

484 Materia Medica 


Piriddra, karahdta, tiksna kila and kurarigaka — these are 


Chikkikd, ksavaka, krura, nasa samvedana and pap* — these 
are synonymous. 



Rohita, dadimlpuspa, ruhita, kuta salmali, plihari, rohina, 
rohf, raktaghna and parijdtaka — these are synonymous. 


Moca rasa 

Mocaka, moca rasa, salmali vestaka, moca niryasaka, 
piccha, mocasran and picchaka — these are synonymous. 

Aja gandhi 

Aja gandhi, vatsa gandha, kavari and puti vwra/a—these 
are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toclardnanda 485 


Saireyaka, scthacara, saireya, kimkirdtaka, dasi, pindi, 
sairy'aka and w</« kantaka — these are the synonyms of 
saireyaka. This plant with red flowers is called kuravaka, with 
yollow flowers is called kurantaka and with blue flowers is 
called arta galaka as well as vana undana vdki. 


Giri karnikd 

Sveta syanda, sveta puspa, katabhi, giri karnikd, sita apara- 
jitd, sveta, visaghni and moha nasini — these are the' synonyms of 
the white variety of giri karnikd. Its blue variety is called nila 
syanda, avyakta gandha, nila puspa and gavddini. 

?src: src3?r vww: sjftfarerrer. sit: ?t?t: i 



Ik sura, ksuraka, dhvanda, kokildksa, ksura, taila kanfa x 
ati ksuraksa, valika and sugandhikd — these are synonymous. 



486 Materia Medica 


Karpasa, pafada, tula, chadana, vadara and picu — these are 



Arama iftala 

Arama sitala, deva gandha and kukkufa mardaka — these are 



iO <o <o c\ o* c sa 

Tdmra cuda 

Kukkura dm, tdmra cuda, suksma patra, and mrdu chada — 
these are synonymous. 




VamT, sarhkha dhara, vdri, brahmi and hima mocikfr — these 
are synonymous. 

Vala mofd 

Vald mo fa, jayd, suksma patra and apardjitd — these are 

^r<t'^t *w*nv "^ft^rfr sfnfspT.T *rar n wu 

&rra pumkha, kdla sdka, pliharl and A a//A'5 — these are 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 487 

Mayura sikha 

Mayurahva sikha and sahasra madhuka chadd — these are 

Laksmand, putradd, rak ta, vindu patrd and ndgini — these 
are synonymous. 

9 97 

Mdrhsa whim 

Marhsa rohini, atiruhd, vrntd, carma kasd and kasd — these 
are synonymous. 


Asthi samhdra 

Asthi samhdraka, vajra vallarl and krosfu ghanfikd — these 
are synonymous. 


^4rA'£7, surydhvaya, I siri, sadd puspd, vikirana, manddra and 
vasuka — these are the synonyms of arka. It has another variety 
which is called rdjarha and dirgha puspaka. 

488 Materia Medica 


Karavlra, asvaha, sveta pu§pa and sata kumbhaka — these are 
the synonyms of kamvira having white flower. The other 
variety having red flower has synonyms like canda, laguda and 


* 101 

STxR: ft*ptf sfxTf ^T?TT n%^: 3T5: t 

Dhattura, kitava, dhurta, devata, madana, satha, unmatta, 
matula, turf, tarala and kanaka — these are synonymous. 



Kalihari, vahni mukhi, langall, garbha pdtanT, visalya, 
halini, smkrama and sukra puspika — these are synonymous. 



Kumari, mandate, mats, grha kanya and sapicchala — these 
are synonymous. 


Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 489 


Bhangd, ganjd, matulani, mohim, vijaya and jayd — these 
are synonymous. 



Kdncani, sona phalini, kakayu, and Arafca vallari — these are 


Durva, iistd, sita kari, golomi and sata parvikd — these are 
the synonyms of one variety of durva. Synonyms of the 
other variety are sveta, £veta danda, bhdrgavi, durmana and ruhd. 

Tr^s^rf tt^tw iTc^Tsfr ^sn^rt i 

Ganda durva 

Ganda durva, matsya gandhd, matsydksl and sakuladani — 
these are synonymous. 


3>rcn vgfts: ^T%s|fT'SR>: S^Rr^TRT: II W II 


Kdsa, sukdnda, kdseksu, isaka and sveta cdmara — these 
are synonymous. 


490 Materia Medica 


Darbha, barhi, kusa, tiksna, siicyagra and yajna bhusana— 
these are synonymous. 

108 109 

JTsr sjt ? «£5T*ro~f qTFrr^t sr^rir^ ii \i\ n 


Munja, ksura, sthula garbha, vanahva, and brahma 
mekhah — these are synonymous. 

110 111 112 

JVa/a, randhri, puspa mrtyu, dhamana, nartiaka and wa.ta — 
these are synonymous. 

118 114 


Vamsa, venu, kicaka, karmara and tvaa saraka — these 
are synonymous. 

SJTTOT'ft 'Wft 


Khurasani yavdni 

Yavani, yavanl, tlvra, turuska and mada karim — these are 



firertfa: wfw: qp5T<sfr 'rRrcW: II ?V.«. U 

Khasa Khasa 

Tila bheda, khasa tila, mkra puspa and latatphala — these 
are the synonyms of khasa khasa. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardiianda 491 



Aphuka, ahiphena and aphenaka — these are the synonyms 
of the drug prepared out of the juice of khasa khasa. 

117 118 119 

f^Tfrr *T?TW TTcTraT^I^^: II \\%. II 

Pat&La garuda 

Cilahafa, maha mulct and patala garuda — these are 


This is the 90ch chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in 
Todarananda and the opening invocation reads as below : 

1 . 'cr^TTcr srszr^r' ^fa Vvs^sfc TT5: I 

2. 'snTSJTT' ffcf CTG3^cT% qrs. 1 

3. 'STTW^T^cTr' ^% T^^ qrs. 

4. 'STTf^r' ?fa <TO3*i3% TTS: I 

5. '^r^sf ^fo sp^s^r tts: i 

6. 'S^rRT^:' ?fa <9r<s33*cr% <TT3: I 

7. 'ST^^^t' f% TE55^rf% qT5: ! 

8. 'sEfw' Wfcf TO5£^!% <TT5: I 

492 Materia Medica 

11. $«raT*nfr' ffcr 5rsT3T5^gr% ttst i 
12 '^t% %iM\ =5r' wftr 'sp^5?fT% TTS. I 

13. '*n=rcrT' 1% srssg*a% qrc: i 

14. f ^fWrrI#d% TOT.' ?% qs^sprg^f «TT5: I 

15 'fegN*r' ffa ^3*3% qrs: i 

16. ^JyPffjft' 1% ^"pcT^T TTS: i 

17. 'cT^rr' sfcT q-3=arJTC<Prr% tts: I 

18.. 'srf^K.' ff?r *rssqjg% q-TS i 

19. 'tf¥ ff?r «ns53?g% TT5- t 

20. %cT' f% 5T«TlT5?cl% TT3: I 

21. 'st^t' ?f% stsrj^ qrs: i 

22. 'Pt3tt' ffa «r*35?cr% tts: i 

23. '?pwtwt' ff?r ^sg?^ q-rs: i 

24. 'TWTfeift' ^fcr ^jqj^cRi qrre: t 

25. 'faqT^Y ?% ETSTT^rT^ TTS I 

26. 'spiff' wf% srq-irg/cT^ qrs i 

27. 'TTT^.' 5% "T^TqTSSg^cFPJfr: TTS: t 

28. f^^FC' 1% ^3<j?f[% qrs: l 

29. 'sprfcr^.' f% srswg;^ <tts. t 

30. '"pT^' ?f<r 7^-^533^;$ ifr qi5: I 

31. 'FTC - ' 3% T^^ITcrssJ^FT^lft: TT5 I 

32. •tfKt' ifar 5T<WJ*cI% TT5. 1 

33. 'TTfe^T' ^fa qT5=^iT3^% TT5- I 
'jffrf^pf *f5T TOJRPfr TT5: I 

34. '^ftefmV ffa 5r«ra^Ri% «rre- i 

35. 'f%$qr?:fr:' ^f% T^nr3??r% tts: i 

36. 'f%wr' ^fcr qrs^q-q;^^ <rre. i 

37. 'srcrqr?' *fsr 5^*3^% tts. i 

38. '%rBTfcT^r?f)-' ?% 5r«Prg*i!I% q-TS: l 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 493 

40. '*r^r*rer:' ?% wss3*?r% qrs: i 

41. '*T^mW ?fcf ^^3?cT% <T13: I 

42. 'f fwr' ^fir <?^3^rr% qrs: i 

43. 'TfT' 5% T^3^cT% TTS: I 

44. '?nre?reT' ffg- «sps 3 q;^% i^; | 

45. '5TpF' ffa <f^S3^g% TT3: I 

46. '5F$T^:' 1% q^ePR-3^% <TT5*. I 

47. '^rf^^Tfe^T' ^% 5pS33*cr% qTV I 

48. 'ini%^T' ■?% T3=^Tr5^r% qrs: i 

49. '^TfWT' f % ^S3^?T% TT5: I 

50. '^f f% SPT^^ TT5: I 

51. 'srefecf i% ^53^% qrs: i 

52. 'Tfcr*fr' ff^r ^33^% tts: j 

53. '*tW 1% ^33^% TT5: 1 

54. '^r'^TT^r' ^fa ^ss3^ci% qrs: 1 

55. 'W^2^:' *ftr **5pa% <TTS: I 

56. '^^t' ffcT W^55^cT% TT3: 1 

57. '^3^' f% ^33*3% TTS: I 

58. 'STRfrRnr' ?f?T ^53^% qTS: 1 
59- '*T5s:qrT' 1% ^533^% TT5: I 

60. '^"TW %fa ^sp^T% TT5: I 

61. '^rsftewcr:' ^f?r ^^3^% q-re 1 

62 '^T»mT' ffcT STSTiTJ*^ qTS: I 

63. '^TFr^' ffcr ^3"T^fr% qre: 1 

64. -STTf^mTTf^ims' ?fa 51^^^^% qTS: 1 

65. '^>s*rrfr' f% 5r«r5T^^% qrs. 1 

66. 'sffirMtfV ^fcf qtsq;*3% qrs. 

67. '37;sft' ^fcT ^^^^3% q"T5: I 

68. '*frf|' ^fcr ^3^% tts- 1 
69 '*irreft' f% spssqr^ qre. t 
70. 'spre^f f fcr ^sq-J^ qrs: 1 

494 Materia Medica 

71. 'qtojft' sfsr t^st^t tts: i 

72. 'srnrefr' if?r «**s<TS5i% tts: i 

73. '?q - TW3«WV ffcT 5TaFP£Fcl% TTS. I 

74. *?rTT' ^% «9T«3T??r% TT5: I 

75. 'fa^SrftfaT^T'F:' 1% "sr^S"T?cT% TTS: 1 

76. 'f^RqW %fo <TWT?3% TT5: I 

77. 'f erSTT' 1% *SOTRI% TT5: I 

78. 'spssf f% ^ot^t% <rra: i 

79- 'T^T'ffa'f e^TfofY' ?fcr «r«s<£Ri% q-Rj: I 

80. '^qftrsfrr' ^% cr^OT?cr% tts: i 

81. 'ferfwf^rV ^fcr «n:sTOr% tts: i 

82. '^hfT^T' %fk trc3<T*cI% qT3* I 

83. 'sftas; #?"^renr: *fir q*sq??5I% <TTS: I 

85. 'f«nrr«ir.' sftr gt^st^ tts: i 

86. 'sFefiT^: f% «sps5<T??I% TT3: I 

87. '^snrswr' ifcr q^nrT??^ qrs: i 

89. c ^e#' ^fcr srsprr??^ <tts: i 

90. 'tspFcrtfa-srfVgr.' ^fgr q-5s^?i% qre- i 

91. '^?r: J ?f% wtsqr^ crns. i 

92. <5FF=f^V ^% ^S>T?c(% TTS: I 

93. '^f^s scrra^.' ?fa ^57*^% qis i 

O S3 *» C\ ^ O 

94. l ?mt' ?f<r ^sqr?r% ire: i 

95. «7^T' ?fa 5T«r*m?r% ITS: I 

96. '=sr«fsRn' ffir srarw^% its: i 

97. 'spst' iffT sr«r*rq^Rr% qrs: i 

98. 'sFt^f^n-' ^fcr q-WFF3% tts: i 

99. 'wlr^.' i% sr«r*i^F5!% tts: i 

100. 'JT^PPift^pf' ^fcT ST«T*IW% qj^: | 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 495 

101. 'ens:' w% sr«rTq-^c!% tts: i 

102. '^nNlcPfV' ffcT "sps5qT5T% VT5: I 
103 •'wffPTftq'sPT' ^% T3^qrT?5T% qT5: I 

104. '^reMY' %fa 5rsq-q-qrcr% qrs: i 

105. 'W^sFT' ffcf T^TT 1 !?^ TT5: I 

106. '^cT^TTTT.' ffcT ^37^3% qi3: I 

107. 'SFWT 1 ^T ^5^3% "TTS: I 

108. ^PTCsff ^% q"3=^-Trq-^cf^r qrs: 1 

109. 'WTgr^Y %fa ^ZTZ-ffc "TT5: I 
310. 'rTFfY ifcT ST^^c^ TT5: I 
111 '*rsft' f fcT STWjT^ TT5: I 

112. 'fa?.' ?fcT SFT'T'T'FcR? 173: t 

113. 'fV^nF:' ff>T T^iTCR^ <TT5 I 

1 14. '*srTc^T ! R' : ^c^fwrc^:' ff% ^S7^^% <n3: I 

115. 'tra'Fft' Wfir 5T^TFr^a% TTS: 1 

116. 'srsrq^r.' %fa q3SEr*rqT<T% qrs: i 

1 17. 'fe^Tf ST' ?% q-3=*pTq?cT% TTS: I 

118. 'ir^^r wf?r "^C5q??r% qrs- 1 

^- C\ sD 

This is the end of the 90th chapter of Ayurveda Sau- 
khyam in Todarananda and colophon reads as below : 




Sunthi, visausadha, visva, katu bhadra, katutkata, mahau- 
sadha, srngavera, nagara and visva bhesaja— these are 


Ardraka, srngavera and kandausadha — these are synony- 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 513 



Usira, abhaya, sevya, vira and vzrarta m&laka — these are 

'tw^T *pfq?rr spTrcfr Tffyft ^w*pt u r? ii 


Renuka, kapila, kauntl, pcindu putri and hareriuka. 

fsRTT: ^fw^fV 5TTTT ^tcTT^T ?ffeft ^rTT I 


Priyangu, phalim, syamd, kantahva, nandini and laid. — these 
are synonymous. 

28 29 30 

TTft^T <J£ ^T^T ^Tf ' qrfT^PT II ^ II 


Paripela, puta, vdnya, sukahva and paripelava — these are 



Saileya, sthavira, vrddha, sila puspa and silodbhava — these 
are synonymous. 


514 Materia Medica 


Kunduru, mecaka, kandU, kha/jara, bhisana and ball — these 
are synonymous. 


Guggulu, sola niryasa, mahisaksa, palankasd, jafayu, 
kausika, durga, deva dhupa, siva and pura — these are 

33 34 35 


Rata, sarja rasa, yaksa dhupa, sarja, agni vallabha, ksanaka, 
sala niryasa, lakhya, asya talana and vara — these are 

^srVrq-sp ;#5re spptw' sh^s: i 


Sauneyak a, barha cuda, suka parna and suka chada — these 
are synonymous. 


Coraka, kitava, canda, dufrputra, samkana and ripu— these 
are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todarananda 515 


Mura, gandhavatl, daitya, gandhadhya, surabhi and fc«/F — 
these are synonymous. 


Karcura, dravida, gandha mulaka, durlabha and safi — these 
are synonymous. 



Sathi, palasi, sadgrantha, suvratd and gandha mulini — these 
are synonymous. 


FfRrr sre? ^m^r %wt fanr? <?3T spiral ^w. \\ ^ u 

Sprkka, srk, brahmani, devl, nirmdlyd, kulild and vadhu — 
these are synonymous. 

39 40 

^fsrcwf ^"jsq- 5T^3^ f%^w^^r i 

Granthi parni 

Granthi pama, nila puspa, suka misDa and vivarnaka — these 
are synonymous. 

JTf^FT q-xfspV 5R1T 1%W"IT SFFft" 5TZt II R5. I| 

516 Materia Medica 


Nalika, nartaki, sunyd, nirmedhyd, dhamani and nap— these 
are synonymous. 


Padmaka, malaya, cam, pita rakta and suprabha — these 
are synonymous. 


Prapaundarika, paundrahva, satapuspa and supu§paka- — 
these are synonymous. 

zmi ^f|w f^r^r" -^*i^" *rf*f Tcr*r i 


ST?-?: fqfsamr 4H ^z^xw^u 3? n 

Tagara, varhina,jihma, cakrahva, nahusa, and nata — these 
are the synonyms of tagara. 

There is another variety of it which is known as 
pindi tagara and its synonyms are dlna, katn and mahoraga. 


Gorocana, ruci, gauri, rocand, pingald, mangalyd, gautami, 
medhya, vandhyd and go pitta sambhava — these are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 517 

qr^t^t tot: firetfr llprW:?3: ^T: I 

Nakhanka, nakhara, silpT, hanurnaga, harm, khura, sukti, 
sankha and vyaghra nakha — these are the synonyms of nakha. 

There is another variety (of it) which is known as 
hyahya fala and pada. 

<remr tstpt wrsRfRF® *&f*rm i 



Patanga, pata raga, rak ta kastha, L ucandana, surangaka, 
jagatyakva, pattura 2ca&pata ranjana — these are synonymous. 

44 45 

mm fT^nft ttrs^jt ®nf«r. T^trT i 

46 47 

frm^TT sprJ^TCTTIfT TT^^t Trfispt *FT: I! 3K II 

Ldksa, nirbharsana, rakta druma, vyadhi, palamkasd, kftnijS, 
jantuda, asydhvd., ydvaka, raktaka and mala — three are 


TTCt ^ft WW mjfl ^T?T?ft 3r?ft I 


Parpafi, raRjani, kfsnd, yatukd, janani and jam— these are 

$18 Materia Medico 


Padmini, vtiini, nalinf, surya vallabha, kumudvati kairavirfi 
kumudi and udupati priyd—these are synonymous. 

T^T^Trorfcnrcr T^m^T *tnzt Terr 11 3^ n 

Padma "cartyi 

Padma cdrini, aticara, padmdhva and caratl — these are 

^TST Jf^ifsfN 1 SITS" srcsffajfrq; I 

<T%^ cTPTW TpsfW <T<«R^ ^fJT I 

Sveta kamala 

Kamala, svetamambhoja, sarasa, sarasi mha, sahasra patra, 
srfgeha, sata patra, kusesaya, pankeruha, tamarasa, rajiva 
puskareruha, accha, ambhoruha, padma, pundarlka, pankaja 
saroja, nalini, nila, aravinda and mahotpala- these are 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 519 


Raktotpala, kokanada, hallaka and rakta gandhika — these 
are synonymous. 


Nflotpala, kuvalaya, bhadra and indivara — these are the 
synonyms of nilotgala. 

It has another variety which is slightly wh te and its 
synonyms are kumuda, kairava and kumut. 


Kalhara, hrasva pathoja, sanmya and saugandhika— these 
aie synonymous. 


Kamala keiara 

Kinjalka, kesara, gaura, apita and kdhcanahvaya — these 
are synonymous. 

Padma bija 

Padma bija, gdlodha, padmdhva and padma karkafi — these 
are synonymous. 

520 Materia Medica 



Mrnala, visa, ambhoja, nala and nalini ruha — these are 



Saliika, salina and karahataka — these are synonymous of 
the rhizome (muld) of padma etc. 

srTcft fsnnrer xvft TFRft %*f?n jrgrr it w n 



Jatl, priyambada, raff, malati and sumana — these are the 
synonyms of jdti. 

There is another variety of it which is yellow in colour 
and it is called pirn pttspa and kahcana puspikd. 

The white variety of it is called sveta jatl, svanzajdti, 
vandha namd. and jayantika. 


52 53 


MaUikQ, medini, mukta, bandhini and madayantika— these 
sare ynonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyaih of Toaarananda $21 

54 55 



Yuthika, harini, bald, puspa gattdha, sikhartd^h svari^a 

yuthi, para pita, ganikd and svarqa puspika — thess are 

gpspifr ■tscttPt ^3"sqr w^ts^t n v« n 


2srar3<s<TT ^ogrfir *pftnFT "grs%*reT i 

TrfnT*T ■^fi^'sq'T SnOT3*TTftPFj|3 T II Vc; || 


Kubjaka, bhadra tarani, brhat puspa, maha sah5, sata puspa, 
taruni, karnikd and c&ru kesara — these are the synonyms of 

It has another variety having red flower and its synonyms 
are rakta puspa, ld.ksd. puspa and atimanjula. 




Ketakf, sucika puspa, jambuka and karkasa chada — these 
are the synonyms of ketaki. 

It has another variety which is known as suvarna ketakf, 
laghu puspa and sugandhini. 

522 Materia Medico 


Vasanti, sarala, kunda, prahasanti and vasantaja — these are 

Nepali, grismaka, Iut5, mlayirii, vana malika, varsiki, 
tripufd, dhanya, srimatl, sadpada priya, madhavi, mandapa kami, 
puspendra and abhisfa gandhaka — these are synonymous. 



qr^nr: tu^tst: %5rc: Terras: n w u 

«S vO »v 


Campaka, kahcana, ramya, campeya, surabhi, cala, 

punnaga, patali puspa, kesara and satpadalaya — these are 


erjer: %srft vsm^ 1%fr fesrRst: i 



Vakula, kesara, madyagandha, sirhha and visarada, 
vukovaka, sthula puspa, vasuka and Siva sekhara — these are 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of To$arananda 523 


Kunda, sukla, sada pu§pa, bhrnga bandhu and manorama — 
these are synonymous. 

Muca kunda 

Mucu kunda, ksatra vrk?a, civuka and prati visnuka — these 
are synonymous. 

%*pft spr:^: sftTFT fafe^rr *p§r^t. iixv.ii 


Bhu mandali, bimba kila, dvipada, asfapadl, tilakd, ksuraka, 
sriman, vicitra, mukha mandana, ganerukd, karnikdra, karni and 
ganikarika — these are synonymous. 


srsnsfte: 5TT?<T««ft sppHPEf ?W%: 1 1 K\ it 

«o o c\ 

Bandhu jiva 

Bandhu jiva, sarat puspa, bandha bandhuka and raktaka — 
these are synonymous. 


srtTrT^T snrrT^F* fw>*rr ^irrsfsrar i 


Japa pu§pa,japd rakta, tri sandhyd, varund and asitd — these 
are synonymous. 

524 Materia Medica 


Sinduri, rakta bijd, rakta puspd and sukomala — these are 



3«reft ipm *ft?r ^Tcpsft wf wsrft i 



Tidasf, surasd, gauri, bhutaghni, vahu manjari, apeta raksasi, 
grdmyd, sulala, deva dundubhi — these are synonymous. 



Maruvan, mantka, tiksna, khara patra, phanijjaka- — these 
are synonymous. 

5*pft *rer?ft 3W: ?*ft *rfa%cft wf?r: n *.£ n 


Damana, madana, danta, dama, muni suta, muni, gandhot- 
kafa, damanaka, viniia and kula putraka — Ulese are 

*uf<r?«n^> iwft areqr*: qrfbsn;: i 


Varvart, arjaka, kunfha, vaikunfha, kufheraka and 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 525 

kapittharjaka — there are the synonyms of kufheraka. 

There is another variety of it which is known as vaja 
patra, katijara, kfsnarjaka, kala mdtd, karala and kxstja mallikS. 


1 . This is the 92nd chapter of Ayurveda saukhyam in To4arU~ 
nanda and the opening invocation reads as below ; 

2. 'vrrgwTxB' ^f% **s5?a% ^re: i 

3. <%eq-' %fa <^psST??l% 'TIS: I 

4. 'TfcT^T' ^fa T^PTO^r TTS: I 

5. 'T^W*' ffcT ^3"?^% TTS: I 

'sfrf^pF^r:' 1% sr^raw^ its: i 
'jtWspft' ?f?r q-=3w<r??i% its. i 

7. '^RTq^T^q-' ?fcT sr*rtPT?cl% TO: I 

8. 'qV?PT' STTfT ^fo JT*PT<TS?r% TT5: I 

10. *5^HP' ?% ST«PT5*5[% TTS: I 

12. 'sjf' ft% q=^T3?g% <ns: i 

13. 'srrpr' ^fe T^3"T5F?r% qrs: i 

14. 'sn-fa'reY f% sr«TirT??r% <tts: i 
15- 'wr' ^fsr srsT*rcw% tts: i 

526 Materia Medica 

16. *mfT#' ^fcT ^«CT'RJ% TTS: 1 

17. 'msnftfcRf' s% <N^t??t% its: i 

19. 'gr^id'qu^' ?f?T spptt??^ its: i 

20. 'ft*rcr' *fir spnrrRrt? tts: i 

22. 'srre' 5% spttt*?^* qre: i 

23. 'gsreftes:' fftr TWJS5!% TT5: I 

24. '*T^T' ^fcT TTT^F5I% TTS: I 

25. 'qW *fer «r«sq*?r^ tts: \ 

26. 'fqi^r' ifor q*^w^?a% qrs: i 

27. 'Jpf f % qwn=a% qrs: i 

28. '^ftT'nw' f% 5ppft*?i% qrs: I 

29. ■flftW' iRr spot|?5i% qrs: i 

30. '^PHf' ^r sr«r*nre?T% qra i 

31. 'qf^q^pf' *fir ^5q?cr% qra: i 

32. *fti§Rf' ifgr T^qjF?r% qTs: i 

33. '^z' sfo *r*5q*cr% qrs: i 

34. 'wrerftzzrWr' ^f?r sr*nrq*a% qis: i 

35. 'srersrcV ifa 5r*nrr??r% qra: i 

36. '^tv.' ^f% 5r*PTq*a% qrs: i 

37. 'HaV i% srwr^ qrc: i 

38. 'srcY ?f% qwre^ qrs: i 
•*reY f% 5r«T»rq^Rr% qre: i 

39. '^fssn - ' fftr q%Tq^F?r% qrs: i 

40. 'TrafT' sfcr qwr*cr% qre; i 

41. 'fsnfnjfar' sfcf q , 'S3qfcr% qra: I 

42. 'fq^prc' ffcr q-'^w^qj^jft: vw. i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 527 

43. 'wf f% sr«PTT??flr ttc: I 

44. 'isr^TTf '' 5% GpssT*^ qre: i 

45. 'fw^TT' f fa <T'wr*?r% TO: i 
'ffr^STCT' ?% T^STS^ TO: I 

46. 'WR;' 1% **FTTf?T% TO: I 

47. 'JTT^r=Ft' 1% V3WcT% TO: I 

48. 'fra - :' ?ftr <srss<mr% TO: l 

49. 'srgspT' sf?r t^j^ to: i 

50 %5TC' ^fcT T'^TTT^^r ^T5: I 

51. 'feqTnftsr'T' *fa sr«nr^r% to: i 

52. 's^f-NV 5% «rssg*ia% to: i 

53. 'tftpfl-' ffa q"^T3^?T% to: i 
'jf^jfV ?f?r «r^^cr% TO: I 

54. 'afsR' S% STT^*^ TO: I 

55. 'f TWV f% 5T«T*T'TiFg-% TO: I 

56. 'f%r^rf^5fV* ^% srsr*Tqr*a% <rre: i 

57. '?cr!PTf*PFT' f% srsnrqr?^ TO: I 

58- %?(KT' ff% ^57?cT% TO: I 

59- 'srfcm' ^% qr^-Tr3^r% to: i 
60 '^q-f^r^T' ?% q-"^T3?<T% to: 

61. '^T^far^:' ^% ^^53?^% TO: I 

62. '%^T.' ?fcT srsr*^^ qT5: I 

63. %5PCt' S% ^'^3*3% TO: I 
64 '^spi^V fftr q-GS3?ci% TO: I 

65. 'fa^fwt' ^% q' : qiT3^% to: I 

66. '^snr^' 5fa <^S3?3"% TO: l 

67. '^eref ^i% q-*s3^% to: i 

528 Materia Medica 

,68. '%x&V ff?r spsstj^ qrs: \ 

69. '*m*( f% «TKsq^a% qTs: i 

70. '5Fmm5n J s% q^q-j^ qre: i 

71. This is the end of 92nd chapter of Ayurveda Sauk hyarh 
in Todarananda and the Colophon reads as below ; 




=3"nft*FT Wf'?T crT^ftq - =3T ^TPFIT I 



Suvarna, kanaka, hetna, hataka, brahma kancana, camikara, 
sata Kumbha, tapaniya, tukmaka, jambu nada, hiranya, suratna 
and jata rupaka- — these are synonymous. 




Rupyaka, rajaia, kustha. tara, sveta and vasuttama — these 
are synonymous. 

530 Materia Medica 


Tamra, mlecha mukha, sulva, naipala and ravi namaka — 
these are synonymous. 

*Fn=*f ?ftf ffpsrEpt^r i^^\^ st^wr* 11 3 n 


Kamsya, loha, nija ghosa, panca loha and prakasana — these 
are synonymous. 



Pita loha, kapi loha, kapila, saukhya maraka, varta loha, 
nrloha. rajarii and mrmahesvari — these are synonymous. 



Rahga, khtiraka, vanga, trapu, karati and ghana — these are 


*ft*f STTipRf ^TT^T'T Tfdw«P*i; II X II 

ST-aar, afoa/w bhava, naga, araga and /ran pistaka- — these are 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Togardnanda 531 


Loha, sastra,' ayah, kusfha, khanda, paravata and ghana — 
these are synonymous. 


Krsnayah mala, kitta, mandura, lohaja and rajas — these 
are synonymous. 


T^wf fr*rw ^wufr wk^w xw. 5nr: ii oii 


Parada, capala, hema nidh, suta, rasottama, trinetra, rosana, 
svamin, hara bija, rasa and prabhu — these are synonymous. 


Abhraka, svaccha, acasa, patala and vara pitaka — these 

are synonymous. 

*r«r. *r>rfsRft %-sft tt^t^ttt ^srqfa^ \\ * \\ 


Gandha, saugandhika, Ml, gandhasma and gandha pitaka — 
these are synonymous. 

532 Materia Medica 


Maksika, dhatu maksika, tapya and tapija — these are 



fes^fsp^'f'PTTOT ^"t^cIT Tfftffp^T II 5. II 


Manab iila, kid, gold, naipali, kunatl. kula, divyausadhi, 
ndga matd, mono gupta and manohvikd — these are synonymous. 

^fTcTTW T^f ?TF?f 'ftecf T^Epn-ir II \° II 


Haritdla, malla, tola, godanta and nata bhusana — these are 


^nf cpif T^"f srirvT ^W'tfT^ 1 1 u II 


Gairika, rakta pdsana, giri mrt, gaveruka, svarna varna, 
pararh varna, mandana and svarna gairika — these are 

WZXWt^' ^FZTcT f%f%R7S =3" Z^WQ tl ?^ II 


Tuttha, kharparikd tuttha and amrta sahga — these are 
synonyms of tuttha, 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 533 

Another variety of it is called mayura grivaka and its 
synonyms are sikhi kantha and tutthaka. 


Kasisa, dhatu kasisa, khecara and tapta lomasa. 

g«s«T crater 


Puspa kasisa 

Another variety of kasisa is called puspa kasisa and its 
synonyms are tuvara and vastra rdga hrt. 



Hingula, darada, ml echo, saukata and curna parada — these 
are synonymous. 


Sindura, nagaja, rakta, srimat, srhgdra bhusana, vasanta 
mandana, naga garbha and rakta raja — these are synonymous. 

*fcfte#spf frctrf ^TH *ft*f g^T^ST'T I 

Sauvira aHjana 

Sauvira, anjana, krsna, k&la, nila and suvlraja — these are 

534 Materia Medica 


sfttffcpf cr tffcffof ^^sf qw?r m& n ?K u 


Srotanjana, srotoja, nadija, jamuna and vara — these are 

wfsht T^rr^^f cTTsreNf ^ Wlffer^TT I 
w*J frfaTf grr^zf foaf sf*ti T^ft^rafT 1 1 \ %\ i 

Rasanjana, rasodbhuta, tarksa saila, vdrsika and rasagrya — 
these are the synonyms of rasanjana. 

It is also prepared artificially which is known as tarksya, 
divya and darvl rasodbhava. 


3"s<Tt5r?f 3"sq%g flfcnsr fgmsRir u ?vs u 


Puspanjana, puspa ketu, ritija and kusumanjana — these are 


Silajatu, asmaja, saila niryasa, girisahvaya, silahva, girija, 
saila, gaireya and gin jatu — these are synonymous. 


Ayurveda Sauk hy am of Todarananda 535 


Bola, gandha rasa, paura, nirloha, varvara and bala — these 
are synonymous. 



Sphatika, amjrtd, vandhya, karhksi, saurastra sambhavd, 
adhaki and tuvari — these are the synonyms of sphapkd. 

It has another variety whose synonyms are ntfttikd and 

suta myttik a. 

SPT^TT f%rfV «BT> WTfTSFBtTcsrgr: || ^o || 

Samudra phena 

Samudra phena, dindari, phena, vari kapha and abdhija — 
these are synonymous. 


Pravala, vidruma, sindhu latagra and ra&ta varndka.' — these 
are synonymous. 

18 19 

t(\Tw^' *ft%sp iTTTrrw *ra>T ^ ^fwnT i r ? 1 1 

Mauktika, motika, muktd phala, mukts. and suktija — these 
are synonymous. 

536 Materia Medica 


Mdnikya. padma rSga, vasu ratna and suratnaka— these are 

g^Nrfcr: ^farfor ^pfaafr ^^ftT5T: n ^3 n 

Surya kanta 

Surya kanta, sjurya'mani, suryakhya and dahanopala — these 
are synonymous. 


Candra kanta 

Candra kanta, candra mani, sphapka and sphapkomala — 
these are synonymous. 

*ft5p5: ^STC <ftcf TxH War^T fT«TT II R 3 II 


Gomeda, sundara, pita, rakta and trna cara — these are 




Hiraka, vidura, vaj'ra, svdricakra and taraka — these are 

22 23 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 537 


Nila ratna, nlla mani, vaidurya and vala varjana — these are 



Garut mat, marakata, drsadgarbha and harin mani — these 
are synonymous. 


Mukiu sphota, abdhi manduki, iuktr and mauktika mandira- 
these are synonymous. 


Samkha, kambu, jala cara, varija and dirglta nisvana — these 
are synonymous. 

Laghu samkha 

Laghu samkha, samkhanaka, sambuka and vari sukti — these 
are synonymous. 


Kaparda, ksuraka, khara and khara vat tk a— these are 

538 Materia Medica 

25 26 


Khatl, makola, khatini, svetd nadi and tarangaka — these 
are synonymous. 

Gauda pasana 

A variety of khatl is called gauda pasana and its synonym 
is ksira paka. 

qr^ ^T^t ttfr srprT. %3Kriw«rT n R* n 

Panka and Valuka 

Pahka is called kardqmaka and valuka is called sikata. 


Curhbaka pasana 

Cumbaka, kanta pasana, ayaskdnta and /o/za karsaka — 
these are synonymous. 


srtt: frf^jR-T?^ i&m f q-»T<Jr. wsnnaFnjr 1 1 ^ £ 1 1 

itaca, kftrima ratna, pingana and Aaca bhajana — these are 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 539 


1. This is the 93rd chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in 
Todarananda and the opening invocation reads as below : 

2. ¥Fwf=fltsR f% q^^cT^ TTS: i 
3 %V^[ 1% SJWJFF^ t TTS: I 

4. *JHT ifcT q^53^?f% TT3: I 

5 ?rffs[n^ %fa srq - ^?^ qrs i 

7. frsr i% srq-Tf^r^ qis- i 

8. ttt^V fftr 5r*pr$?a% qis. i 

9 if^f ^% W5s^g% qrs- i 

10 'WTtPT^ %fkt srsprj^r tts- I 

1 1 tft^z irfgr 5Rr*r|??r$ tts: i 

12 ^*rcFr§*f ¥f?r ^55?^% qrs 1 

13. =3^ f% TBsg*?l% TT5: I 

14. ^fVpsr fftr sr*nr$??i% qre: 1 

15. ^twt?^: ffa ^53*3% qrs: 1 

16. 3"<s<ft fftr srsriT3^?r% qrs: 1 

17. snra^ -5% ^5^3% TTS: I 

18. *ftf*RT tfsr T'^nrj??* TT5. I <n1fVh+ S% qn55g?a% qTK I 

19. gfrftsf 5% sr«riT5??i% qrs. 1 sftfe^r <srcsq^r% qre 1 

20. =^f>f?nTsr*Tftr: 1% ^5T^?i% its: i 

21 . ^fT f% sJMq^r qrs: I 

22. #$£ iffT 6r<ss7^ci% TT5: I 

540 Materia Medica 

23. STTW^ff \ fcT ?TS5TRi% <jr5 i 

24. strew ^fa smTSflfc <tt5: i 

55. «fcT*FT*5: \ fa «T«5^?f% ITS: I 

26. 5TTW: 1% W*3qr?cl% 7TS: I 

27. ^^: ?% q*5<T??r% qns: | 

This is the end of the 93rd chapter in Ayurveda Saukhyam 
in Totlarananda and the colophon reads as below : 

fasT£T S*«rffVpf i WGtftfepfttf: ( ? ) I 




3 4 

TO*TO T*erffe wnft*: ^m W/C: M ? U 

„*4r wAi, nj^ifc*, ***»*!* ^nd ^mva-these are 



va.a, c*£ ito. ««W»0* ^d v«JW p«*y«-these are 


542 Materia Medica 

"S%^t: sN^efft" zfigfjtf: WSl^: I 


Udumbara, ksira vrksa, jantu vrksa, sadd phala, hema 
dugdha, krmi phala, yajnahga and sita valkala — these are 

5 6 


Kakodumbarika, phalgu, malayu and svitra bhesaja — these 
are synonymous. 


Wit sfl*nsf^: I 


Plaksa, prya, cam vrksa, svaparsva, gardhabhandaka, vciti 
and kamandalu — these are synonymous. 


A variety of asvattha is called nandi vrhsa. Its synonyms 
are prarohi and go/a pddapa. 

isswft Tim?i*T. srT^tiirr *r^>?rftr: i 
*T?*ft sffsr^sr: ^qpfftqt ^T^^PF: II H u 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 543 


Kadamba, gandhamat puspa, prdvj-senya, and maho inati — 
these are the synonyms of kadmaba. 

A variety of it is called dhuli kadamba. Its synonyms are 
nlpa and raja kadamba. 


Kakubha, arjuna, nandT, sarja and safha druma — these are 


^IjKq-: wrfra""ff ^^^ffawPram - it o u 


Sirisa, plavaga, vipra, suka vfksa, kapitana, mfdu puspa, 
sydma varna and bhandiram phala — these are synonymous. 



Argata, arta gala, vahu kanta and pratarsana — these are 


Vetasa, vanjida, namra, vamra, dirgha patraka, nddeya and 
megha puspa— these are the synonyms of vetasa. 

544 Materia Medica 

There is another variety of it which is called toya kama 
and nikuhjaka. 

Jala vetasa 

Jalauka sarhvxta, ambhoja, nicula and Jala vetasa — these 
are synonymous. 

w^srwt f^srsrr 3©tw: ^n^uqTf^nFT 11e.11 

Samudra phala 

Ijjala, hijjala, gucchd phata and kaccha paliha — these are 


5fij: sfcprsr Jff^F: $fc|«f>"t fgsrf^T^: II ?o u 


Slesmataka, karvudara, picchila, bhuta padapa, sclu, iaila, 
sailuka, sailuka and dvija Lutsaka — these are synonymous 

q% sfta sr§srr$ft €®W£^. wks&w: ii ? ? n 



Pilu, sfta, sahasraksi, tiksnadru, karabha priya, sahasrangi 
and guda phala, — these are the synonyms of pilu tree. 

Its fruits are called pilu and pfluja. 


Wf>'< ^®€r Tfflrcngt sH^<rr *r?r: n n u 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 545 


SSka, kara chada, bhumi saha and dhgha chada — these are 

^ *** ** ^W,W , 

oa/a, sarja rasa, sarja, srlkrt and mdrica patraka — these 
are synonymous. 

Tamala, tapincha, kala skandha and as/fa druma — these 
are synonymous. 



Khadira, rakta sara, gayatri and vala patrika — these are 
the synonyms of khadira. 

It has another variety which is known as sveta sara, 
karmuka and kubja kanfaka. 

Vit khadira 

Irirneda, vit khadira, godha skandha and arimedaka — these 
are synonymous, 

546 Materia Medica 


Babbula, kim kirSta, sitaka and pita puspaka — these are 

Vijaya sara 

Vijaka, sanaka, sauri priya and kampolaka priya — these 
are synonymous. 




Tinisa, syandana, nemi. sarva sara and aima garbhaka — 
these are synonymous. 

19 20 


Bhurja, bhuyas, valm puta, mrdu tvak and suksma patraka— 
these are synonymous. 


v^m fsp^p: fawff ^^r^rt ^fiTT^qr: ) 



Pal&sa, kimsuka, kirmi, yajnaka, brahma padapa, ksara 
srestha, rakta puspa, trvfta and samiduttama — these are 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 547 


Dhava, nandi taru, gaura, sakatakhya and dhurandhara — 
these are synonymous. 



Dhanvana, gotra vifapf, dharmana and gotra puspaka — these 
are synonymous. 

^sffsspFiff ?%^sft WclT^ST: f^f^'T II ?£ II 

Aja karna 

Sarja, ajakarna, svedaghna, lata vrksa and kudehaka — these 
are synonymous. 

^rwr wtw. ?ra\ m*&m: % mv$: i 


Varuna, varuna, setu, Mka vrksa and kumaraka — these are 

24 25 26 27 


Jingini, fanginT, jinga, sunirjasa, and modtkl — these are 


548 Materia Mcdica 


Tsnfrtf iJfwV %W!*n ^T^fontn- II ^? II 

SallakT, vattakl, moca, gaja bhaksyd, mahernna, gandha 
vira, kundurukl, susrava and ra«a karmka' — these are 

Ingudl, bhillaka vrksa, kantaka and tapasa druma — these 
are synonymous. 

30 31 

o c 


Karamvara, sundika, katabhf and trna Saundika — these are 




Muskaka, mosaka, ghanta sikhari and ksudra pdtdli — these 
are synonymous. 

ITftTSt frsppft Tr^T: smSFF' I 


Paribhadra, nimba vrksa, rakta puspa, prabhadraka, 

ka^takl, parijata, mandara and kanta kimsuka — these are. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 549 



Salmali, tulim, moca, kukkutt, rakta puspika, kantakadhya, 
sthiila phald pichild and cirajivini — these are synonymous. 

TFT^ sffaftPRT T^T Tf^TRT: II ^K II 


Ganemka, sripati, nakona and nandi padapa — these are 


Sapta parna 

Sapta parna, gucha puspa, chatri and salmali patrika — 
these are synonymous. 

fTTfTS^: tfT^W: sftTFT *fiTS*ftaT: tl ^ II 


Haridraka, pita varna, srlman, gaura drtana and vara — 
these are synonymous. 


Karanja, nakta mala, naktdhva and #A/"ta varnaka — thes« 
are the synonyms of karanja. 

550 Materia Medica 

Another variety of it is called putika, puti parna, prakirria 
and cira bilvaka. 

36 37 


Karanjl, kaka tiktd, vayasyd, angara vallarl, tiriniksi, gaja 
kanta, karanjl, cirini and dvipa — these are synonymous. 


sr*ft %m wgm\ <rfw ^rfcwr i 


Sami, tuhga, sanku phala, pavitrd, kesa hrt phala, laksmT, 
sivd, vyddhi sami, bhusami and sahkarahvaya — these are 



Sirisikd, dindinikd, durbdla and ambu sirisikd — these are 

TSTRhfT TcfNfar: ^cPE5TT*f*rTSR: II 3° II 


Aristaka, garbJia pdtl* kumbha virya, phenila, raksd blja, 
pita phena and artha sddhana — these are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 551 

fsrfaqrT q>fq<?rr frorr wa fr^qf^r i 
«r*rr jfefirn *rc»rfwr WTfircftfa*fr i 


Simsipa, kapila, krsna, sard and mandala patrikd — these 
are the synonyms of simsapa. 

It has another variety whose synonyms are kusimsipa, 
bhasma pingald and visodhinl. 



Agastyahva, vanga sena, madhu sigru and muni druma — 
these are synonymous 


1 This is the 94th chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in Todarananda 
and the opening invocation reads as below : 

g^T^re: *pjf ^rjw «ft€t*i src *pr srj Tf?r i 

2. '"re:' sfa 5r«rR"«T?5r% <TT5: i 

3. 'TsTfrff ' sfer 5r«nrr?cr% tts. i 

4. 's^iftsr en' f f?r sr«firqiFcr% TT5: i 

5. '«F*«T' ^fcT T*3»TS?r% "Trs: I 

552 Materia Medica 

7. '^^TTWSr.' ^fcT TOsq^[% qTS: I 

8. 'fcrsnft' ?fcT «^S^cI% «TTS: I 

10. Tsft «% sr«mq^cr% qre: i 

1 1. 'q^gsq>^^qnTfV sfa *r«8^??j% qre: I 

12. '?5TTc^sqrf5«nFrr* ^fa qspTq?5T% qrs: i 

13. 'fs^fihRr:' sfcr q=qqq/cr% qrc: i 

14. '^q-^f ?fiT sr2nrqjF?r% qra- i 

15. 'srrer:' ^fcr T=5nrq'^rf% qre: i 

16. 'Mif^-KVPerq^qr:' f% srq-qq?cr% ire: i 

17. 'arcrsTT^T-' ^% *rsOT*cT% TTS I 

18. '^*nrl*iRTqq?:' ffa q^sq?g% qTs: i 

19. '^f^:' *f?r sr«nrjeer% qre: i 

20. '^qqw^:' ^fgr sr«PTq^% qis: i 

21. '<arfa§*nr: ?fcr q*mq*cr% qre i 

22. '^l*iM)|' sf?r ^SfSRrtr qrs: I 

23. 'q-wFrfsfr ffg- trc&fKrtr qre: i 

24. 'WW *f% trr.S5?cT% qT3: l 

25. 'sfftrcY f% <rss^Ri% qra: i 

26. 'w' ?f?r cps5^^% q- T5; , 

27. 'JTtf^qfT' tfg- q^q<r^% TO: , 

28. '^r^' 5% q^flrq^r% q^: i 

29. '%%?<&' %T^ **&$&&; q-^. , 

30. 'q^rvn:' ^ftr «tks3^^% qre- i 

31. 'wrcrfsft-' f ftr ^sq^ qre. i 

32. •jfanrt' ^f% sravr^tcfr qys: i 

33. '§5r%» 5% qs&g^ft qrs: I 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 553 

34. '^T^^f^TTTW^T' ?% ^1^^% TTS: i 

35. '^q^TprnX^^fr' ^fcT 'T^TT'T?^ 7T5: I 

36. 'fg-frfw®' ff?r sr*r*P^a% tts: i 

37. 'n-^r^t^r' 1% t^tt^rt^ <rre: i 

38. 'f%fef*T' %f& TG3q?^% qTS: I 

39. This is the end of 94th chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in 
Todarananda and the colophon reads as below : 




STPTT *3?q-*T<JTT 1«ff sg-cTPRSTT TTfifTrrfcrgr 1 1 3 1 1 

Draksa, madhu phala, svadvi, hara hura, phalottama, 
mrdvTkQ, madhu yoni, rasala, gostanl and gudd— these are 

Ripe draksa is sara (laxative), sila (cooling), cakftifya 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toaarananda 555 

(promoter of eye sight), brmhana (nourishing) and guru (heavy). 
It cures trsna (morbid thirst), jvara (fever), svasa (asthma), vata 
(diseases of nervous system), vatasra (gout), karriala (jaundice), 
krcchra (dysuria), asm pitta (a condition characterised by bleed- 
ing from different parts of the body), sammoha (unconscious- 
ness), ddha (burning syndrome), sopha (oedema) and madatyaya 

Unripe drdksa is inferior in quality and heavy. 

The sour variety of drdksa cures rakta pitta (a condition 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body). 

A variety of drdksa is without seed and is similar to 
gostani variety in its properties. 

The variety of drdksa which grows in the mountains is 
light and sour. It cures asra pitta. 


sirf?: fTspsfg; ?qT3*rra': ^rtrewra n * u 
srrat srnft y^i^Mifqriauii*-!; ^r^ i 


■^sparer wz: fw^ft TT^nft 5r<?R%<3r i 


Antra, vanotsava, cuta, sahakara, ati saurabha, makanda, 
pika baudhu, rasdla and kdma vallabha — these are synonymous. 

Amra is grdhf (constipative) and it cures prameha (obsti- 
nate urinary disorders including diabetes) as well as diseases 
caused by vitiated blood, kapha and pitta and ulcers. 

$56 Materia Medica 

Unripe fruits of antra is exceedingly hot and ununctuous 
it vitiates all the three dosas as well blood. 

Ripe fruits of amra is sweet, rrsyo (aphrodisiac), unctuous, 
hrdya (cardiac tonic), bala prada (promoter of strength), heavy 
vata hara (alleviator of vata), rucya (relishing), vamya (promoter 
of complexion), sita (cooling) and apittala (which doe& not 
vitiate pitta). 

Juice of amra is sara (laxative), unctuous, pacana (carmin- 
ative) and promoter of strength as well as complexion . 

**% tfinffift ?fm ^fa^wrerf^ra; iis.ii 



Mahd jambu, raja jarhbu, malm skandha and bfhat phala — 
these are the synonyms of bigger variety of jarhbu. 

The smaller variety of jarhbu is called ksudra jarhbu, cira 
patra, meghabha and kaka ballabha. 

Jarhbu is samgrahini (constipative) and ununctuous. It 
cures vitiated kapha, pitta, ulcer and blood. 

Raja jarhbu fruit is sweet, vistambhi (causing wind 
formation in abdomen), heavy and rocana (appetiser). 

The fruit of ksudra jarhbu is like raja jarhbu in property 
but its special action is to cure ddha (burning syndrome). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 557 

fassrftr ^if sreT srTcrfTrfm^Twf^g; II H ii 
cr<F*mr ^ftciw far cftiT ?rg^r ?re i 

Nalikera, tunga vrksct, lata vrksa, mafia phala, trna raja, 
aksa phala, langoll and drdha bijala — these are synonymous. 

The fruit of narikera is sita (cooling), durjara (difficult of 
digestion), basti todhana (purifier of urinary bladder), vistambhi 
(causing wind formation in abdomen), brmhana (nourishing) and 
balya (promoter of strength), It cures vitiated vara, pitta and 
blood. It also cures daha (burning syndrome). 

Water of narikela is cooling, hrdya (cardiac tonic), dipana 
(stimulant of digestion), siikrala (promoter of semen) and laghu 

Its siro majja (pith at the top of the tree) of narikela is 
promoter of semen and it cures both vdta and pitta. 



^fiT^jf ft^T spR>> ^zfzt rj^fm^€f 1 1 ? Kl I 


^^Tt^t <w ^iYcr ?%i% for^r ^rriT^rfsirj i 

q&i § fa 3T^f?qtr M^^^TfJfqTTr II ?£ || 

558 Materia Medica 


Brhat kharjurika, sreni, saphals and cAtjekz sambhava — these 
are the synonyms of bigger variety of kharjura. 

Another variety of it is called pinda kharjurika, kharju, 
duh praharsa and kantaki. 

The third variety of it is called skandha phala, svadvf, 
durarohd and mjdu chada. 

The fourth variety of it is called bhiimi kharjurika, kdka, 
karkati and raja karkati. 

The fruit of kharjurika is cooling, sweet and unctuous. It 
cures consumption and diseases caused by the vitiation of 
blood. It is promoter of strength. It cures vitiation of vayu and 
pitta, mada (intoxication), murcha (fainting) and madatyaya 

Fruits of other varieties of kharjurika are inferior in 

Its murdhaja majja (pith at the top of the tree is cooling 
and vrsya (aphrodisiac). It cures vitiated pitta as well as blood 
and daha (burning syndrome). 

fH^TOT?ft ^5T> 


Silemani kharjura 

Another variety of kharjura is called silemani and its 
synonyms are mrdula and nirball phala. 

Silemani cures srama (exhaustion), bhranti (giddiness), 
daha (burning syndrome), murcha (fainting) and asra pitta 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 559 

(a condition characterised by bleeding from different parts of 
the body). 


^*ft qffircl N I <H <xh Pq-xTf TT f^TT II ?fc II 

pR^ffT5n«d a d«4T| — wRreprcprftfarcj I 


Kadali, granthim, mocd, rambha, vira and yata chada- these 
are synonymous. 

Kaladi cures yoni dosa (ailments of female genital tract), 
asra (vitiated blood) and rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from various parts of the body). It is cooling. 

Tbi kanda (rhizome) of this plant is sltala (cooling), balya 
(strength promoting), and kesya (good for hair growth). It 
cures vitiated pitta, kapha and blood. 

The fruit of kadali is sweet, cooling and vistambhi (which 
produces gas in the abdomen). It produces kapha. It is heavy 
and unctuous. It alleviates vitiated pitta and blood. It cures 
daha (burning syndrome), ksata (consumption), ksaya 
(emaciation) and vitiated vdyu. 

<?Tfe*ft Trfifg^TT sTcTsftaT 3T3>fsrcT II R\ II 

<?Tf¥*f star f sf fm ^rrcrFTricTiir i 

560 Materia Medica 

5T^TRTt SfTf^^TT. ff|cft ^TcTfTTTffT II ^3 II 

Dadimi, rakta kusuma, danta bija and suka priya — these 
are synonymous. 

Dadima is dipana (digestive stimulant), hrdya (cardiac 
tonic) and rocana (appetiser), It does not vitiate pitta in excess. 
Its subsidiary taste (anurasa) is astringent and it is constipative 

It is of two types viz., sweet and sour. The sweet variety 
alleviates all the three dosas where as the sour variety alleviates 
only vdta and kapha. 

The dried and pounded extract of the sour variety of 
dadima alleviates vdta and pitta. 


ST?ft sp^Tst *ffeT ?$t£[ apT^'f^m" 


wm ft^srasT 3?rera«rr ^ftlwqna u rv u 


cp-zzrf 5ftcrWTf^?frBT *CTT fTeRTOTTfT 1 1 ^C H 

13 14 

SPJT ?^3T ^faf %fa*T ^T«f ffJT I 


Badarl, karkati, ghortta, karati and yugma kan\ika— these 
are synonymous. Another variety of it is called snigdha chada 
and kosa phala. The thirst variety is called sauvlrika. The 
fourth variety of it is called hasti koli, parasvadvi, laghvi and 
karkandhu bandhavq. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 56 1 

All these types' of vjdari are cooling, bitter and unun- 
ctuous. They alleviate pitta and kapha. 

The fifth variety of it is called badara, avara kola, phenila, 
kuvala and kuca. Synonyms of the sixth variety are karkandhu, 
hrasva badara, samkata, Kandliu and kandhuka. 

Both the ripe and unripe types of sauvwaka (bigger 
variety) are sweet in taste. 



ztzi *T% *n?Tff ^^Eof SFftrfsRT II ^ II 
16 17 


«o "O "\ 

I'^r fqrT5r|T^=rira[cuTTf^wT>TfiT i 

*l"Sf?W£'?: cTCI T^T H[5q> 5p?rsrc: II 3° II 

Laghu bcdara 

Badara is light, constipative, appetiser and hot. It 
alleviates vayu. Kola aggravates kapha and piatt. It is.heavy 
and laxative. 

Sauvlra type of badata is cooling, bhedana (purgative), 
guru (heavy), sukrala (promoter of semen) and brmhana (nouri- 
shing). It alleviates vitiated pitta, ddha (burning syndrome), 
vitiated blood, ksaya (emaciation), trsnd (morbid thirst) and 
vitiated vayu. 

Karkandhu is sweet, unctuous and heavy. It alleviates 
pitta and vayu. 

Dry fruits of all these varieties promote medas (fat) and 
agni (digestive power). These are light and they cure trsna 
(morbid thirst), Mama (mental fatigue) and vitiation of blood. 

562 Materia Medica 

The pulp of this fruit alleviates vayu and pitta. It is 
vrsya (aphrodisiac) and promoter of strength. 



jSTifn, ksatriyd, rdjdhvd, rajadana, phaldsim and rajanya — 
these are synonymous. 

It has another variety which is called civuka and 
muci tin dak a. 

The fruit of kslri vrksa is cooling, unctuous, heavy and 
promoter of strength. It cures trsnd (morbid thirst), murchd 
(fainting), mada (intoxication), bhranti (giddiness), ksaya 
(emaciation) and all the three vitiated dosas as well as blood. 


20 21 


<^wmi *npt «|<sr: sprer: xT^Tcrf^ tiv*" u 


Cara, dhana, pata, sala, pnyala and man/ vallabha— these 
are synonymous. 

Cara cures vitiated ptfta, fozp/ia and blood. 

Its fruit is sweet, heavy, unctuous and laxative. It cures 
vitiated vata and pitta, daha (burning syndrome), trsnd (morbid 
thirst) and ksata (consumption). 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 563 

The pulp of the fruit of priyala is sweet, vrsya (aphro- 
disiac) and sul rala (spermatopoetic ) It cures vitiated pitta and 


<r^ cr *jgr <tt% wt?f fesarfcr sThtipt i 
ipf qzfqxT^crereT^w^fsra; 11 3^ n 


Parusaka, mfdu phala, paiusa and sosana — these are 

Unripe Parusaka is astringent and sour in taste. It vitiates 
pitta and is light. 

Ripe variety of parusaka is sweet m vipaka (taste that 
emerges after digestion), cooling, vistambhi (produces gas in 
abdomen), brmhana (nourishing) and hrdya (cardiac tonic). It 
cures //■/ (morbid thirst), vitiated pitta, daha (burning syndrome), 
vitiated blood, ksata (consumption), ksaya (emaciation) and 
vitiated vayu. 



STHTT^r T,fT <nf? STTcRT sflW 5HT I! ^c II 


564 Materia Medica 


Tmduka, syandana, sphaurya, kdla sara, ravana and kdka 
pilu — these are the synonyms of tinduka. 

There is another variety (which is different) which is 
called visa tinduka. 

Tinduka cures ulcers and vitiated vata. Its pulp (sara) 
cures diseases caused by pitta. 

The unripe fruit of it is constipative, vatala (vitiater of 
vata), cooling and light. 

The ripe fruit alleviates vitiated pitta, prameha (obstinate 
urinary disorders including diabetes), vitiated blood & kapha, 
visada (non slimy) and heavy. 

Visa tinduka is specially constipative (grdhi) and cooling. 
fof¥<jft -ifsreiT ssrrsft Tret ^rcn?^: i 

fofoift cPSRT faxET fqrl^Tr^T ffTT ||Yo|| 

m^ 3TcM ^t*t i^i mi% f^cfTTfsrar i 


Kimkini, granthika, vydghrf, pada, deva taru and vara — 
these are synonymous. 

Kimkini is pungent and bitter. It alleviates pitta and 
slesman. It is cooling. 

Unripe fruit of kimkini aggravates vayu. The ripe fruit is 
sweet and it cures all the three vitiated dosas. 

struma sfksrff *r srrf^rr^focfsnr u v? n 


Ayurveda Saukhyath of Todarananda 565 


Aruska and vira sena — these are synonymous. It is of 
four types. 

Aruska promotes digestion (Jarana) and it cures vitiated 
rata, meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), 
arias (piles) and vitiated kapha. 

%*nwt *n|ssfaft *r§*pt*5t *rfrc o *r: t 
srf?r ff?r ^wT^T^HTT^^rercnr n *«. u 


Madhuka, madhuka, tiksna sara, gudha puspaka, jeld phala, 
madhusfila, madhu kostha and "maha druma — these are 

Another variety of madhuka is called hrasva phala, madh- 
vaga and dlrgha patraka. 

Madhuka alleviates kapha and vata. It is astringent and 
it helps in the healing of ulcers. 

The flower of madhuka is sweet, balya (promoter of 
strength), cooling, heavy and brmhana (nourishing). 

Its fruit is cooling, heavy, sweet and Sukrala (spermato- 
poetic). It alleviates vata and pitta. It is ahrdya (not good 
for heart). It cures trsna (morbid thirst), vitiated blood, daha 
(burning syndrome), svasa (asthma), ksata (consumption) and 
ksaya (emaciation). 

566 Materia Medica 

27 28 

SPrRnpsp? KfcT T^fTTT^TcraFnTTfr 1 

arm <3^r fspssfa ^"Tci^r ?t^t *re u v\s u 


Panasa, kantaki phala, ariisapa and garbha kantaka — 
these a~e synonymous- 
Ripe panasa is cooling and unctuous. It alleviates pitta 
and vayu. It promotes strength and semen. It cures rakta 
pitta (a condition characterised by bleeding from different parts 
of the body), ksata (consumption) and ksaya (emaciation). 

Unripe panasa is vistarhbhi (wind forming). It aggravates 
vayu and it is astringent a well as heav> 

. 29 


Lakuca, ksudra panasa and granthimat phala— these are 

Lakuca is heavy, vistambhi (wind forming) and sweet and 
sour in taste. It cures rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body). It aggravates kapha 
and alleviates vata. It is hot. It reduces the semen as well as 
the power of digestion. 


Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 567 

sffcf 15«PT fw ^TcTf^tT?^ f^T II K? II 

T«/a, dhvaja, duraroha, trna raja and ma/*5 druma — these 
are synonymous. 

Tola cures vitiated vata, pitta and ulcer. It produces 
mada (intoxication) and Hukra (semen). 

Its fruit is cooling, strength promoting, unctuous, sweet, 
heavy and vistambhi (wind forming). It cures vitiated vata, 
pitta and blood. It also cures ksata (consumption), ddha 
(burning syndrome) and ksaya (emaciation). 

Its seed is diuretic and wind forming. It alleviates vata 
and pitta. It is cooling. 



Kharbuja, phala icija, amrtahva and dasangula — these are 

Kharbuja is diuretic, strength promoting, laxatixe, heavy, 
unctuous, sweet, cooling and vrsya (aphrodisiac). It alleviates 
pitta and vata. 

*TfeEWFT qui %W fJErfafd+l4>?l*r II K.3 II 

568 Materia Medico 

sn^^re^ ^ttT ^rf%fkfwT <m% i 

Musti pramdna, varuda, seva and simbitika phala — these 
are synonymous. 

The fruit of simbitika alleviates vdyu and pitta. It is 
heavy, brmhana (nourishing), kaphakrt (aggravater of kapha), 
vrsya (aphrodisiac), svddupaka (sweet in taste after digestion), 
laxative and cooling. 

Another variety of it is called ambha phala, apa and maha 
simbitika. phala. Its properties are similar to those of seva. 
It is specially cooling. 

a^arf ' ^faqvFf 5Tsrf«rc3-c&<FrTfrfcr: i 


Amrtahva, luci phala and laghu biha phalakrti — these are 

Amrta is heavy, alleviator of vdta, sweet, sour and appeti- 
ser. It is spermatopoetic. 


^KITT'T^ tfiwsr ^m«t sw^i^r ii x^ 1 1 


Bdddma, suphala, vdta vaii i and netropama phala — these 
are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Toiarananda 569 

Badtima is hot and exceedingly unctuous. It alleviates 
vayu. It promotes strength and semen. 



fo^^RT JT^r^T^- ^EiftEur *=rp| fl'^'T I 

Nikocaka, Pistd 

Nikocaka, ddru phala, makostha and jala gojaka— these 
are the synonyms of nikocaka. 

Pista, mukulaka and dantl phala samakrti — these are the 
synonyms of pistd. 

Nikocaka is heavy, unctuous, vrsya (aphrodisiac), hot, 
sweet and brmhana (nourishing). It is hemopoetic and strength 
promoting It alleviates vata and aggravates kapha as well as 

Mukulaka has similar properties It is especially heavy 
and difficult for digestion. 

T^T *3Tg ffff ^JT ^T5TpTTrfMrRFT*r II \o 11 

Unripe kela alleviates vayu. It is sour, hot, purgative and 

570 Materia Medica 

Ripe kela is sweet, cooling and strength promoting. It 
alleviates vayu and pitta. 



Aluka, bhallu, bhalluka and bhallu rakta phala — these are 


Aluka is juicy (rasana), cooling, sweet and sour. It 
alleviates vdta and pitta. 


Anjlra, mahjula and kakodumbarika phala — these are 

Anjira is cooling, sweet and heavy. It alleviates pitta, 
rakta and vata. 


sreats^rt qfercssft ^'^tt^t: q*mz: i 


Aksodaka, vrnta phala, kandarala and pr'/m c/t«<&r — these 
are synonymous. 

Ak?ofa is sweet, strength promoting, heavy, hot, alleviater 
of vata and laxative. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 571 

TTrRcf f^ff ^R ^STif ^f^^Tg-f^cT I 

^TM^? f?T qsqT^r^ST^cr^'T II \*i. II 

Palevaka <fe Mdlavaka 

Palevata, sita puspa and tindukabha phala — these are 

Another variety of it is called malavaka and mahd palevata 


Palevata is cooling, sweet, heavy and hot. It suppresses 
digestive power and alleviates vayu. 

Malavaka is hrdya (cardiac tonic). It cures trsna (morbid 
thirst). It is useful for brain (mastaka). 



^ "%% sr^r«FTcs w^nm stfnrrs ^ i 



Twrfa, bhuda, brahma kastha, brahmaryya and brkma — ■ 
these are synonymous. 

Ripe tuda is heavy, cooling and sweet. It alleviates pitta 
and anila. 

tfN^ wm4&$ «p^p£ ^t^^tit i 
efte^T ^??f «tt^ ^fa^r ?r*n" u ^ n 

ill Materia Medica 

mm s^r Tf^f T5 ^rr^rr^rfqrcrr^Tcr u ^ u 

?fifW Wff *TfT ^farTfC ^ I 

Gangeruka & Todana' 

Gangeruka, karkataka, karkafa and mrga lendaka — these 
are the synonyms of gangeruka. 

Todana, krandana, dhanya and mrga picha drsa — these are 

Ripe gangeru is purgative and heavy. It alleviates vdta, 
blood and pitta. 

Todana is constipative and sweet. It alleviates vata and 
pitta. It is light. 

Unripe tiita, gangeruka and todana are sour and heavy. 
They aggravate pitta. 

40 41 

Tuvaraka tree has properties like those of bhallataka. Its 
fruit is astringent in taste. Its leaves are like kesara and it 
grows near sea. 

The fruit of tuvara alleviates kapha. In vipaka (taste after 
digestion) it is pungent. 

It is hot and it cures ulcer and meha (obstinate urinary 
disorders including diabetes). 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 573 

#3r<JTr *TTcPg**T: %3TCt <E*P£*sp II V9? II 

TTEfirerf: ^'sfar^i^ftspf «rc*r ii \s^ u 


^nrwr sfMSparwraftre'pfc t* ii »v ii 

Bija puraka 

Bija pura, matulunga, kesari and phala puraka — these are 

The fruit of bija pura is appetiser. It is sour in taste. It 
stimulates digestion and is light. It causes wkta pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body) It 
cleanses throat and tip of the tongue. 

The skin of the fruit of bija puraka is bitter, heavy and 
sour. It cures krmi (intestinal parasites). It alleviates vdta and 

The pulp (mamsa) of bija puraka is brmhana (nourishing), 
cooling and heavy. It alleviates pitta and vdyu. 

Its kesara (pistil) is light and constipative. It cures £ula 
(colic pain), gulma (phantom tumour) and udara (obstinate 
diseases of abdomen including ascitis). 

Its flower is cooling and constipative. It cures rakta pitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body) and it is light. 

574 Materia Medica 

q-^FEfEfffbST S^rrg^ft sfsTfcRJ VZT II \s'< II 

Madhu karkatika 

Madhu karkafika, svadu, lungi, ghantalika and gfaz/£ — these 
are synonymous. 

Madhu karkatika is cooling. It cures /-cfcta j?z'*ta (a 
disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body). It is heavy. 


5TR*rT*?f t^t ^ ^TcTfT sn?r 1 

^rg^TTTT'?: f# <f3W< qrTcRT5(PT*r II vs^3 II 


Nararigaka, hagaranga, gorak§a and yoga sadhaka — these 
are synonymous. 

Naranga is sour and sweet in taste. It is appetiser. It 
alleviates vata. It is laxative. 

Another variety of it which is also sweet and sour, is hrdya 
(cardiac tonic) and durjara (difficult for digestion). It alleviates 

*$*ftxi?( Screrst sfrtoft snreft *r?r. \ 

Ayurveda Sauk hy am of Todardnanda 575 


Jambiraka, danta safha, jambhila and jambhala — these are 

Jambtra is hot and it cures sula (colic pain). It is heavy 
and hot. Tt alleviates kapha and vata. It cures asya vairasya 
(distaste in the mouth), hrt pfda (pain in cardiac region), 
agni mdndya (suppression of the power of digestion) and krmi 
(intestinal parasites). 

45 46 47 


Amla vetasa 

Amla, amla vetasa, cukra, vetasa and svara bhedaka — 
these are synonymous. 

Amta vetasa is exceedingly hot, purgative, light and diges- 
tive stimulant. It cures hrd roga (heart disease), sula (colic 
pain) and gulma (phantom tumour). It vitiates pitta, blood and 



Saramlaka, sdra phala, rasala and sdra pddapa— these are 

Sardinia is sour. It alleviates vayu. It is heavy and it 
aggravates pitta and kapha. 

fa I s *? 

576 Materia Medica 

fa<pvFpFW 3T^f TT^T ^V<FT WJ I 
TT^rfJTf^^f ^TfiT^fq-Tl^Tft^^T II ^ II 



WST^ 5T5^% f^Sf H f^Wf^sFPTt *PT=ft ^^cT II *%. 1 1 

Nimbuka and nibuka— these are the synonyms of nithbu. 

It has another variety which is called ra/a nimbuka. 

Nibuka is pacana (carminative), hrdya (cardiac tonic), 
sharp and hot. It alleviates kapha and vata. 

Nimbuka is sour, vataghna (alleviater of vata), pacana 
(carminative), dipana (digestive stimulant) and light. 

The fruit of raja nimbu is sweet and heavy. It alleviates 
pitta and vayu. 

Nimbuka destroys all types of krmi (parasites). It is sharp 
in action. It cures dma (product of improper digestion and 
metabolism), udara (obstinate abdominal disorders including 
ascitis) and gratia (planetary afflictions). Tt cures the ^atika, 
paittika and slaismika types of sula (colic pain). It replenishes 
and cleanses the vitiated dbatus. It is useful for patients 
suffering from acute (sadyd) fever caused by the vitiation of all 
the three dosas and visamajvara (irregular fever) caused by the 
accumulation of vitiated dosas. It is also useful when there is 
diminution of waste products (mala) and when there is obstruc- 
tion in the anus. It cures vjsiicikd (choleric diarrhoea). 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Toclarananda 511 

wxAi*! f?*? 3 iff <RT£*?f ^ftrafcra; n ^ n 

Karma ranga 

Karma ranga, rama phala, bhavya, and picchila bijaka-— 
these are synonymous. 

Karma ranga, is cooling, constipative, sweet and sour. It 
cures kapha and pitta. 


Amlika, cukrika, cinca, tittidi, sukti and candika — these 
are synonymous. 

Unripe amhkd is heavy. It alleviates vdta and vitiates 
pitta, kapha and blood. 

Ripe amlika is laxative and appetiser. It is a digestive 
stimulant and it cleanses the urinary bladder. 

Dried amlika is hrdya (cardiac tonic). It cures srama 
(exhaustion), bhrdnti (giddiness), trsna (morbid thirst) and klama 
(mental fatigue). It is light. 

fcffrNW tf*ft^Tm^ipf qT Tre II «;§. II 

^?r wet mif% ir^ft^'B^T^r^ i 

578 Materia Medica 


Titn'dika, vfkfdmla, amla saka and amla padapa~-the&e are 

Unripe tittidika alleviates vayu- It is usrta (hot) and 
exceedingly heavy, 

Its fruit is light- and constipative, It cures graharii (sprue 
syndrome), kapha and vata. 

*W$l ^iPFCTflraT^WTTTn II 5.° 1 1 

cRT^f *T^ ^^fTcre^f^RT II $.? II 


Karamarda, suseria, vanyd and krsna phala — these are 

Karamarda is heavy, hot and sour. It produces rakta pitta 
(a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the 
body) and kapha. 

Ripe karamarda is sweet, appetiser and light. It alleviates 
pitta and vayu. 

Dried karamarda is like ripe karamarda in its properties. 

Unripe but dried karamarda is like green unripe karamarda 
in property. 

^facWt ?[fVw: *Pf<T?q-: Srcfrr^: tl 5.R II 

^fq?*mT*r' #ffTf|[ *nj cfrtr^RrPTf^ i 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 579" 


Kapitthaka, dadhi phala, kapittha and surabhi chada^- these 
are synonymous. 

Unripe variety of kapittha is constipative and light. It 
alleviates all the three dosas. 

Ripe kapittha is heavy. It cures fy?« (morbid thirst), hikkd 
(hiccup) and vitiated vata as well as pitta. It is sweet and sour. 
It cleanses the throat. It is constipative and it is difficult of 

^frc^^V ^f^rsn' fvF3TT fasrqfwr n s.* n 

Kapittha patri 

Kapittha patri, phanija, kulaja and nimba patrika — these 
are synonymous. 

Kapittha patri is sharp and hot. It alleviates kapha, meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) and poisoning. 



Amrataka, dmra tata, pallisa, druphala and kapi— these are 

Unripe amrata alleviates vata. It is heavy, hot, appetiser 
and laxative. 

Ripe amrataka is sweet, cooling and vf sya (aphrodisiac). 

580 Materia Mcdica 

It alleviates vayu, pitta, kapha and blood. 


^rarsp^ 5n r 5n<r: wrr^ t^s^: i 

Rajamra ?taka, dmrdta, kamahva, and ra/a putraka — these 
are synonymous. 

Rajamra is sweet, cooling and constipative. It alleviates 
both pitta and kapha. 

Caturamla, Pancamla 

Vrk$dmla* susena, dried and kapittha — these four taken 
together are known as caturamla. 

According to some, amla vetasa, vr-ksfimla, da$imi and 
bedara— these four taken together are called caturamlaka. 

Added with bijapura or cuta, they are called pancamla. 

♦Una: fg5^gn^rfi[Ti9i " i'b4>mf: i 

3c<W ^rf| ^T^^TT^W *pi farFPT \ I ? ° o 1 1 

Ayurveda Haukhyarii of Todarananda 581 


Kosamra, ghana skandha, jantu vrksa and sukosaka— these 
are synonymous. 

Kosamra cures kusfha (obstinate skin diseases including 
leprosy), sotha (oedema), rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body), vrana (ulcer) and 
vitiated kapha. 

Its fruit is constipative, alleviater of vdta, sour, hot and 
heavy. It aggravates pitta 

Its fruit pulp alleviates pitta and vdyu. It is sweet and 
strength promoting. It stimulates the power of digestion. 

^fi ffW grf ^^W^Tf^*? II \°\ II 


f%^ f^refrcr^ws^ cr^w^T^r ^gsrrfMf g;i i \ ° 3 1 1 


Kramuka, krmika, puga and /n/gf phala- — these are 

Puga is heavy, coohng, ununctuous and astringent. It 
alleviates kapha and pitta. It is mohana (intoxicating), dipana 
(digestive stimulant), and rucya (appetiser) It cures asya 
vairasya (distaste in mouth) 

Wet puga is heavy and abhisyandi (which obstructs the 
channels of circulation). It suppresses the power of digestion 
iyahni) and reduces eye sight (dfsti) in excess. 

The boiled puga alleviates all the three dosas. 

582 Materia Medica 

It has many varieties and all of them have similar 



cTtfST ar^ft sffFJft ?TTf>pfr ^TT^^T^ I 


Tdmbula, valli, tdmbuli ndgini and ndga vallarl — these are 

Tdmbula is visada (non slimy), appetiser, sharp, hot, pung- 
ent, laxative, bitter, ksdra (alkaline) and usana (saline and 
alkaline). It is kdmya (stimulant of passion). It alleviates rakta 
pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of 
the body). It is light. It promotes strength. It cures vitiated 
kapha, dsya daurgandhya (foul smell from mouth), meha 
(obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), vitiated vata 
and srama (exhaustion). 

^^^ sr^csrhr srg^rz: *m^: i 


Ghana skandha, mahat prdrhsu, prapunnata, samarh chada, 
sugandha mula, lavali, pandu komala valkald— -these are 

The fruit of lavali is like that of jyotsna in property. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 583 

The fruit of lavali cures vitiated blood, arias (piles), 
vitiated vdta and pitta. It is light. 

w f^TTfr?T|s^ ! f^irTW^VcrTf%9[ftrcr'r 1 1 ? o * n 


x * 

General description of fruits 

The pulp of the fruit has the property of the fruit itself. 

Fruits which are afflicted by snow, fire, storm, wild 
animals, and insects and which are unseasonal should not be 
eaten. Similarly, excessively ripe fruits should not be eaten 

AH fruits in general produce ama dosa (a product of 
improper digestion and metabolism). The fruit of brfva is an 
exception to this general rule. 


1. This is the 95th chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in Todara- 
nanda, and the opening invocation reads as below : 

2. '^rrpr' ffcr q^inTcr^ tts: i 

3. c ^^iTTf?r' ^% nsrR""reci% qrs: i 

584 Materia Medica 

6. '*6&P? *f5T T5r*TCTcl% TT3: I 
7 '^SF^fr' ffa ^S<T?cT% TT5: I 

8. '^Tt^rr' ^ftr ^sq-^cr^r <its. i 

10 'tf ?T^' ffa "f*PT[??l% <TT5 I 
'q-c^T^TT' ?Rr <STS3"T??r% TT3: I 

ll. '^Rr«riwT' *ftr 7«s<tcsi% qrs: i 
'^r^r^T' ?f?r 5rsprq??r% its: i 

12. 'ffePFte: W% ^3^5T% TT5: I 

13. '*TgSf' ^T *«5<$R!% "TVS: I 

14. 'g*f' %fk <snss<T|FcI% TO: I 

1 5. 'tfffT^' ?fa "f^qw^ "TTS: I 

16. 'fTOfarTft' ffa ^5<T^ci% <TT3: I 

17. 'erf ^% *r*sq;^r% to: i 

18. '^^m' if?r sr'WT??^ to: i 

19. 'ffafcrf^:' ^Rr TOfFcPfr <TT5: I 

20. '^TMt' f fa" crssq;*a% TT5: I 

21. 'faq-nst' ^fcT «T«S57??1% ITS: I 

22. 'sjerrqrC ?% ^5^cf% <tts: i 

23. 'T^teftsFr:' ?f% «pssqw?r% mz: i 

24. , ? l ^f:' 5fa <TWPF3% TTS: I 

25. 'f^fo^*^' 1% <<*S5<T^% ITS: 1 

26. '^TPCT' 3% qiss^cr^ <TT5: I 

27. %ztft' ^fa ^JT7??r% ire: i 

28. 'q^cwrcrrY ?fo sr*nr<T*3% <tts: i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 585 

29. '5Tf sfWfa'TWWTT:' iftr TsPFJ??rfc TO: I 

30. 's^ar:' i% ^wp^ to: i 

31. '^f ffcT st^^cT^ TO: I 

32. 'fa^hR?' % i% sp<pr3*a% to: i 

33. 'fo*e' ffe ^«s55?r% to i 

34. '^I^TT^r?^-^' 1% sr*HT3*<rl% "TT5: I 

35. '^sra:' ^fa srsFT5^cT% TO: I 

36. '?refte' ^fcf 5T«PTg?g% TT5: I 

37. 'gcf' f% T^rq-j^j- TTS: I 

38. \i' ?% <rsrT5?ci% to: i 

39. 'TT<f 1% WZ5%*^ TO: I 

'get' f fa v3"*tjri% qrs: i 

40. '%?aTT«r:' ifcT T^r^^ TO: I 

41. '*PTspr.' ifcT ^53??T% TO: I 

42. '%5or3"' ^ftr t*wt*ci% to: i 

43. '%^r^' 1% «PPT^a% TO: 1 

44. 'if^wftift^rnar:' ^fa ^35?^% TO: 1 

45. 'spJV 1% T^W^ TF3: I 

46. '%5PT:' ffa sww^SSPfe' "TTS: I 

47. 'sra^WF:' ifa STsqTT^cT^ TO: I 

48. It^^^t^r' ^fa sr*prT??i% tts: 1 

49. •f^f^^^^MtsR'T' ^fa 5r*pfn£*s% to: i 

50. 'ft^rcrRf' f% sr«rT"T?cr% to: i 

51. 'wracT^^TSR^:' %fo T&rgzft to: 1 

'sTmra^rra-^:' sfa qrara?s% to: i 

52. 'Trwq^r^:' ^TcT !TsqWcr% to: 1 

586 Materia Medica 

53 '%&' ffa «P*5^?r% ITS: I 

54. 'JTTiRr?T#' ifa «T«5T??r% TT5: I 

55. 'T^T^smTTf *f f% sr*TT<T?3% <TTS: I 

56. This is the end of 95th chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam in 
Todarananda and the colophon reads as below : 






Kusmaridaki, puspa phala, somaka and maha phala — these 
are the synonyms of kusmdndaka 

It has a smaller variety which is called karkaru. The sweet 
variety of kusmandaki is called bhuraja karkafi. 



Kdlinga, krsria bija, kalinda and phala varttula — these are 


588 Materia Medica 


TumbT, mista, maha tumbi, rajalabu, alavuni — these are 

,^ (W ^* , *N* , 

Kafu tumbi 

Kafu tumbi, pintfa phald, raja putri and dugdhinv — these are 

7 8 

7 8 

Karkati, lomasi, vyala, and £r/;af p/ia/a — these 
are synonymous 

9 10 

*3*fr *F*d%sraT ^mrrnt life' i 

11 12 

^Srfa?fY *T5T«B5IT *qTfrTTRT ^frqfoT^ II V || 


Trapusi, kantaki lata, sudhavasa, parankita, chardydyani, 
mula phald, tikta and hash parnim- — these are synonymous. 


Cirbhifa, dhenu dugdha and goraksa karkafi — these are 


3T*j*f qrr^ wt^ <^r idler *njT *rs it *. n 
*IW«l*i fwssf faf^nr <fhmw i 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 589 


Valuka, kdnduka, vdlu, sJrna vpita, citra phala, victfra and 
pita varnaka^-ihese are synonymous. 

Valuka is cooling, sweet and heavy. 

sffancPFV sfjrfesT snfspft fJcrtsrTT u % u 


Kosdtaki, kfta chidra, jalini, krta vedhand, mrdanga phattni, 
ksodd, ghonfali and karkasa chada — these are synonymous. 

Raja kosdtaki 

Raja kosdtaki, misfd, mahajdli and prapitaka — these are 

Maha kosdtaki 

Another variety of kosdtaki is called maha kosdtaki. Its 
synonyms are hasti ghosd and maha phala. 


cnF*rre>rjw 1%f^?^hrt ^ f^cr: s*[cr: n 5. u 

Vrntdkf, varttikd, vrnta, bhanfdki and bhantikd — these are 
the synonyms of vrntdkf. 

590 Materia Meetica 

A variety of it is called sveta vartaka and it looks like an 
egg of the hen. It is slightly inferior in quality and it is useful 
for arias (piles). 


BimbT, rakta phala, golha, tunalmd dantachadopama — these 
are synonymous. 

W^Ksft fTf^c^ft ffS^JTTTT ^cTT I 


Kdravella, kafhilla, ugra kanda, and sukandaka — these are 
the synonyms of karavellaka. 

It has a variety which is called kara velli, van vatti and 
tyhat valli. 

35?*Rrfe*P* |jS5f+<?l l« I ^M IWT II ?? II 


Karkofaka cures kustha (obstinate skin disease including 
leprosy), kilasa (leucoderma) and aruci (anorexia). 


Vandhya karkofaki, Dendika 

Vandhya karkofaki, devT, nagari and visa kantaka^— these 
are the synonyms of vandhya karkofaki. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 591 

Dendika, visamusfi and sumustikd'-- these are the synonyms 
of dendika, 

16 IT 

Kola simbl 

Kola simbT, kfsna phald, safkd and silkara pdlika — these 
are synonymous. 


18 19 


Dindisa, romasa phala, tindisa and ww«i nirmita — these are 



Simbi, kusimbi, kutsasra simbl and pustaka simbika — these 
are synonymous. 


Vastuka, ksdra patra, saka vira and prasddaka — these are 



<5fNw: ^rr^tT: TtB^ra - : JPfFTf: l 


Jivantaka, saka vira, raka ndla and pranalaka — these are 

592 Materia Medica 


farsft T^TT ^rBT ftfttHCT *fte3TC5*F: HUH 


Cilli, mahaddala, rakta, cillika and gautfa vastuka — these 
are synonymous. 

iSTa/a §aka 

Kala Sdka, kalika, cucuka and cahcuka — these are 

23 24 


Tanduliya, megha nada, kandlra, tandullyaka, visaghna and 
kandara — these are the synonyms of tandullyaka. 

It has another variety which is known as marisa and 



Phogo, mariidbhava, sungl, suksma puspa and sasadana — 
these are synonymous. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 593 


Patola, pdnduka, jail, kulaka, karkasa chada, raji phala, 
pandu phala, rajamdn, amrta phala, tiktottama and bija garbhd-— 
these are the synonyms of patola. 

It has another variety which is called raja paplikd. 

26 27 


Ciccinda and smira kula — these are the synonyms of 

Another variety of it is known as sveta raji and 
brhat phala. 


Palankyd, vdstukdkdra, ksdrika and Virata chada — these 
are synonymous. 



PotakT, upodikd, malsya kali and sutungika — these are 

^fWIS£T sr?c*f?r?t ffe^F^ ffs^TT: 1 

29 30 31 


Lonika, ustrd, brhat koti, ku(ira, kutinjara, gandaruki, 
gandaru, phanji and phanjitaka—thes$ are synonymous. 

594 Materia Medica 

sfa'T'T: *«rfiE^r. ^qrgTT ^fereito: i 


Sunisana, svastika, vara, vastika parrtika — these are 

ftlTWT. J^raFTI'rfl^'ITftWT WT II RR II 

Sir a vara 

Sira vara, kurandi, naditun and nalika — these are 

Sarsapa saka 

Sarsapa, sarsapodbhuta, kausumbha and kusumbhaja — these 
are synonymous. 


Canaka saka 

Canaka saka is difficult of digestion. It alleviates kapha 
and vdta. 

■ft ^ «s 

Kalaya saka 

Kalaya saka is purgative. It is light and it alleviates pitta 
and kapha. 


3 * 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 595 


Cdngerl, amlika, cukra, chatrdmllkd and catuh ohadd-™ 
these are synonymous. 

r 35 

Kdsa marda & Grnjana 

Kdsa marda and karkasa — these are synonymous. 
Grnjana and gajara — these are synonymous. 

*T3Rr ^fw^: crsm^T^fffcnFT n rk ii 


Mulaka and hasti kanda— these are the synonyms of 

The tender variety of mulaka is called bdla mulaka and 



Karuaka, gudha patra, krakaca and granthila — these are 


fa% sflnTTsPT: fprarifsr ^rrSf5r^^: II ^ II 
TrBtezfT T^%ff?5 ?%cfrs?jft ff^cTsS^: I 

596 Materia Medica 


Sigru, saubhdnjana, krsna gqndha and bahula chada — these 
are the synonvms of sigru. 

It has a red variety which is called madhu sigru and the 
white variety of it is called harita chada. 

Its seed is called sveta marica which is sharp, hot and 
useful for eye. 

The flower of sigru is sweet and constipative. It aggravates 
vayu and cures vitiated kapha and oedema. 

37 38 


Lasuna, ugra gandha, yavanesfa and rasonaka — these are 

Another variety of it is called grnjana, maha kanda, 
jarjjara and dirgha patraka. 


Palandu, yavanesfa, durgandha and mukha dusaka— these 
are synonymous. 


tot* m: whq^T»?tB: ^tfhwT ster^Y irfe s^ i 

Ksira palandu , 

Palanduka having a milky juice which tastes like honey 
is called ksira palandu. 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 59 7 




Grnjana aggravates pitta. It is constipative, sharp and hot. 
It cures diseases (?). In smell, shape and taste, it is like 
suksma nala palandu. 

Some scholars hold a plant like small radish as grnjana. 
Some others, however, call another plant having leaves like 
those of granthi parna as grnjana. 


Surana, kandala, kanda, gudamaya hara, vajra kanda and 
surenara — these are the synonyms of surana. 

Another wild variety of it is called citra ddnda. 

41 42 

qfysrsj^fwr snsft tff*T'TFrf*«ren[?rT II 33 II 

Asthi samhara 

Asthi srnkhalika, vajri, granthiman and asthi samhrta — 
these are synonymous. 

59$ Materia Medica 


Varahi, madhavi and grsfi— these are the synonyms of 

Its rhizome (root ?) is called saukara and H/a. 



Musali, talapatri, balini and tala mulika — these are 


Keyukd, phaluka, pilu keyukd and data salini — these are 

cs C 


Bhuchatra, prthivi kanda, sdmdhra and kandaka — these are 

S«T3rsp"<fr STPT^t TR^ts?^ *TfSg^. 

Mana kanda 

Sthula kanda, grama kanda and manaka- these are the 
synonyms of mana kanda. 

It has another variety having bigger leaves. 


Ayurveda Saukhyaih of Todardnanda 599 


Kaseruka and svalpa kanda — these are the synonyms of 

It has a bigger variety which is called idja kase.uka. 


Srngafa, jala kanda, trikona, trikafa and trika — these are 



fogr^F wmv *n*ng ^tw fUTsrcr n ^ n 
^Fct^T-'opt^mW ^fnafapr?rf*pirR' i 



Pinddlu, kacha gandha, madhvdlu, romasafsankhalu, sankha 
samkasa, kas\halu, svalpa kosthaka, hastaluka, maha kastha, 
raktalu and rakta kandaka — these are synonymous. 

All leafy vegetables which are atijirna (very old), akdlottha 
(unseasonal), ruksa (ununctuous), sita (cold), abhumija (not 
grown on ground), jathara (preserved since long), komala (soft), 
atisita (excessively cold), vyaladi dusita (eaten by animals insects 
etc ) and suska (dry) should not be used. Mulaka is an exception 
to this rule. 

600 Materia MeaHca 


1. This is the 96th chapter in Ayurveda Saukhyam in Todara- 
nanda and the opening invocation reads as below : 

3. '^TT^W^)"' %\^ sr«TT'TTcr% TT5: I 

4. '^rfe^f' i% t rsnrg?cr% tts: i 

5. 'sRSTTRRY ff?T T^SR??^ TT5. I 

7. 'wfTfraT' ^fcT "f^TT?^ TTS: I 

8. 'gTWJT' ^ftr q^qr^ tts- i 

•a o 

10. 'TcTf^CT' ^fcT cpssqT51% qTS: I 

11. '^trff^ft' iRr ^sq-^% qrre- i 

12. 'Tr^q^iT' ?ftr srWr??^ qrs: i 

13. '^%^5r' ^f% ^S"T^^% qTs: i 

14. ^gcfprfe^ f% ^s^^T% qis. | 

15. 'f^^fe^T' ^f%r st^tt't^^ q-T3: i 

16. '^r^r^t' %fa qraqw* qre. i 

17. '^nrcqrftsR' 5% q-=sr*roa% qro: i 

18. 'fcrfert' ^r q^*rq-j£<r% qrs: i 

19. *rfaf?rfw' ffa q^TOT^% tts: i 

20. ftnfr.' f% q%Trr?cT% ITS: I 

21. 'STarRT^:' WfcT <TGSq^5l% qTS: 1 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 601 

22. 'ifh' ^r <r : 3w?r% tts: i 

23. 'STfRF?:' f % «ns57??I% TT5: I 

24. '^Vq-^^iT^:' ifa ^<ss^cT% <TTS: I 

25. '^q-T^r:' fftr T**nrca% <tts: i 

26. 'S*renWt' *% ^S^cr% TT5: 1 

27. 'iTfrBSTT' f% 8r«5T?5l% <TTS: 1 

28. '§TfT^l' 1% T*PT|?a% TTS: I 

29-31. 5.' f^: **rref pf:' 1% sw»T$?5fl> ITS: l 

32. 'f ^ifcqT^T^i^Tf^' ^% sp^cT^ 7T5: I 

33. **ftpf' ifcr T<ssq^i% qrs: i 

34. •WsTT' ^fsr q"^T^?T% TTS: I 

35. '^RTf'T:' f Rr <T^*TC;*S% <TTS: I 

36. '^rfTsr^>' ?% ^57«r% <rre. i 

37. '<5TCPT.' f fa SPTTR?r% TT5: I 

38. 'srsp^Y ^f% 5rq-TT t T?cr% qrre. i 

39. 'sNTRPfl' ffa TOTO?a% TO. I 

40. 'STtf:' *% 5T*rq^g% 713: I 

41. •srf^sn'i^crfT^T' fftr T<s3 | r^r% <rra: i 

42. '^fqTTFTf^ff"T.' ffcT T^T?cT% TT3: I 

43. 'S^fa' ?% ^57^% <TT5: I 

44. '^m*^^' if?r T^nT"?*^ its: i 

45. '^c^^sr' %fb ^3^3% qrs: i 

This is the end of 96th chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam. not 
in Todardnanda and the colophon reads as below : 



PanTya, jivana, nira, kildla, amrta, jala, apa, ambha, toya, 
udaka, patha, ambu, salila and payas — these are synonymous. 

Dugdha, prasravana, ksira, saumya, sanjTvana and payas — 
these are synonymous. 

Dadhi and stydnam payas — these are the synonyms of well 

Ayurveda Sdukhyam of Todarananda 603 

fermented dadhi. If it is slightly fermented then it is called 


Danddhata, kdlaseya, gorasa, vilodita, sarasa, nirjala, ghola, 
mathita and sara varjita — these are synonymous 

Dadhi mixed with equal quantity of water is known as sveta. 

Dadhi mixed with half of water is called udas\it. 

Dadhi mixed with one fourth of water is called takra. 


Hayarhgavina, saraja, navanita and anumanthaja — these 
are synonymous. 

srcFTFHT ffa: ^fqTT^STKlT'T^T'^'qTT II X II 


Ghrta, ajya, havis, sarpis, ajydra and amrtahvaya — these 
are synonymous. 


2 3 

qsf fRT ^TT TTST ^fe^T sf^iTTc^T I 

gsrr TfsfTTpTT *F?<TT %^ET ^ ^TSN\ II ^ II 

604 Materia Medtca 


Madya, hard, surd, mandd, madira, varunatmaja, sudhd, 
gandhottamd, kalpa, devasfsta and varum — these are synonymous. 


Iksu, mahdrasa, venu nihsfta, guda patraka, tjrna raja, madhu 
trna, gandfri and mrtyu puspaka — these are synonymous. 


SEFJTT ffTcftT^T ^f ^R^TT Sffw^TT^T II =; II 
^^TT«T ^ftraT W[V[*ft W^\^f>\l I 

Iksu vikdra 

Sitd, matsyandika, palli, mindndi and ghallaka — these are 
the synonyms of matsyandika. 

Another variety of it is called sitopala, Suddha, sikatd, 
chatrikd and amala. 

Khanda and sitd,'— these are the synonyms of khanda. 

Mddhavi is called madhu sarkard. Phdnita, ksudra gudaka 
and guda — these are prepared from sugar cane juice. 


Ayurveda SaukhyaM of Todardnanda 605 


Madhu, puspasava, puspa rasa, and maksika — these are the 
synonyms of madhu. 

Maksika, paittika, ksaudra and bhramara — these are in 
brief the different varieties of madhu. 

M&ksika is like oil. Paittika has the colour of ghee. 
Ksaudra is reddish brown in colour and bhramara is like a 

*hpt w^ %w toGto *nrf*?PT i 

Madana, madhuja, siktha, madhucchisfa and madhusita — 
these are synonymous. 

l^f^f^f ^fhPF^TPsr ^ip*fwj; i 
^^fwff|?r: ^t^t^s: sifter: i 

Group of dhdnya 

Rak ta sali etc., belong to is// group, sastika etc., belong 
to 6/-//7Z group. Mudga etc., belong to dvidala (dicotyleden) 
group, Sauca kangu etc., belong to frna dhdnya group. Ksudra 
dhanya is called kudhanya. Yava etc., are called sthula dhanya. 
Rakta salt is called lohita, garuda is called sakundhrta, sugan- 
dhika is called tm<7/?<2 ia// and kalama is called kalamafca. 

606 Materia Medica 

Pn^f^ft stftref ^BPrerrfMrrear*!; i 

Ksireya, paramanna and payasa— these are synonyms of 
fairf which is prepared of milk and rice. 

Ksfrfkd is difficult of digestion and strength promoting. It 
provides nourishment to tissue elements. It is heavy and consti- 
pative. It alleviates pitta, rakta pitta (a disease characterised by 
bleeding from different parts of the body), agni (digestive power) 
and vdyu. 

Raga sadava 

A preparation of green fruits of amra fermented after 
boiling with guda etc.. and added with sneha (oil), eld, and 
ndgara is called raga sadava, 

A preparation of the juice of the fruit ofjambu mixed 
with sitd, rucaka, sindhuttha, vrksamla, paruwka and rajika is 
called raga. 

Various types of sadavas, prepared by the juxes which are 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todarananda 607 

sweet & hot, are stimulant of digestion, nourishing and ap- 
petiser It is a cardiac tonic. It alleviates thirst & fatigue. 

Khandamra and Khandamalaka 

Lehyas prepared of antra and amalaka are cardiac tonic, 
promoter of plumpness and strength, nourishing, appetiser, 
unctuous, sweet and heavy. 

srfsrcf ^f«nr^T3 : JTJTft: ! #QTTf5?f^cncr n ^o n 



Sugar and dadhi mixed with madhu, aj'ya and marica, 
churned by a beautiful lady and mixed with karpura is called 
rasald, sikharini, marjita and mdrjikd. 

Rasala. is spermatopoetic, strength promoting and appetiser. 
It alleviates aggravated vata and pitta. It is unctuous and heavy. 
It specially cures pratisydya (cold). 

^if^Ts'^"f^Tg^?WTfe¥^^ it R3 n 

608 Materia Medica 

qhrsrmftrsf fiRr^reT^sOTrTf^ u r\ n 
TWFFri «PrtrrTt(?)^a"* fassfir "rr^nr n ^ u 


The potion prepared of draksa, srika, parusa etc., mixed 
with water and khanda (a type of sugar) and impregnated with 
marica, ardraka, karpura, caturjataka (tvak, eld, patra and naga 
kesard) etc., is called panaka. 

Panaka is of two types — one is sour and the other is not 

The panaka prepared of draksa, kharjura, kdsmarya, 
madhuka and. parusaka and mixed with karpura is called 
panca sara. 

Panaka is diuretic, cardiac tonic and nourishing. It cures 
morbid thirst and exhaustion. 

The heaviness and lightness of panaka should be deter- 
mined according to the property of its ingerdients. 

Paiica sara type of panaka cures aggravated pitta, morbid 
thirst, burning syndrome and exhaustion. 

Mddhvika type of panaka cures exhaustion, burning 
syndrome, asra pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from 
different parts of the body), klama (mental fatigue) and morbid 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 609 

The panaka prepared of parnsaka and loka (?) is cardiac- 
tonic, constipative and carminative. 

The panaka prepared of amlika is laxative and it cures 
morbid thirst, intestinal warm infestation, burning syndrome 
and exhaustion 


On a piece of cloth, dadhi with lot of fat and sugar should 1 
be triturated well. To this vyosa {sunthi, pippalT and maricd) r 
dadima and ajaji should be added. This is called satfaka. 

Saftaka is appetiser and promoter of good voice. It 
alleviates pitta and vayu. It is heavy, digestive stimulant, nour- 
shing and strength promoting. It cures exhaustion, mental 
fatigue and morbid thirst. 


SR^fl" *f^F: TWT: tfta: ST ^Wsqfl I 

^10 Materia Medica 


Mandaka is prepared over kukula (iron frying pan) or 
kharpara (earthen pan) in low charcoal heat. The former type 
(prepared over iron pan) is heavier and more nourishing than 
the latter (prepared over earthen pan). 

Mandaka which is fried over an earthen pan should be 
thin. The thicker one is called pupalika. 

The mandaka prepared over charcoal is called angara 

Mandaka is very wholesome when it is very hot. The cold 
mandaka is heavy. 

Angara mandaka is constipative and light. It alleviates all 
the three dosas. 


ST"«nT^*HP<t sr?1T sfeoft W*m 5P*: II 3* II 



Polika aggravates kapha. It promotes strength. It 
aggravates pitta and alleviates vayu. 

Angara karkarl promotes strength, corpulence and semen. 
It is light and stimulant of digestion. It alleviates kapfia, heart 
disease, pinasa (chronic cold), asthma and cough. 

mfrrfWfrm-: HOT: TTftp^r: fouf^: 1I3V.II 

10 11 

Sdli pista 

Eatables prepared of the paste of salt do not promote 
strength adequately and they produce burning sensation. They 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 611 

are not aphrodisiac. They are heavy and hot. They aggravate 
kapha and pitta. 

Godhuma bhaksya 

Eatables prepared of wheat promote strength and they 
alleviate pitta as well as vayu. 

Vaidala bhaksya 

Eatables prepared of vaidala (pulses) aggravate vayui- 
They are heavy, laxative and cooling. 


TF^wfcTT *j«Rrr: w^rr: fTcRroreT: it \^ w 

Masa bhaksya 

Eatables prepared of the paste of masa promote strength. 
They aggravate pitta and kapha. 

fe'ETRfafnrirpT WrFTSTRfT feftrfeJRT I 

Other bhaksyas in general 

Properties of other eatables should be determined by the 
properties of their ingredients. 

•Guda yukta bhaksya 

Eatables prepared by mixing gvc/a .alleviates vayu. They 
produce more of kapha and semen. 

612 Materia Medico 1 


Gkrta pakva bhaksya 

Eatables fried with ghee promote strength. They alleviate 
pitta and vdyu. 

Taila pakva bhaksya 

Eatables fried with oil reduce eye sight and vdyu. They? 
are hot. They vitiate pitta and rakta. 

^Tgrfqr^Tnreqr: fen - : ^«n?ra=n": n vo u 

Dugdha bhakysa 

Eatables prepared by boiling the paste of godhuma, sdlr 
etc., in milk alleviate vdyu and pitta. They are cardiac tonics- 
and they promote semen as well as strength, 

sfT^r ?rf^ wn "hmvrt g;TTfog-*T i 

f%??Tpf ?rfWT T^T cRT: fa^fefirfsrg-iT I IV? 1 1! 

^njst 3^f«i> fsr: fTcTTfawnT^T ii v^ ir 

Ayurveda Saukhyarti of Todarananda 613 

Ghrta piira 

The well filtered flour of wheat should be kneaded with 
milk and boiled with ghee. Thereafter, sugar should be added 
to it. Then karpura and marica should be mixed. This is called 
ghrta pura. 

Refined wheat flour should be mixed with milk and juice 
of narikera. The dough should then be boiled in ghee. This 
is also called ghrta pura. 

Ghrta piira is heavy, aphrodisiac and cardiac tonic. It 
alleviates pitta and vdyu. It is instantaneously life-giving. 

It promotes strength and alleviates ksata (consumption). 
It is extremely nourishing. 

sf ftrgrr srfwpsrr ^i %arwf^firfw>T 1 1 vv 1 1 




Refined wheat flour should be fried with ghee and mixed 
with sugar and marica. It should then be impregnated with the 
powder of eld, lavanga and karpura. This should be pressed with 
the help of some unprocessed wheat flour over a wooden plate 
(alamba put a) and then fried in ghee. Thereafter, it should 
be boiled in sugar syrup. This preparation is called sathyava. 

(514 Materia Medica 

Refined wheat flour should be kneaded with honey and 
milk. It should then be fried in ghee and sugar syrup conse- 
cutively. This should be kept in a new jar and sprinkled with 
the powder of marica, sugar and camphor. This is called 
samyava which is like ambrosia. 


Madhu sirsdka 

Thin apiipas should be prepared by kneading the refined 1 
wheat flour. These should be filled up with a mixture of boiled 
pieces of the skin of the fruit of matulunga and ardraka. In 
these rounded apiipas, fragrant things like kesara should be 
added and these should be boiled in ghee and sugar (syrup)- 
consecutively. This preparation is called madhu sirsaka. 

^rfaRrt 5^?fr^T +)<nfik«ir 5^%^ 11 k° 11 

Madhu pupaka 

Refined wheat flour should be mixed with gutfa toya and 
filtered. This should he kneaded with ghee and then boiled in. 
good quantity of ghee. This is called madhu pupaka. 

^rer^iWprr: <m?ft: sfspTi^rr: \\ xr 11 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 615 

JT^ft f I*TT: fSTT: ^qr: fqrTTf?F?TT<r|T: I 

Dadhi pupaka 

Paste of Soli should be kneaded with dadhi and fried in 
ghee. Rounded pieces of this dough should be smeared with 
sugar syrup. These are called dadhi pupaka. 

Sarhyava, madhu sirsa etc., pupaka and dadhi pupaka are 
heavy, nourishing, cardiac tonic and aphrodisiac. They alleviate 
pitta and vayu. 

There are different types of these preparations and their 
properties vary depending upon their method of processing. 

OT3PkT**ri<rftot cf^ft^ra-snpiw it vy n 

trq- fasq^t ^m ^refl%sfq- ^yr. u *^ u 
T^TRT^rsPr ^r ««%• ^s^pt I 
cTCTT^fesrRt: fasT^T 1% S^cT: II K.V9 II 

fspnret f^wt f^r: fTTrrfsr^r^t *rc: i 

Curd and milk should be taken in equal quantity and 
boiled till half remains. To this, the rice of red variety of salt 
and tila should be added. One musti of the seeds of each of 
piyala, panasa and abja should then be mixed with it. Ghee 
should then l be taken in the same quantity as that of milk and 

j616 Materia Medica 

added to it with sugar and marica. After boiling, trikatu isunpii, 
pippali and marica) should be added along with fragrant things 
like karpura. This preparation is called visyandana and it is 
rare even in the heaven. 

When boiled in ghee, it gets condensed {skandana) from 
all sides for which it is called visyandana by the experts in the 
science of cooking. 

Visyandana is brmhana (nourishing) and cardiac tonic. It 
alleviates pitta and vdyu, and it is heavy. 

srtwf *rss^xr% wet f%<rf 5Rft ? *rc*w n x* n 



In the hot ghee refined wheat flour should be added. To 
this sugar should be added thereafter. Milk boiled with the 
fruit pulp of cam should then be added. It should then be 
mixed with eld. This is known as lapsika or lalita. 

Lapsika is nourishing and aphrodisiac. It alleviates vdyu 
and pitta. It is heavy. 


Phenika etc. 

Phenika, pufinT and subhra — these preparations alleviate 
vdta and j?j*ta. They are light. 

Their methods of preparation may be ascertained from 
expert cooks. 

Ayurveda Sauk hy am of Todardnanda 617 

ifr^^T: ST^S-aFT: 5ftrfiTC% ^FPfifesTT: *Rrmi^ll 

«\ C\ C\ 

ssaf f^rnaf Trfcr^R^wnrfq- faf|?ifcni ^311 
Tfr^^r: fs^rr: ^^tt: sfett: fq^rrf?raTq-fT: i 

Modaka is called ladduka. It is of various types. Dadhi, 
milk, chease, refined wheat flour, paste of mdsa, surana, ardraka, 
kusmdnda, saluka, meat, fish, various types of fruits — these, 
among others, are the ingredients of modaka. Their details may 
he obtained from supa sdstra. Their properties will be the same 
as those of their ingredients. 

Modakas are difficult of digestion, aphrodisiac and strength 
promoting. They alleviate pitta and vdyu. 

*n*TF^ra?Pt fsft f^rff q-^irfr: n %k i 

c « 

^qr^: war^rr ^qr: fqi^r: ^^rsf^ra; n \% i 


Preparations of the paste of mdsa and mudga are called 
vafaka and vatikd. Their properties should be determined on the 
basis of the properties of their ingredients. 

618 Materia Medicar 

Vataka prepared of masa is cardiac tonic. It cures burning 
sensation and it alleviates vdyu. 

Vataka prepared of sdn^dki is harmful for eye sight. It 
aggravates dosas and it is heavy. 

Vataka prepared to tusdmbu is appetiser. It aggravates pitta- 
and it alleviates kapha and vdta. 


Indan promotes the quantity of semen. It is ununctuous - 
and constipative. It aggravates kapha and vdta. 


Somalika is heavy, aphrodisiac and appetiser. If alleviates 
(all) dosas. 

feared jfr^tfrfTcrt sr^sf ifr^qfirf^Rm i 
f%T# ttht **nw ^rir>2TT ^r q-^n^rcrm 11^11 

ifrsrro ^romr ^r <r% fa<rr^ u ^s. ir 
(^^iMfi:) Prfhrt i^?5niT i 
gq-^rr v^nwTr ftrartitfaf'Tftn^ h \9° u 
ot 3 f *«^pt ?rnr stesJTfNrsra-snrr i 


Two prasthas of refined wheat flour and one prastha of~ 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todardnanda 619 

godhuma, should be mixed with milk and kneaded. This dough 
should be kept till it becomes sour. Through a clean cup of 
coconut shell having a hole at the bottom, this dough should be 
pcured in a whirling manner over hot ghee. When fully boiled 
it takes the shape of an armlet. It should then be dropped in 
sugar syrup. This preparation is called kundahkd 

Rundalika promotes plumpness, complexion and strength. 




According to some scholars half soaked godhuma etc., 
are called kulmdsa. 

Kulmdsa is heavy and ununctuous. It aggravates vdytt 
and causes purgation. 

*f«ft ^^x: srar: ifT.m% sTrUTf: i 


Freshly harvested barley should be fried with husk and 
then made to a powder. • This is called saktu. 

620 Materia Medica 

Saktu should be kneaded with ghee and then mixed with 
cold water. It should be neither very thick nor very thm. This 
preparation is called mantha. 

Mantha immediately promotes strength, but in the long 
run. it reduces strength. It cures meha (obstinate urinary dis- 
orders including diabetes), tr§nd (morbid thirst), bhaya (fear 
complex), chardi (vomiting), kusfha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy) and deha srama (physical fatigue). Mixed 
with draksa and honey it promotes strength and alleviates 
aggravated kapha, fatigue and intoxicating conditions. 

When mixed with three groups of medicines, it brings 
dosas and feces downwards. 

Hxfisft v^mi qftcTT: tfrTTT: *ra*r: *TCT. I 

f'T^TOf^ra": fq's^^Tqf: ^rffcIT: II W II 
SPEW: WFfcsttgm ^'^■sfcrqfq-crr: l 

fqrt sftw »r^^rt s , ^^r?%ff^r *m u vs=; \i 
T 5T5n?gir?fr srcfar: stb^tstft %3*pt iivse.ii 


Saktu prepared of yava is cooling, stimulant of digestion, 

light and laxative. It alleviates kapha and pitta. It is 

ununctuous, lekhana (having scraping effect) and patana (?) It 

promotes strength instantaneously & is wholesome for persons 

-fatigued by the heat of the sun. 

Saktu is also prepared by frying and pounding dehusked 
pulses like canaka. 

Ayurveda Saukhyarh of Todardnanda 62V 

Mixed with sugar and ghee saktu is exceedingly useful in 
summer season. 

It is heavy when prepared in the form of a bolus (pindi} 
and when prepared in the form of a thin linctus (lehika) it is 

Saktu should not be taken in empty stomach. It should 
not be chewed. It should not be taken at night. It should not 
be consumed in excess quantity. Eating of saktu should not be 
interrupted by drinking of water. Saktu should not be taken- 

^£^T?*nf?srr <F!TsrT STFTT ^^"tsfW 1 
STPSfT sreraTT 5lt3T ^TT fq"rRH55p?T II =:o || 

s^br - ^T^r^Prr^ i 


Fried salt etc., are called lajd and fried yava etc., are 
called dhdna. 

Lajd is lighter, cooling and strength promoting. It aggra- 
vates pitta and kapha. It cures chardi (vomiting), atisdra 
(diarrhoea), daha (burning syndrome), asra (vitiation of blood), 
meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) and trsa 
(morbid thirst). 

STFTT fassfcrft WT «P<*)Nt<TfT W%\ \\ d ? II 


Dhdna is constipative and ununctuous. It reduces kapha 
and medas. It is light. 

622 Materia Medica 

q-spFT »R«ft ^3TT 5%SR?TT: ^TcFTFfFTT: II ^ II 

CO « 


Boiled and wet brihi etc., are pounded (pressed). These 
are called prthukd. 

Prthukd is heavy and strength promoting. It aggravates 
kapha and alleviates vayu. 

fof^srr^WTfsr: gw> ffe^t T5T: I 

Holaka is prepared by frying halt boiled simbi dhanya 
By nature, holaka produces vayu, medas and kapha in small 


Immature wheat when fried is called ulumva, lumva and 

UthvT aggravates kapha. It is strength promoting and 
light. It alleviates pitta and vayu. 


1 This is the 97th chapter of Ayurveda saukhyarh in Todard- 
ireupv vnd the opening invocation reads as below. , 

Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda 623 

wsr^rr trwrfctcr: *pvr*rT5pr zi^^^m i 

2. '^T' ^f?T q'WT^ its: I 

3. 'ffsr' f fir TTtrq^g% qrs: i 

-4. '^^r^g-srr' ffir q^q-^ qra: i 
5. '^Tftrqr' ^fir srsnrqw^ qT5: i 

7. 'snnrwFef f fir T*r*rrc3% qrs: i 
•8. 'f^sr' ifir <iwr^% its: i 

9. '^wt ^fa^srsFtqFn--.' ^fir T^q^^r qrs: i 

10. In mss I & V, at the end of this verse it is written 

11. 'wra^T ^6 smm' ifcr qwr?a% qrs: i 

12. 'Prarwrq^r.' ^fir <rwr*<r% tts: i 

13. 'srfadH^qtf' ff?r T^r*rr??r% qrs: i 

14. '^re^p^m-Jr' %fa 5pq-*rq;??r% qrs: t 

15. 'rafa^^^cr^:' ?fir sr^m*^ qrc. i 

17. '^f%grr' ifir q-'^q-^ qrs: i 

18. 'w§:' wfir 5nr*r<TScr% Tre: i 

19. This is the end of 97th chapter of Ayurveda Saukhyam 
in Todarananda and the colophon reads as below : 

*nf tftarfr* ftr# fasnrcrf sftetra" stct i 

an^^wr^af ^T^rd stf factor <tt*t i 
\TH$fef !?zftTnj^ #^sq-^ir: wt ii e;^ n 

624 Materia Medical 

\i^qvfevmr% f^Tf%?r: ^rnp^rTftT tpsttstct h^ip 
' t%5%<rt TT*rT^ts(%5T3irrt fnrfrf«R>T^: xfe: i 

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{Glossary of Technical Words) 

Abalya (weakness), 69 

Abhighata (injury), 312 

Abhisyanda (conjunctivitis), 56 

Abhisyandin (which obstructs 
channels of circulation), 
122, 123, 131, 143, 155, 157, 
166, 196, 219, 222, 242, 
254, 258, 266, 277, 281, 
314, 324, 331, 336 

Abhra (cloud), 83 

Abhyanga (massage), 180 

Abhyantara daha (burning sen- 
sation inside the body), 419 

Abhyantara vidradhi (internal 
abscess), 414 

Adahin (which docs not pro- 
duce burning sensation), 

Adlmana (tymphanitis), 7, 15, 
27, 40 

(flatulence), 88, 190, 227, 

Agastya (star Canopus), 223 

Aghata (injury), 101 

Agni, 9, 125 
(fire), 5 

(digestive power), 52, 214 
(enzymes responsible for 
digestion and metabolism), 
(heat), 213 

Agni dipana (promoter of 
digestive power), 29 

Agni mdndya (suppression of 

digestive power), 3, 28, 150, 


(indigestion), 228 
Agnyalpatd (suppression of the 

power of digestion), 38 
Ahichhatra (name of a moun- 
tain), 99 
Ahrdya (which is not cardiac 

tonic), 300 
Ajirna (indigestion), 202, 306 
Akasa ganga (the Ganga river 

in the sky as described in 

the epic), 212 
Akledi (deteriorate), 213 
Akrta (which is not fried with 

ghee etc.). 376 
Akrta yusa (the yusa which is 

not mixed with fat, salt 

and pungent spices), 380 
Aksa tarpana (application of 

cotton swab soaked in the 

milk over the eyes), 144 
Aksepana (convulsion), 7 
Aksi paka (conjunctivitis), 5 
Aksi purana (pouring over eyes), 

Aksi ruk (pain in eyes), 108 
AlaksmT (inauspiciousness), 59, 

60, 102, 173 
AJavana (free from saline taste), 

Ama (a product of improper 


Materia Medica 

digestion and metabolism), 
21, 25,26,28, 51, 58, 67, 
81, 88, 138, 150, 177,202, 
229, 230, 231, 304, 335, 
356, 416, 417 
Ama dosa, 305 

Ama maruta (rheumatism), 30 
Amasaya (stomach including 

small intestine), 53 
Ama vata (rheumatism), 37, 52, 

65, 81, 92, 145 
Kmaya (disease), 69 
Amla (sour), 2, 10, 32, 155 
Amla pitta (hyper-acidity in 
stomach), 81, 192, 250, 309 

Amla rasa (having sour taste), 

Amsvdaka (the water which is 
exposed to the sun's rays 
during the day time and the 
moon's rays during the 
night time), 223 

Anabhisyandt (which does not 
obstruct the channels of 
circulation), 217, 223 

Andha (constipation), 27, 28 
(tymphanitis), 4, 68, 201 
(flatulence), 63, 64, 123, 125, 
126,143,181, 190, 191,204, 
205, 206, 230, 249, 333, 379 
(wind formatation in 
stomach), 15 

(obstruction to the move- 
ment of wind in the 
stomach), 35, 39, 40 

Anala (heat), 215 

Artala sada (suppression of the 
power of - digestion), 33 

Anga marda (malaise), 201, 412 

Angas (pieces), 13T 

Anila sonita {gout), 142 

Anilasra (gout), 52 

Ahjarta (collyrium), 29 

Anna (food), 150 

Antaiiksa jala (water collected 
directly from the sky), 223 

Anupa (meat of animals in- 
habiting marshy land), 257 
(marshy land), 216, 256 
(water which is found in 
marshy areas), 216, 217 

Anupana (post prandial drink), 
302, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398 

Arm rasa (subsidiary taste), 
105, 143, 144, 154, 156, 
161, 179, 204, 287, 292, 
300, 313, (after-taste), 135 

Anuvasana, 411 

Apaci (cervical adenitis), 29, 
30, 54, 55 

Apasmara (epilepsy), 95, 175 

Apatantraka (convulsion), 68 

Arbuda (tumour), 3 

Ardita (facial paralysis), 171, 
257, 287 

Arocaka (anoxeria), 66, 190, 
227, 306, 377, 420 

Arogyambu (healthy water), 

Arsas (piles)* 24, 26-30, 34-5, 
37, 53, 56, 63, 64, 66, 74, 
79, 81,86,95, 125-26, 143, 
157,160, 168, 171-72, 182, 
189, 190-92, 194, 201, 207, 
230, 261, 268, 306, 326-28, 
339, 341 362, 378, 416, 
Arti (pain), 7, 77 



Aruci (anorexia), 33, 39, 43, 
68, 74, 104, 154, 164, 168, 
191, 204, 227, 273, 305, 
306, 333, 415, 420 

Aruksa (not un-unctouous), 

Aruna (reddish), 21 

Asadha (June- July), 224 

Asma (stone in urinary tract), 

Asma dosa (adulteration with 
stones), 79 

Asman (stone in urinary tract), 
44, 77, 79, 125, 133,333, 
^36, 378, 414, 418 

Asma sarkara (stones and 
gravels in the urinary 
tract), 95 

^™(bIood), 48, 103, 105, 107, 

Asra pitta (a disease charact- 
ised by bleeding from 
different parts of the bodv), 

Asrk pitta (a disease charac- 
terised by bleeding from 
different parts of the body) 
133, 159 

Asthapana (a type of medicat- 
ed enema), 201, 205, 411 

Asthi Magna (fracture of 
bone), 50 

Asthila (hard tumour in the 
abdomen), 181 

Asthilika (stony tumour in 
abdomen), 27 

Asthi sula (pain in bones), 201 

Asuci(seme of impurity), 257 

Asuddha (not properly pro- 

cessed), 73, 94 

Asuddhi (when the purification 
therapy has not acted pro- 
perly), 230 

Aiuta (process of fermenta- 
tion), 200 

Asvina (September-October), 
212, 213, 224 

Asya (mouth), 68 

Asya roga (diseases in mouth), 

Asya vairasya (distaste in 
mouth), 62 

Atikusfha, 76 

Atllekhana (exceedingly deplet- 
ing), 101 

Atisara (diarrhoea), 23, 24, 
25, 45, 58, 80, 110, 133, 
136, 142, 150, 154, 164, 
168, 230, 268, 302, 337 
357, 360, 365, 367, 417 

Atopa (gurgling sound in the 
stomach), 36 

Atyamla (excessively sour), 
155, 156 

Avagaha (bath), 180 

Avalehika (linctus), 366 

Avidahin (which does not cause 
burning sensation), 123 

Ayusya (promoter of longe- 
vity), 14, 20 

Baddha (a special process by 
which mercury is made to 
stand strong heat without 
vapourisation), 90 

Baddha gudodara (obstinate 
type of abdominal disease 
caused by obstruction in 


Materia Medica 

the rectum), 301 
Baddha nisyanda (prevention of 

excretion), 195 
Balya (promoter of strength), 

30, 34 
Bandhar.a sariiskara (a type of 

processing of mercury), 90 
Baslayim (the milk of a cow 

long after her delivery), 144 
Bhadrapada (August-Septem- 
ber), 224 
Bhagandara (fistula-in-ano), 76 

81, 84, 168 
Bhagna (fracture), 50, 102 
Bhagna-sandhana kft (healer 

of fracture), 34 
Bhak?ya (eatable), 382, 383, 

385, 386, 387 
Bhdnda (jar m which curd is 

prepared), 161 
Bharjita (fried), 371 
Bhasma (calcined powder of 

metals, minerals etc.), 85, 

Bhasmaka (gluttonous appe- 
tite), 263 
Bhauma (which is available on 

the earth), 211, 215, 217 
Bhavana (impregnation), 408 
Bhaya (fear), 13 
Bhedana (purgative), 18, 67 
Bhrama (giddiness), 4, 61,74, 

159, 168, 227, 230, 325, 

381, 396 
Bhril (eye brows), 68 
Bhuta (evil spirits), 53 
Brahma, SO, 97 
Brdhmaiia, 89, 99 
Brddlia (over matured), 329 

Brmhana (nourishing), 14, 29, 

31, 33, 47, 74, 131 
Brmhani (nourishing), 50 
Buddhi prada (promoter of 

intellect), 14 

Caitra (name of a month 
according to Hindu calen- 
der, March-April), 224 

Caksusya (promoter of eye- 
sight), 3, 14, 20 39, 78, 96, 

Capala dosa (a type of defect 
in mercury), 91 

Car a (those who move viz., 
animal kingdom), 97 

Caraka, 208,' 410 

Caraka samhitd, 212 

Caundya (a big well without a 
boundary wall), 224 

Cetana (consciousness), 13 

Cetovikara (mental disease), 

Chardi (vomiting), 15, 18, 22, 
25, 40, 41, 44, 60, 63, 64, 
65, 66, 67, 80, 133 136, 
138,168, 172, 190,210,230, 
257, 302, 305, 306, 318, 
337, 365, 367, 379, 381, 

Chedcma (which takes away 
tissue by cutting), 199 

Chedi (depleting), 95 

(which takes away tissues 
by cutting), 194 
(which has the power to 
penetrate by incision), 353 

Citta santapa (excessive dis- 
comfort m mind), 74 



Cosana (sucking), 300 

Cunda (big well without any 

boundary wall), 220, 224, 


Dadru (ring worm), 43, 206 

Doha (burning sensation), 4, 6 
(burning syndrome), 23, 36, 
42, 47, 48, 57, 59, 60,62, 
64, 67, 102, 103, 158, 168, 
172, 175 200,211, 217,227, 
230, 303, 309, 310, 312, 
313, 315, 333, 365, 367, 
382, 419, 420, 426 

Ddha karita (producing burn- 
ing sensation), 79 

Dala (fragility), 72 

Dalas (pieces or fruit in a 
bunch), 13 

Dandahata (stirred with a 
wooden rod), 149 

Danta (teeth), 68 

Danta dardhya krt (which 
makes teeth strongly em- 
bedded in the gums), 57 

Danta gada (diseases of teeth), 

Darana (penetrating), 214 

(which causes excission), 215 

Daurgandhya (foul smell com- 
ing out of the body), 43, 
55, 60, 62, 65 

Dhanya (corns and cereals), 
343, 348, 350, 379 

Dhara sita (when milk be- 
comes cold after milking), 
145, 146 

Dharosna (warm milk of the 
cow immediately after 

milking), 145, 146 

Dhatus (tissue elements of the 
body), 2, 3, 85, 99, 158,411 

Dhatu vada (preparing gold 
out of ordinary metals), 89 

Diggaja (elephant guiding 
different directions as des- 
cribed in the epic), 212 

Dipana (digestive stimulant), 
5, 14, 20, 30, 34 

Dojsaghna (correcting morbid 
factors), 183 

Dosa (Three factors in the 
body viz., vayu, pitta and 
kapha. They control the 
physiological activities of 
the body. When vitiated or 
aggravated they afflict the 
tissues and channels of 
circulation to produce 
different types of disease), 
2, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 
25,27, 31, 42,46, 67, 68, 
71, 85, 86, 90, 9J, 95,98, 
104, 105, 106, 108, 122, 135, 
138, 144, 145, 148, 155, 
157, 160, 166, 175, 181, 
196, 211, 213, 219, 221, 
222, 223, 225, 228, 230, 
233, 235, 241, 242, 243, 
270, 271, 273, 291, 298, 
299, 303, 307, 323, 324, 
325, 326, 330, 331, 335 
336, 337, 362, 367, 372, 
376, 379, 397 398, 410, 
412, 417, 425, 427 

Dravya (matter), 1 1 

Drdhata (sturdiness), 79 


Materia Medica 

Druti kriya (a special method 
for processing mercury), 84 

Dumaman (piles), 26, 28, 33, 
108, 160, 195, 206, 280 

Duslvisa (artificial poison), 27, 

Du$ta vrana (obstinate type of 
ulcer), 52 

(serious type of ulcer), 102 
(suppurated ulcer), 424 

Dusti (evil sight), 97 

Gadgadatva (lulling speech), 

Gagana (sky), 83 

Gila (throat), 68 

Gala ganda (goitre), 3, 257 

Gala graha (obstruction in the 
throat), 227, 377 

Galamaya (diseases of throat), 

Ganda (goitre), 29, 43, 54, 91, 
214, 263, 264 

Ganda mala (enlarged cervical- 
glands), 30 

Gara (a type of poisoning), 
78, 92, 175, 207, 328 

Garbha prada (promoter of con- 
ception), 47 

Gatra daurgandhya (foul smell 
of the body), 64 

Gaurava (heaviness), 124 

Ghana (pressure), 72, 73 

Ghanasaha (intolerant of pres- 
sure), 77 

Ghrta vy&pat (complications be- 
cause of wrong administra- 
tion of ghee), 164, 168 

Glani (tiredness), 362 

Galaka (abscess), 84 

Graha (obstruction), 7 
(planets), 97 

(affliction by unfavourably 
situated planets), 59 
(afflictions by evil planets 
or spirits), 63, 102 

Graham (sprue syndrome), 28, 
35, 59, 64, 80, 89, 108, 
125, 126, 158, 164, 168, 
191, 201, 227, 290, 326, 
327, 339, 341 

Graham dosa (sprue synd- 
rome), 15, 272 

Grahl (constipative), 7, 55, 67 

Granthi (adenitis), 29, 30, 85, 

Grdhrasi (sciatica), 2 1 

Gudaja (piles), 50 

Guda Idla (piles), 249 

Gulma (phantom tumour), 15, 
21, 27, 28, 33, 34, 37, 38, 
39, 40 56, 58, 64 76, 
81, 125, 126, 164, 168, 174, 
189, 190, 195, 204, 205, 
206, 227, 230, 249, 306, 
316, 378, 412, 414, 416, 

Guna (property), 2 
(attributes), 8, 13 

Guru (heavy), 3, 9 

Gurufa (heaviness), 79 

Haima (water from snow) 

Hanu (mandibles), 68 
Hdridra, 98 
Harita (green), 12 



Harsa (tingling sensation), 156 

Hayamganna (the ghee that 
is taken out from the 
cream produced at the time 
of milking the cow), 176 

Hema kriyd (preparing gold), 

Hemanta (beginning of win- 
ter), 152, 159, 223, 235 

Hidhma (hiccup), 34, 181 

Hikka (hiccup), 15, 65, 136, 
150, 207, 227, 230, 249, 

Hima (cooling), 39 
(snow), 214, 215 

Hlddi (pleasing), 103 

Hrdamaya (heart disease), 15, 

Hrdaya daha (burning sensa- 
tion in the chest), 302 

Hrd roga (heart disease), 21, 
33, 45, 79, 1 26, 226, 420, 

Hrdruk ( heart disease), 123, 

Hrdya (cardiac tonic), 34, 39, 

Hrllasa (nausea), 22, 25, 63, 
65, 66, 79, 92 

Hrtpidd (pain in cardiac re- 
gion), 7, 86 

Indriya bodhana (which activa- 
tes the senses), 192, 194 
Isvara (God), 97 

Jadya (numbness & rigidity), 
91, 136 

Jagala (lower portion of surd), 
190, 191 

Jandrdana (God), 90 

Jangala (arid land), 7, 216, 

(the water found in arid 
areas), 216, 217 
(meat of animals dwelling 
in dry land forests), 257 

Jantu (parasitic infection), 33, 

Jard (old age), 69 

Jdta vedas (Agni or Fire god), 

Jathara (obstinate abdominal 
diseases including ascitis), 

Jayyafa, (name of a physician), 

Jirrta jvara (chronic fever), 33, 

Jivana (life), 13 

Jvara (fever), 3, 4, 21, 23 24, 
26, 28, 34, 37, 39, 47, 52, 
59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 
67,68,71,74, 77, 92, 133, 
142, 159, 225, 228, 229, 
231, 248, 267, 268, 270, 
273, 309, 312, 325, 337, 
339, 353, 356, 357, 360, 
365, 372, 377, 378, 382, 
413,416, 420,421,423,427 

Jyestha (May- June), 224 

Kaca (hair), 87 

Kddambari (the lower portion 

of sura, which is more 

dense), 190, 191 


Materia Medica 

Kaidara (the water of the field), 

Kamala (jaundice), 15, 51, 67, 

81, 92, 159, 205 
Kampa (shivering), 6 

(tremor), 7 
Kandu (itching), 4, 5, 15, 27, 

52, 55, 56, 63, 86, 87, 88, 

101, 103, 108, 180, 330, 
353, 413, 417 

Kanjika (the potion prepared 
by fermenting dhanya man- 
da etc.), 200, 202 

Kapha (one of the three dosas; 
it is responsible for cohe- 
sion of bodily organs), 3, 
5, 6,7,9, 10, 15, 17, 18, 
19,20, 21, 22, 23, 24,25 
26, 27, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 
45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 

53, 54, 55, 56 57, 58, 60, 
61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 
69, 74, 75, 77, 78, 87, 88, 
92, 94, 95, 99, 100, 101, 

102, 109, 111, 122, 123, 
126, 127, 129, 130, 131, 
132, 137, 342, 150, 152, 
154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 
160, 161, 162, 164, 166, 
167, 168, 169, 172, 173, 
174, 177, 179, 180, 182, 
183, 184, 185, 189, 191, 
206 207,212,214,215,216, 
217, 218, 220, 221, 229, 
230, 242, 243, 245, 246, 
247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 
252 ? 258, 259, 262, 263, 

264, 265, 266-68, 269, 270, 

271, 272, 274, 275, 276, 

277, 278, 280, 286, 287, 

288, 289, 290, 291, 295, 

298, 299, 300, 303, 304, 

305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 

310, 312, 314, 315, 316, 

317, 318, 319, 324, 327, 

328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 

333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 

340, 341, 342, 353, 354, 

356, 357, 360, 362, 366, 

367, 370, 376, 377, 378, 

379, 380, 381, 383, 384, 

385, 387, 395, 398, 411, 

413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 

418, 420, 421, 422, 423, 

424, 425, 426, 427 

Kaphapaha (alleviator of 

kapha), 35 

Kaphotklesa (salivation), 305 

Kama pur ana (ear drop), 180 

Karsana (depleting), 29, 36 

(which eliminates by force), 

Kansya (emaciation), 47, 69, 
154, 157 

Kartika (October- November), 

Kartikeya, (Lord Siva's son) 73 

Kasa (coughing), 15, 22, 23, 
33, 34, 37, 38, 41, 43 
(bronchitis), 45-7, 51, 61, 
63, 65, 66, 68, 110, 136, 
142, 150, 157, 167, 171, 
173, 175, 194, 205, 206, 
227, 229, 232, 246, 249, 
261, 267, 268, 271, 279, 
305, 306, 308, 312, 330 T 



332, 339, 342, 367, 372, 
377, 378, 398,412,415,425 

Kasaya (astringent), 2 

Kasmala (impurity), 79 

Katu (pungent), 2, 10 

Katuka (spices having pungent 
taste), 370 

Katu p&cita (boiled with pun- 
gent spices), 371 

Katu paka (pungent in vipaka), 

Kesya (useful for hair or pro- 
moter of hair), 18, 34, 101, 

Khalitya (baldness), 5, 69 

Khanda (candied sugar), 132 
382, 407 

Khara (un-unctuous), 366 

Khe gati (moving in the sky), 

Kildsa (a type of leucoderma) 
34, 76, 206 

Klama (mental fatigue), 162, 

Kleda (appearance of sticky 
material in excess in the 
body), 6, 29, 30, 126, 162 

Kledana (promoter of sticki- 
ness), 4 

Kledi (producer of stickiness), 

Konkana (name of a mountain 
or a region), 99 

Kosna (luke-warm), 149 
Kostha (colon), 167 
Kotha (urticaria), 168 

(urticarial rashes), 417 
Kramana samskara (a type of 
processing of mercury), 90 

Krcchra (dysuria), 36, 54, 77, 
87, 88, 106, 108 

Kriml (parasitic infection), 377 
(maggot), 196 
(parasitic infestation), 3 
(parasitic infection), 5, 6, 
15, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 
34, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 
51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 74, 
75, 78, 79, 85, 95, 102, 
106, 107. 108, 109, 125, 
128, 131, 136, 137, 143, 
160, 168, 174, 175, 180, 
181, 182, 184, 196, 199, 
200, 204, 206, 207, 231, 
262, 271, 280, 306, 313, 
319, 324, 330, 342, 353, 
368, 415, 423, 424 

Krmi dosa (parasitic infection), 

Kroda (pelvic region), 295 

Krta (which is fried with ghee 
etc ), 376 

Krta yusa (yusa, which is pre- 
pared of pungent spices, 
fat and salt.), 380 

Ksama bhrt (stands to pressure), 

Ksata (consumption), 5 

(phthisis), 50, 133, 168, 

303, 310, 311, 313, 315, 


Ksataghna (cures consumption), 

' 35 
Ksata kslna (consumption), 46 

Ksatriya (name of a caste), 84, 

' 85, 99 

Ksaya (consumption), 22, 47 

Mala (cervical-adenitis), 87 


Materia Medica 

63, 66, 71, 74, 76, 81, 86, 
94, 95, 102, 109, 110, 
130, 142, 157, 168, 173, 
192, 228, 267, 271, 279, 
303, 308-310, 311, 313, 
315, 330, 372, 378, 395 
(phthisis), 46, 47 

Ksina (emaciation), 132, 372 

Ksira sagara (mythical ocean 
of milk), 93 

Ksiti (ground), 337 

Ksut (morbid hunger), 191, 
312, 359, 372 

Kuksi sida (colic pain in the 
pelvic region), 33 

Kula (side of water), 264 

Kustha (obstinate skin diseases 
including leprosy), 4, 5, 6, 
20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 30, 33, 
34, 36-38, 41, 48, 49, 51, 
52, 53-5, 56, 57, 58, 64, 
66-68, 74,76,79,81, 84-6, 
87,88, 90, 91, 92,94, 95, 
99, 102, 103, 104, 107, 108, 
109, 111, 138, 149, 159, 
160, 168, 172, 174, 175 
180, 181, 182, 184, 204, 
206, 214, 226, 228, 253, 
280, 287, 313, 325, 330, 
335, 342, 353, 377, 402, 
403, 413, 415, 422, 423, 
424, 426, 427 

Kustha roga (obstinate skm 
diseases including leprosy), 

Laghu (light), 8, 14, 39, 54, 88, 

Laghu paki (which is easy for 

digestion), 377 

Lekhana (which causes scrap- 
ing or having scraping pro- 
perty), 4, 9, 64 
(depleting), 31, 73, 78, 88, 
96, 135, 136, 180 

Locana (eyes), 68 

Loha mardava karaka (which 
causes softness in iron), 88 

Lomila daitya (a group of 
demons), 78 

Mada (intoxication), 52, 211, 

Madanut (cures intoxication), 

Madatyaya (alcoholism), 177, 

227, 312, 341 
Madhu meha (diabetes mellitus), 

Madhura (sweet), 2, 10, 21 
Magha (January-February), 224 
Maha bhiitas (basic elements), 

Maha gada (serious disease), 

Maha ghrta (the ghee which 

is preserved for more than 

one hundred years), 177 
Mahesvara (God) , 90 
Majja (bone marrow), 6, 185, 


(pulp), 15 

(pith), 312 
Mala (waste products), 3 

(excessive excretion of 

waste products), 60 

(impurity), 77 
(rust), 82 



Mala dosa (a type impurity in 

mercury), 91 
Malas (waste products), 41 1 
Malaya (name of a mountain), 

Mali (name of a demon), 98 
Mandagni (suppression of the 

powei of digestion), 423 
Mandanala (suppression of the 

power of digestion), 301 
Manojna (pleasing to the 

mmd), 59 
Manya (sterno-mastoid region), 


Manya stambha (torticolis), 7 

Marana samskara (lit. death, a 
t> pe of processing of mer- 
cury), 90 

Margasirsa (November- 
December), 224 

Medaka (the sura which is at 
the bottom of the contai- 
ner), 190, 191 

Medas (fat), 3, 5, 6, 29,38, 
185, 189, 377, 413, 414, 

(adiposity), 30, 62, 69, 
79, 127, 131, 138, 154, 155, 
168, 172, 173, 180, 194, 
214, 249, 379, 416, 423 

Medha (intellect), 53, 54 

Medhya (promoter of intellect), 
(promoter of memory), 14 

Meha (obstinate urinary disor- 
ders including diabetes), 3, 
20, 22, 23, 29, 30, 34, 38, 
44, 48, 55, 66, 75, 76, 79, 
85-7, 95, 137, 138, 168, 

192, 194, 206, 280, 291, 
367, 368, 378, 413, 416, 

422-24, 426, 427 
Minminatva (stammering), 257 
Moha (unconsciousness), 133, 

Mrdu (soft), 21 
Mrdu recana (laxative), 21 
Mrduta (softness), 5 
Mrtyu (death), 79 

(apprehension of death), 

Mukata (dumbness), 257 
Mukha roga (diseases of 

mouth), 77 

(diseases of the oral cavity), 

Mukha sosa (dryness of 

mouth), 372 
Mukula (bud), 54 
Murccha (fainting), 6, 7, 74, 

91, 133, 168, 175,210,211, 

221, 230, 312, 365, 379, 

Miircchana samskara (a type 

of processing of mercury), 

Musti (handful), 378 
Mutra dosa (urinary disorders), 

Mutraghata (anuria), 414 
MUtra graha (anuria), 164 

(suppression of urination), 

Mutra krcchra (dysuria), 45, 46, 

48, 63, 95, 133, 148, 154, 

167, 189, 367, 414, 418, 420 
Mutrala (diuretic), 35 


Materia Medico- 

Nada (big river), 217 
NadT (small river), 217 
Nddeye (the water which is 

derived from river), 217 
Nddi vrana (sinus), 205 
Naga (lead), 76 
Naga dadhi (curd of elephant's 

milk), 161 
Naga dosa (a type of impurity 

in mercury), 91 
Nagas (snakes as described in 

the epic), 213 
Naisargika (natural), 91, 
Naktandhya (night blindness), 

Nasika (nose), 68 
Nasta (curdled), 151 
Nasya (inhalation), 46, 180 
Nava (freshly collected), 132, 

Nava para (beginning stage of 

fever), 227, 230 
Netra hita (useful for eye sight), 

Netrdmaya (eye disease), 228 
Netraruk (pain in eyes), 101 
Nidra (excessive sleep), 21 1 
Nikasa (a specific type of stone 

used for testing the 

genuineness of gold), 70 
Nirjhara (spring), 223 
Nitya abalatva (progressive 

weakness),. 77 

Ojas (vital fluid, the essence of 
the seven categories of tissue 
elements), 3, 50, 94, 125, 
173, 241, 371, 372 

Pacana (carminative), 4, 5, 25 
(metabolic transformation), 

Pakta (stimulant of digestion 
and metabolism), 124 

Pakva (boiled), 167 

Pakvasaya (colon), 53 

Pala (48 ml. approx.), 189, 398 

Palita (premature graying of 
hair), 5, 69 

Pahali (water of small pond), 

Palvala (small pond), 219 

Pama (itching), 184, 207 

Pana (drinking), 180 

Pandu (anemia), 22, 36, 50, 54 T 
55, 75, 76, 78, 82, 86, 95 r 
126, 168, 192, 194, 200, 
205, 206, 230, 413, 416„ 
424, 426 
(yellowish), 262 

Pandura (gray), 99 

Panduta (anemia), 79 

Pdndutva (anemia), 4 

Pandvamaya (anemia), 159,164^ 

Parasaia (name of a sage), 24 

Parijdtra (name of a moun- 
tain), 226 

Parindmaja siila (colic pain 
which appears during the 
process of digestion of 
food), 80 

Parisuska (dried), 371 

Pdrsva pida (pain in the sides 

of the chest), 86 
ParSva ruk (pain in the sides of 
the chest), 65, 68, 108, 230 
Pdrsva sula (pain in the sides 
of chest), 43, 227 



.Parvati (consort of lord &va), 

Pathya (wholesome), 50 
JPatu (saline), 2 

Pausa (December- January), 224 
Pavana (purifier), 13 
JPavitra (remover of sins), 71 
J'halguna (February - March), 

Phutkam (hissing sound), 84 

(emitting sound), 213 
Picchila (slimy), 3, 30 
PTda (pain), 87 
Pidaka (pimples), 29, 417 
Pidai a (which causes pam), 

Pilla (a type of eye disease), 

J'inasa (chronic sinusitis), 32, 


(chronic rhinitis), 74, 80, 

246, 249, 273, 275, 290, 


(chronic cold), 167, 190, 194 

Pinda (solid form), 151 

Pindi (bolus). 366 

Pipdsa (morbid thirst), 22, 38, 
231, 367, 419, 423 

Pista (made to a paste), 371 
(pastries), 395 

Pistdnna (pastries), 395 

Pitta (one of the three dosas. 
This is responsible for all 
the metabolic including 
digestive functions of the 
body and production of 
heat & energy), 3-6, 8, 9 
10, 15, 17-19, 20, 21, 22, 
23, 24, 26, 30-4, 35, 38, 

40-8 49, 50, 53, 54, 55-58, 
59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65-7, 
69, 73-75, 78, 80, 87, 88, 
92, 94, 95, 102, 103, 104, 
105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
110, 111, 122, 123, 125-28, 
130, 131, 132, 137, 138, 
142, 144, 146, 147, 148-50, 
154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 
159, 166, 169, 171, 172, 
173, 174, 179, 181, 182, 
183, 184, 185, 188, 193, 
194, 195, 200, 204, 207 212, 
214, 215, 216-220, 221 222, 
225, 227, 229, 230, 232, 
242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 
248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 
259, 262-65, 266-68, 269- 
74, 275, 276, 277, 278,. 
79, 286, 287, 289, 292, 
295, 298, 299, 300, 301, 
302, 303, 304, 305, 306,. 
307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 
313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 
318, 319, 324, 326, 327, 
328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 
333, 334, 335, 336, 338, 
339, 340, 341, 353, 354, 
356, 357, 360, 367, 370-72, 
377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 
383, 384, 385, 386, 395, 
398,411, 412, 418,420-24 

Pitta jvara (fever caused by 
pitta), 419 

Pittdsra (a disease characteri- 
sed by bleeding from 
different parts of the body), 


Materia Medicar 

Pitrya (liked by Pitrs or dead 

ancestors), 277 
Piyusa (the milk of the cow 

immediatly after delivery), 

150, 152 
Plihan (splenic disorder), 15, 58, 

67, 79, 81, 85, 92, 94, 126, 

133, 164, 168, 181, 205, 333 
Plihd roga (splenic disorder), 

27, 37 
Prabhata (early morning), 147 
Prdbhava (specific action), 2, 

10, 11, 19, 26, 37 
Pradara (menorrhagia and 

other allied gynaecological 

disorders), 24 
Pradigdha (excessively burnt), 

Pradosa (evening), 147 
Prahladaniya (which gives com- 
fort), 60 
Prakledi (which produces 

sticky matter), 126 
Prameha (obstinate urinary 

disorders including diabe- 
tes), 15, 18, 27, 37, 56, 73, 

76, 257 
Praseka (salivation), 168, 227 

(excessive salivation), 377, 

Pratapta (heated), 371 
Pratibha (intuition), 188 
Pratisyaya (cold), 154, 227 

(chronic rhinitis), 377 

(rhinitis), 415 
Pratiim(a variety of tuni in 

which pain starts from 

anus and moves to the 

intestine), 378 

Pumstva (virility), 5 

Purana (which is preserved for 

a long time), 132, 138, 299 
Puranas (name of a group of 

scriptures), 73 
Putaga (having layers), 77 

Rajayaksma (tuberculosis), 177" 
Raksa (affliction by 'raksas')^ 

Raksas (evil spirits), 32, 101 r 


Raksoghna (which cures afflic- 
tions by evil spirits inclu- 
ding germs), 138, 182 

Rakta (blood), 24, 67, 166, 

Raktamaya (diseases blood), 

Rakta pitta (a disease charac- 
terised by bleeding from- 
different parts of the body), 
18, 24, 35, 36, 39, 48, 49,. 
55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64, 66, 
109, 110, 125, 130, 136, 
137, 142 144, 168, 172, 
173, 199, 231, 248, 252, 
269, 272, 277, 279, 280, 
287, 292, 299, 309, 311,. 
313, 315, 316, 317, 319, 
325, 334, 339, 340, 342, 
352, 357, 365, 419, 422, 

Stambhana (coagulation of" 
blood), 50 

Vikara (diseases caused by 
the vitiation of blood), 76 

Ranjana samskara (a type of " 
processing of mercury), 9Q> 



Rasa (taste), 2 10, 19, 32, 69, 

89, 90, 107, 408 

(juice), 139 

(essence), 141 
Rasdyana (rejuvenation), 14, 26, 

28, 30, 34 
Rocana (appetiser), 34, 64 
Roma harsa (horripilation), 

Ropana (healing), 7, 74 
Rucya (appetiser), 4, 5, 20 
Rudra (Lord §iva), 72 
Ruk (pain), 54, 81 
Ruksa (unuctuous), 6, 18, 21, 

28, 39 

Sadala (which, in in pieces), 62 
Sadya suddhi (immediately 
after the purification thera- 
py), 227 
Sahya (name of a mountain), 

Saithilya (slothfulness), 5 
Sakti (specification), 2 
Samgrdhi (constipative), 2 5 
Samhanana (joining of tissues), 

SamTrana (aggravated vayu), 33 

(airy portion), 295 
Samskdra (process), 90 
Samsveda (excessive sweating), 

Sandatva (impotency), 79 
Sandhana (union of tissue ele- 
ments), 368 
Sandhanakrt (which helps in 
uniting the broken or torn 
tissues), 3 
Sankha (temporal region), 68 

Sannipdta (diseases caused by 

the simultaneous vitiation 

of all the three dosas), 99, 

230, 270, 424 
Santamka (the layer of cream 

which is formed on the 

surface when the milk is 

boiled on low heat), 146 
Saptarsis (seven sages), 70 
Sara (cream), 161 

(laxative), 14, 20 

(mobile), 4 

(purgative), 27 
Saras (big pond), 223, 224 
Sarkara (gravels in the urinary 

tract), 88, 125, 378 
Satmya (wholesome), 201 
Sattva (essence), 83, 267, 268, 

402, 404 
Sdttvika (dominated by sattva 

or pure qualities), 197 
Saumya (cooling), 211 
Seka (sprinkling), 1 80 
Sikhara (pyramid), 8 1 
Sikharakara (tapering in 

shape), 80 
Sirah pTdd (headache), 68 
S~irah iiila (headache), 7, 414 
Siras (head), 68 
Siroroga (diseases of head), 

Siroruk (headache), 81, 425 
Sisira (later part of winter), 

159, 223,235, 293 
Sita (cold), 9 

(cooling), 9, 20 
STtaga visama jvai a (irregular 
fever which is associated 
with a feeling of cold), 1 54 


Materia Madica 

Sitaiasa 193, 194 

Siva (Lord Siva), 72, 89 

Slaksna (smooth) 28, 29 

Slesman {kapha dosa), 4 

£lipada (filanasis), 37, 226, 

Snayu (tendons and liga- 
ments), 87 

Snehapana (oleation therapy), 

Snigdha (unctuous), 3, 9 

Sodhana (cleansing), 4, 91 
(processing), 88 
(which helps in cleansing), 

J§oma (one of the two princi- 
ples responsible for cold), 9 

Sonita pitta (a disease 
characterised by bleeding 
from different parts of the 
body), 64, 304, 396 

Sopha (oedema), 26 28, 30, 
33, 37, 48, 64, 76, 79, 81, 
86, 95, 107, 126, 143, 
150, 168, 189, 191, 194, 
204, 205, 206, 426 

Sosa (consumption), 47, 48, 51, 
173, 263, 268, 396, 412 
(phthisis), 71 
(dryness^, 353 

£asana (depletion), 6 
(dryness), 5 
(drying), 7, 55, 245, 353 

Sotha (oedema), 4, 15, 20, 29, 
43,44, 49, 51, 55, 56, 57, 
58, 62, 65, 68, 69, 136, 
164, 174, 175, 206, 250, 
273, 328 

Spharangi (dazzling), 77 

Sphota , (pustular eruptions), 

Srama (physical fatigue), 1 72, 

227, 299, 333, 362, 381-82 

(exhaustion), 7 
Sramsana (laxative) 29, 66 
Sravana (ears), 68 
Sravaria (July-August), 224 
Srotorodha (obstruction to the 

channels of circulation), 168 
Srsta mala (which eliminates 

waste products), 122 
Srta sila (cooled after boiling), 

Stabdha (compact), 77 
Stambha (rigidity), 36 

(power of retention), 189, 


(constipative), 8 

(which causes retention), 

353, 414 
Stana roga (diseases of the 

breast), 421 
Stanya (lactation), 3,5 

(galactogogue), 47 
Sthairya (steadiness), 246 
Sthairya kara (producing 

steadiness), 143 
Sthaulya (adiposity), 5, 232 

(obesity), 3, 138 
Sthavara (those who do not 

move, like vegetable king- 
dom, stone etc.), 97 
Sthira (stable), 214 

(which produces stability), 

Stimita kosfha (absence of 

peristaltic movement in the 

intestine), 227 



Sudra (one of the four castes), 

"84, 89, 99 
Sudurgandha (foul smell), 79 
Sukra (semen), 4, 416 
iukra dosa (vitiation of 

semen), 426 
Sukrala (spermatopoetic), 39, 

Sukra meha (spermaturia), 426 
Sukrasmari (stone in the semi- 
nal tract), 249 

Suksma (subtle), 30, 78, 122, 

.Sukumara (fender), 139 
£ula (colic pain), 15, 23, 25, 35, 
37, 39, 44, 45, 63, 64, 74, 
76, 78, 79, 81, 101, 124, 
125, 150, 168, 181, 190, 
202, 204, 205, 206, 230, 
305, 306, 356, 378, 379, 
416, 418, 421 
Suska kasa (dry cough), 273 
Susruta (the author of an 
ayurvedic classic— Sus'ruta 
samhita), 165, 176, 247, 
410, 420 

Suvarnaghna (which reduces 
gold into bhasma form), 88 

Svadu (sweet), 1 55 

paka (sweet in vipakd), 14 

Svadvamla (both sweet & sour 
in taste), 155, 156 

Svapna (sleep), 210 

JSvarya (promoter of good 
voice), 28, 30 

£vasa (asthma), 3, 15, 33, 34, 
37, 43, 45, 46, 51, 61, 63 
65, 66, 68, 75, 80, 95, 108, 

126, 136, 150, 157, 167, 
173, 175, 181, 194,205,207, 
227, 229, 246, 249, 261, 267, 
309, 312, 313, 372,~ 377, 
378, 398,' 415; 425 

Svasand (asthma), 268 , 

Svayathu (oedema), 228 

Sveda (excessive sweating), 55, 
60, 63, 65, 74 

Sveda daurgandhya (foul smell 
because of excessive sweat- 
ing), 59 

Sveta dvfpa (name of a mytho- 
logical island), 93 

Svitra (leucoderma), 76, 101, 
102, 107, 137, 168, 204 

Talu (palate), 68 
Tamaka (asthma), 227 
Tamasika (caused by one of 

the three attributes of mind 

i.e. tamas), 197 

Tandra (drowsiness), 210, 211, 

Tandri (drowsiness), 68 
Tdpa (excessive heat), 73 

(burning sensation), 94 
Tarpana (refreshing), 300 
Tejas (semen), 89 

(power), 97 
TTksna (sharp), 9 

(sharpness), 98 
Tikta (bitter), 2, 30, 188 
Timira (cataract), 4, 1 75 
Trotanaksama (difficult to 

break), 77 
Tripura (name of a demon), 72 
Trptikara (which causes satis- 
faction), 384 


Materia Medico- 

Tr?d (morbid thirst), 7, 66, 
107, 168, 211, 230, 302, 
303, 313, 359, 381 

Trsna (morbid thirst), 25, 103, 
133, 158, 162, 191, 217, 
318, 333, 360, 365, 372, 

Trt (morbid thirst), 4, 5, 6, 18, 
23, 41, 42, 59, 63, 64, 65, 
67,133,231,299, 365,367 

Turn (a diseases characterised 
by acute pain in intestine, 
amis and phallus), 378 

Tvagamaya (diseases of skin), 
38, 67, 423 

Tvagdosa (skin diseases), 24, 
55, 56, 60, 65 

Tvak roga (ordinary skin 
diseases), 426 

Tvak sosa (emaciation or dry- 
ness of skin), 48 

XJdara (obstinate abdominal 
diseases including ascitis), 
15, 26, 27, 28, 37, 40, 56, 
58, 64, 74, 81, 85, 86, 95, 
160, 168, 194, 204, 205, 
206, 207, 228, 230, 328 

Udavarta (upward movement 
of wind in abdomen), 21 
(tymphanitis), 181 
(flatulence), 201, 367 

Udgdra (eructation), 125 

Ulka (meteor), 72 

Una (devoid), 32 

Unmada (insanity), 71 , 95, 102, 
173, 175,207, 263 

Upadhija (artificial), 91 

Urah ksata (phthisis), 339, 398 
Ural?, sandhana (which heals 

the wound in the chest), 150 
Urdhvaga rdkta pitta (bleeding 

through various orifices in 

the head), 227 
Urdhva svasa (dyspnoea), 412 
Urustambha (which produces- 

immobility of thigh), 246 
Usmd (excessive hot feeling),. 

Usna (hot), 9 20, 188 
Usna virya (hot in potency 30 
Utkledana (stickiness), 79 

(production of stickiness in*. 

the body), 74 
Utklesa (nausea), 6 
Utplusta (burnt), 371 

Vddhirya (deafness), 257 
Vagbhata (name of the author 

of one of the ayurvedic 

classics), 185 
VahiJy. sita (cooling from 

outside), 4 
Vahni (heat), 214 
Vahni dosa (one type of im- 
purity in mercury), 91 
Vaisakha (April-May), 224 
Vaisvarya (hoarseness of voice),. 


(impairment of voice), 66 
Vaisya (one of the four castes), 

89, 99 
Vajra (thunder), 82, 83, 84 
Vajrl (Indra), 82 
Vail (premature wrinkling),. 

5, 69 
Valkala (outer layer), 55 



Fowi (vomiting), 37, 108, 227, 

Vanga dosa (a type of impu- 
rity in mercury), 91 

Vanti (vomiting), 52, 74 

Vara lekhana (exceedingly de- 
pleting), 71 

Varcograha (retention of 
stool), 206 

Varna (complexion), 52 

Varnya (promoter of comple- 
xion), 28, 69, 103 

Vasa (muscle fat), 6, 185, 186, 

Vasti (urinary bladder), 127 
(enema), 180 

Vasti ruk (pain in bladder), 86 

Vastra (cloth), 234 

Vasuki (name of the serpent 
god), 75 

Vata (one of the three dosas. 
It is responsible for all 
movements & sensations in 
the body), 9, 10, 18, 19, 
21, 25, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 
35, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43 
44, 45, 48, 52, 53, 55, 56, 
58, 61, 66, 73, 87, 94, 101, 
107, 122, 123, 131, 143, 146, 
155, 160, 164, 182, 184, 
185, 214, 245, 246, 252, 
267, 269, 324, 332, 333, 
335, 336, 379 

Vata (flatus), 246 

Vatakrt (aggravator of vata), 

Vdtdmaya (disease caused by 
the vitiation of vdyu), 65 

Vata rakta (gout), 52, 67 

Vdtdsra (gout), 30, 55 

Vdtdsrk (gout), 21, 181 

Vayasya (promoter of longe- 
vity), 78 

Vdyu (one of the three dosas v 
It is responsible for all 
movements & sensations in 
the body), 3-10, 15, 17,19, 
22, 24-6, 29, 34, 35, 
36-38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 
45, 46, 47, 50, 51, 55-7, 
59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 67, 76, 
78, 80, 95, 99, 101, 104 
105, 106, 109, 110, 
123, 125, 126, 127-29, 


132, 137, 




146-50,. 152, 155, 



160, 162, 




173, 174, 180, 181-84, 


190, 191, 




195, 196, 




204, 205, 




214, 215, 216-20, 



229, 230, 




248, 249, 




259, 260, 262-64, 



268, 269, 




274, 275, 




280, 286, 




290, 292, 




299, 300, 




304, 305, 




310, 312, 




316, 317, 




26, 327, 328 




332, 333, 




339, 340, 




356, 357, 




267, 368, 




Materia Medica 

377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 
383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 
395, 398, 410-12, 414, 417- 
24, 425, 427 

Vedhana (a specific method of 
• processing of gold), 70 

Vibandha (constipation), 4, 15, 
33, 35, 37, 63, 123, 125, 
194, 202, 306, 356, 379 

Vidaha (burning sensation), 74 

~Viddhin (burning sensation), 
43,148, 181 

Vidaraija (which causes per- 
foration), 124 

Vidhamana (stimulation), 162 

Vidradhi (abscess), 43, 77, 227 

Vigrahavdn (in a corporeal 
form), 97 

Vijaya (victory), 13 

yindhya (name of a mountain), 

.Vipadikd (cracking of the sole 
ofthefeet) 3 59, 63 

JVipaka (taste that emerges after 
digestion), 2, 10, 18, 20, 28, 
30, 33, 34. 35, 36, 38, 40, 
42, 56,61,62,67, 107, 109, 
110 123, 128, 137, 138, 
154, 157, 160, 161, 174, 
180, 181, 184, 188, 194, 
199, 218, 220, 241, 247, 
249, 251, 252, 253, 259, 
261, 263, 267, 272, 273, 
277, 278, 288, 290, 293, 
340, 341, 342, 386, 408 

Vipra (brahmin caste), 84, 99 

iVirasa (not tasteful), 196 

Vlrya (potency), 2, 9, 19, 233, 

Visa (poisoning), 6, 22, 23, 27, 
43, 47, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 
59, 61, 62, 65, 71, 85, 86, 
87, 88, 104. 105, 106, 107, 
108, 109, 111, 133, 136, 
138, 174, 175, 204, 205, 
225, 227, 230, 280, 299, 
306, 324, 325, 331, 332, 
342, 353, 365, 380, 395, 
414, 415 

(poison), 69, 91, 97, 98, 
99, 101, 102, 103, 417, 
419, 421, 423, 426, 427 

Visada (sorrow), 97 

Visada (non-slimy), 28, 30, 51, 
78, 100, 125, 196, 214, 217, 
220, 250, 287, 304, 307, 
317,341, 361 

Visa dosa (poisoning), 52, 91 

Visamajvara (malarial fever), 
15,20, 48,88 

(irregular fever), 150, 168, 

Visarpa (erysipelas), 4, 5, 22 
49, 54, 55. 59, 63, 65, 69, 
103, 159, 280 

Viskira (meat of gallina- 
cious birds), 257, 261, 269 

Visosana (excessively drying), 55 

Visphota (postules), 9, 67 

(pustular eruptions), 53, 60, 
103, 184 

Visphulinga (fire particles), 82 

Visra (foul smelling), 225 

Vistambha (impairment of the 
peristaltic movement of the 
colon), 123 



Vistambhi (flatulence), 158 

Visucika (cholera), 177 

Visuddhi (elimination therapy), 

Vit (one of tV e four castes), 84 

Vradhna (inguinal lymphadeni- 
tis), 26 

Vrana (ulcer), 15, 20, 22, 30, 
36, 45, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 
56, 58, 59, 60, 63, 64, 69, 
85, 87, 101, 104, 105, 181, 
184, 228 

Vrana sodhana (cleansing of 
ulcers), 102 

Vranya (useful in the treatment 
of ulcers), 60 

Vfddha Susruta (name of a 
sage), 224 

Vrsya (aphrodisiac), 29-31, 33-5 

Vrtra (name of a demon), 82 

Vyavayi (a substance whose 
digestion and metabolism 

take place after it has per- 
vaded all over the body), 
123, 179 

Yakrt (diseases of liver), 58, 67" 
Yaksma (tuberculosis), 280 
Yogavahin (which enhances the 
efficacy of other drugs 
when mixed), 90, 95, 99, 
Yoni (female genital tract), 175 
Yoni dosa (diseases of the- 
female genital tract), 58,. 
69, 174, 444 
Yoni siila (pain in female geni- 
tal tract), 107 
Yonyarti (pain in female geni- 
tal tract), 54 
Yuka (lice), 32 

Yusa (soup), 377, 379, 380^ 
381, 387, 394, 395, 402 


(Drugs & Diet described in this Text) 

Abalguja, 439 

Abhaya, 423 

Abhisyanda, 384 

AbhraQca) (mica), 82-6, 531 

sattva of, 402 
Adagake, 262. 
Adhaki (Cajanus cajan 

Millsp.), 249 
Adya puspaka, 437 
Agaru, 444 
Agastya (Sesbania grandiflora 

Pers.), 110, 551 
Agnika, 428 

Agnimantha, 413-14, 425, 444 
Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha 

Roxb.), 61, 182, 417, 431, 

Ahastim, 336 
Ahirhsra (Capparis sepiaria 

Linn.), 51,403 
Airavata, 304 
Aja gandha, 421, 428, 500 
Aja gandhz, 484 
AjajT, 416 

Aja karna, 413, 547 
Ajamoda (a), 416, 421, 499 
Aja srngi, 413 
Jkhu, 408 
Aksa, 260, 439 
Aksika, 194-95 
Aksota, 570 
JT/a, 430 

,4/<5£w, 438 

nalika, 333 
.4/a/-&a, 443-44, 415 
Alavana, 415 

Aluka (dioscorea sp.), 340 
Amala, 442 

Amalaka(i), (Emblica offi- 
cinalis Gaertn.), 18-19, 159, 

161, 318, 422, 423, 439, 

Amaya, 439 
Amlaka, 1 56 
Amla vetasa (Garcinia pedun- 

culata Roxb.), 303, 403, 

439, 575 
Amlika (Tamarindus indica 

Linn.), 304, 441, 577 

kanda, 341 
Antra (mango), 299-302, 441, 


bija, 302 
Amrataka (hog plum), 302-3, 

439, 579 
Amravarta, 302 
Amrta (Tinospora cordifolia 

Miers.), 67, 431, 568 
Ananta {Cryptolepis buchanani 

Schult.), 48 
Anjana, 419 
Anjira, 570 
Aiikola, 463 
Ankura, 328 



Anna, 361 

Anupdna, 394-98 

Anu yava, 246 

Ap, 421 

Apamdrga (Achyranthes aspera 

Linn ), 57, 432, 460 
Aphuikd) (Papaver somniferum 

Linn.), 55, 491 
Aragvadha, 412, 442, 462 
Ardma sitald, 486 
Aranala, 201 
Arani, 452 
Ardraka {Zingiber officinale 

Rose), 35-6, 496 
.yfrevato, 424 
Arghya, 137 
Arista (Sapindus trifoliatus 

Linn.), 56,189, 195, 442 
Aristaka, 550 
yir/afoz, 415, 443 
Arjuna, 413, 543 
../ir/ca (Calotropis gigantea 

R. Br. ex Ait.), 27-8, 415, 

429, 442-44, 487 
Arka par ni, 402 
Arka puspT, 481 
Artagala, 413, 444, 543 
Zra, 565, 570 
Aruka, (Prunus domestica 

Linn ), 310, 334 
Aruskara (Semecarpus anacar- 

dium Linn, f.), 28, 406 
Asana (Pterocarpus marsupium 

Roxb.), 57,111, 328, 413 
Asava, 189, 195 
Asma bhedaka 414, 444 
Asmanta, 466 
Asoka, 414 
Asphota, (Vallaris solanacea 

O. Ktze.), 57 

^Jto vtfr^fl, 47-48, 433-35, 457 
Asthi samhdra (Cissus quadra- 

ngulans Linn.), 50, 487, 597 
Asva (horse), 275, 431 
Asva gandhd (Withania somni- 

fera Dunal), 46, 406, 432, 

442, 468 
Aha karna, 413, 432 
Asva mdra, 424 
Ajvattha, 68, 337, 541 
Atarusaka, 329 
Atasi (Linum usitatissimum 

Linn.), 251,427 
Aiibala, 444,. 470 
Ativisa (Aconitum heterophyl- 

lum Wall.), 25, 407, 420, 

423, 443, 477 
Atmaguptd {Mucuna pruriens 

DC), 250-51, 431 
Atyamla, 156 
Audbhida lavana, 503 
Auddalika, 138 
Avalehikd, 366 
Avalguja (Psoralea corylifolia 

Linn.), 56 
AvartakT (Helicteres isora 

Linn.), 53 

Babbula, 546 

Babhru, 260 

Badama, 568 

Badara, 299, 310, 439, 444, 

Bagull 265 
Bakula (Mimusops elengi 

Linn.), 107, 406 
Bald (Sida cordifolia Linn ), 

46, 438, 444, 469 
Bald, 512 
Bandhu jivaka, 442 


Materia Medica • 

Barhf (peacock), 277 

Baskayim, 144 

Bhadra daru, 417, 431, 444 

Bhaksa, 438 

Bhaksya, 382 

paistika, 385 

varieties of, 386-87 

virudhaka, 385 
Bhalldtaka, 403, 481 
Bhalluka, 414 
Bhangd {Cannabis sativa Linn.), 

42, 489 
Bhdrgi (Clerodendrum serratum 

Moon), 51, 415-16, 420, 

444, 472 
Bhamgi, 401 
Bhavya, 439 
Bhiruka, 129 
Bhramara, 137 
Bhrnga raja, 476 
Bhu chatra 598 
Bhu dhatrl (Phyllanthus niruri 

Linn.), 22 
5A« kanda, 341 
Bhumyamalaki, 451 
B/im nimba (Swertia chirata 

Buch.-Ham.), 22 
Bhurja, 413, 5^6 
5/zu sfrna (Cymbopogon martini 

Wats.), 41,415 
BibhitakT (Terminalia belerica 
Roxb.), 18 
Bijapuraka, 318, 573 
Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.), 

25,44, 327, 413, 425,452 
Bimba, 440 
Bimbl {Coccinia indica 

W. & A.), 308, 413, 442-43, 


Bola, 535 

Bandhu jiva, 523 

Brahma (Butea monosperma 

Kuntze), 111 
Brdhmi (Bacopa monnieri Pen- 

nell), 53, 482 
Brhad bdka, 264 
Brhati {Solarium indicurrv 

Linn), 45, 330, 412-13,. 

420, 424, 430, 440 
Brhat kantqjcdri, 455 

Cakora, 261 

Cakra marda, 475 

Cakranga, 276 

Cakra vaka, 279 

Campaka {Michelia champacw 

Linn), 106, 435, 442 
Canaka (Cicer arietinurm 

Linn.), 248 
Canakamla, 407, 439 
Canaka teka, 594 
Cap^a, 417, 439 
Candana, 59-60, 413, 418, 431 s . 

437, 444, 508 

ra&ta (Pterocarpus santali- 

nns Linn, f.), 59 

sveta (Santalum album 

Linn ), 59 
Candra kdnta, 536 
Cangeri (Oxahs corniculata- 

Linn.), 327, 439, 595 
Car a, All 

Carmakaraluka, 406 
Caru karira, 280 
Oz/a&a (tree sparow), 270, 273' 
Caturjata, 511 
Caturjdtaka, d-36 
Caturusana, 497 
Cauhdri yavani, 50O» 



Cavika {Piper chaba Hunter), 

39, 403 
Cavya, 416, 427, 497 
Cerapoti, 481 
Chagalantri, 442 
Chaga payas (goat's milk), 142 
Chaga srngi, 425 
Chatra, 137 
Chichikd, 41 
ChikkinT, 484 
Chinna ruhd, 418 
Ciccinda, 593 
Cili {Chenopodium album 

Linn.), 324 
CiJIf, 592 
Cinaka, 331 

0/\2 Mva, 328, 428 
Cirbhatt, 588 
Citraka {Plumbago zeylanica 

Linn.), 26, 161, 328, 401, 

412-13, 416, 423, 427-28, 

442, 498 
Coca, All 
Coraka, 417, 514 
Cukra, 403 
Cumbaka pdsdna, 538 

Dadhi, 154, 159, 165-66,602 
A/a (curd of goat's milk), 

asara, 158 

austrika (curd of camel's 
milk), 160 

avika (curd of sheep milk), 

kwcika, 152 
galita* 158 

gavya (curd of cow's milk) 

mdhisa (curd of buffalo's 
milk), 157 

naga (curd of elephant's 

milk), 161 

nari (curd of woman's 
milk, 160 

pupaka, 615 

vadava (curd of mare's 

milk), 160 
Dadhittha, 439 
Dadhyamla, 380, 439 
Daditna (pomegranate), 298. 

406, 419, 437, 439, 560 
Dadimamla, 380 
Dahana, 441 
Dahdbhava, 138 
Darnana, 108, 524 
.Aante iaf/ja, 504 
Danti {Baliospermum monta- 

num Muell.— Arg.),26, 401, 

428, 440, 442, 461 
Darbha, 413, 426, 490 
Daru haridra, 417, 475 

Darvi {Berberis aristata DC). 

Daia mula, 67-68, 425, 455 
Deva dali, 443, 478 
Deva daru, 470 
Deva vallabha, 107 
Dhamdrgava, 442 
Dhana, 368, 621 
Dhdnolamba, 367 
Dhanvana, 547 
Dhanvayasa. 401 
Dhanya (corns and cereals), 

348, 350 
Dhanyaka {Coriandrum sativum 

Linn.), 41-42, 420, 501 


Materia Medica 

Dhanyamla, 201-202, 380, 439 

Dhara sit a, 145 

Dharosna, 145 

Dhataki {Woodfordia fruticosa 

Kurz), 57, 110,473 
Dhattura, 444, 488 
Dhatu, 69-82 
Dhava, 413, 416, 547 
Dhuttura (Datura stramonium 

Linn.), 52 
Dhydmaka, 417 
Dindisa, 331 
Dindisa, 591 
Dirgha patrd, 129 
Dirgha pora, 129 
Dzvya, 350 
Drafoc, 309-10, 406, 419, 437- 

38, 554-55 
Dravanti, 440, 442 
Drekkd, 416 
Drona puspi, 482 
Drona puspika {Leucas cephalo- 

tes Spreng.), 51 
Dugdha, 602 

bhaksya, 612 
DMgtf/u, 48 1 
Dugdhika {Euphorbia ihymi- 

folia Linn.), 51 
Duraldbha, 401 
Durvd (Cynodon dactylon Pers.) 

55, 489 

Ekdngi, 515 

Ekasapha payas (mares milk), 

i?/a (Amomum subulatum 

Roxb.), 63, 417, 420-21, 

428, 436 
£/o va/w&a, 414, 509 

Ena (black buck), 267 
Eranda (Ricinus communis 

Linn.), 45, 412, 442, 444, 

Ervaru, 331-32, 438 
Ervaruka (Cucumis utihssimus 

Roxb.), 333 

Gairika (red ochre). 100, 532 
Gaja (elephant), 276 
Gajapippali {Scindapsus offici- 
nalis Schott), 39, 403, 498 
Gambhari, 453 

Gana, Amalakyadi, 423 
Anjanadi, 419 
Arkadi, 415 
Brhatyadi, 420 
Darana, 428 
Eladi, 417 
Guducyddi, 420 
Handrddi, 417 
JivanTya, 459 
Kadambadi, 426 
Kakolyadi, 432 
Karanjddi, 426 
Krsnadi, 416 
Ldksadi, 424 
Muskakadi, 416 
Mustadi, 421 
Pacana, 427 
Pariisakadi, 419 
Prapidana, 428 
Rodhradi, 414 
Sdlasdradi, 413 
Sdrivddi, 418 
Surasddi, 415 
Trapvadi, 423 
Usakadi, 418 
Utpaladi, 421 



Vacadi, 417 

Varunadi, 413-14 

Vatsakadi, 421 

Vidarigandhadi, 412 
Ganda, 263 
Ganda durva, 489 
Gandha, 431 

Gandhaka (sulphur), 93, 531 
Gandha priyangu (Callicarpa 

macrophylla Vahl), 64 
Gandira, 328 
Gdngeruka, 572 
Garutman, 96 
Gauda, 262 
Gauda pdsana, 538 
Gaurai, 262 
Gaura sastika (a variety of 

Oryza sativa Linn.), 241 
Gavddani, 48 
Gavaksi, 428, 442 
Ghana, 150 
Ghantola, 280 
Ghee, 173-77 

of buffalo milk, 173 

of camel milk, 174 

of cow milk, 173 

of elephant's milk, 174 

of goat's milk, 1 73 

of mare's milk, 174 

of sheep milk, 174 

of woman's milk, 175 
Ghola, 165 

bhakta, 362 
Ghrta, 349, 603 

manda, 176 

pakva bhaksya, 612 

pura, 383, 613 
Gilodya, 438 
Giri karni(kd), (CHtoria terna- 

tea Linn.), 51, 443, 485 

Go (cow), 275 

Godhd, (inguand), 279 

Godhuma, (Triticum aestivum 

Linn.), 201, 246, 253, 428, 

bhaksya, 611 
Gojihvakd (Launaea aspleni- 

folia Hook f.), 326 
Goksura, 424, 438, 454 
Gomeda, 96, 536 
Gopa, 440 
Ghonta, 412 
Gorocana (ox bile), 102-3, 

Granihika, 416 
Granthiparna(i), 404, 515 
(Mra, 428 

nakhi, 426 
Grisma sundara, 335 
Grnjana, 595, 597 
Grnjanaka (Daucus carota 

Linn.), 35 
Guda (molasses), 131-32, 158, 

167, 407, 427, 442 

bhaksya, 383 

yukta, 611 
Guduci, 329, 412-13, 420, 452 
Guggulu {Commiphora mukul 

Engl.), 28-31, 417-18, 515 
Gundrd (Typha elephantina 

Roxb.), 48, 414, 444 
Gunja, (Abrus precatorious 

Linn.), 51, 52, 483 

Hadahd, 260 

Halini (Gloriosa superba Linn.), 

Hamsa, 279, 408 
Harhsa pddl (Adiantum lunu- 

latum Burm.), 54, 412, 478 


Materia Medica 

Hapusa (Juniperus communis 

Linn.), 64, 501 
Harenu (Pisum arvene Linn.), 

248, 428 

Harenukd, 417 

Haridra 417, 424, 429, 431, 

435, 440 444, 475, 549 
Harina (red deer), 267 
Harita, 262, 271-72 
Harila, 262 
Harimantha, 326 
Harita, 262 
Haritaki, (Terminalia chebula 

Retz.), 12-18, 422, 442,450- 

Haritala (yellow arsenic), 87, 

428, 532 
Hasti danti (Trichosanthes brac- 

teata Voigt.), 26 
Hasti karkotika, 330-31 
Hasti karna, 445 
Hasti mada, 102 
Hasti payas, (elephant's milk), 

Haya maraka, 428 
Hayamgavma, 176 
Hemakva (Argemone mexicana 

Linn.), 27, 443 
Hema maksika, 404 
Hemantamla, 407 
Hilamocika (Enhydra fluctuans 

Lour.), 335 
Hingu {Ferula foetida Regel.), 

40, 418, 421, 443, 502 
Hingula (cinnabar), 92-93, 533 
Hingu patri,, 502 
Hira, 536 
Holaka, 622 
Hribera (Coleus vettiveroides 

K.C Jacob.), 25, 444 

Iksu (sugar cane), 128-29, 604 

Iksura, 440 

Iksu rasa (sugar cane juice), 

Iksvaku, 442 
Indari, 618 
Jndivara, 414 
Indra nila, 69 
Indra puspf, 415 
Indra varum, 442-43 
Indra yava, 412, 465 
Ihgudi, 443, 445, 548 

Jagala, 190-91 

Jala, 602 

Jala pippali (Lippia nodiflora 

Mich.), 39 
Jala vetasa, 544 
Jambava, 195 
Jambira (Citrus limon 

Burm. f.), 42, 305, 439 
Jambiraka, 575 
Jambu (jamun fruit), 307, 441, 

Jap a, 417, 523 
Jata mdmsT, 512 
Jati (Jasminium grandiflorum 

Linn.), 104, 405, 429, 520 
Jati kosa, 62 

patri, 509 

phala (Myrstica fragrans 

Houtt), 61, 437, 509 
Jaya (Sesbania sesban Merr.), 

Jayanti (Sesbania sesban 

Merr.), 52 
Jaya pala (Croton tiglium 

Linn.), 26, 461 
Jhinfa, 441 
Jimuta, 417 



Jimiitaka, 442 

Jingini (Lannea grandis Engl.), 

Jingini, 402, 414, 547 
Jira (krsna), 499 
Jiraka {Cuminum cyminum 

Linn.), 40, 421 
Jiraka (svetd), 499 
Jivaka, 47, 406, 412, 418, 433, 

Jivantaka, 591 
Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata 

W. & A.), 323, 418, 441, 

Jyotismati (Celastrus panicula- 

tus Willd.), 53, 442-43, 470 

Kaca, 101, 538 

Kaca lavana, 504 

Kacchapa (tortoise), 276 

Kacchura, 444 

Kadali {Mitsa paradisiaca 

Linn.), 310,414, 438, 444, 


kanda t 340 
Kadamba (whistling teal), 279 
Kadamba {Anthocephalus cada- 

mba Miq.), 107-8, 414, 

426, 543 
Kadambaka, 276 
Kadambari, 190-91 
Kadara {Acacia suma Buch. 

Ham.), 57, 413 
Kakadani, 445 
•Kaka jangha {Peristrophe bica- 

lyculata Nees.), 325, 477 
Kaka mdci {Solatium nigrum 

Linn.), 325, 415, 477 
Kakdnda, 250-51 

Kakaru, 332 

Kakkola, 405 

Kakoli, 47, 406, 418, 433, 456 

Kala, 413 

Kalaka, 438, 444 

Kalama, 242 

Kalambuka {Ipomoea reptans 
Poir.), 335 

Kalambusd, 441 

Kaldnusari, 431 

i&z/a iafoj {Corchorus capsula- 
rs Linn ), 328, 592 

Kalasi, 417 ' 

Kalaya {Lathyrus sativus Linn.), 
teka, 594 

Kdleyaka, 444 

Kalhara, 406, 421, 444. 519 

KaliharT, 488 

Kdlinga, 331, 587 

Kdliyaka, 413 

jO/<z ma/a, 415 

Kamala {Nelumbo nucifera 

Gaertn.), 103 

kesara, 519 
Kdmbalika, 379 
Kamcata, 327 
Kamkola, 510 
Kamkustha, 465 
Kampilldka, 442, 461 
Kdmsya (brass), 78, 530 
Kanaka phala, 442 
Kdncanara, 446 
Kdncani, 489 
Kdndeksu, 130, 426 
Kdnjika, 200, 202, 439 
Kanka, 428 
Kankola {Piper cubeba Linn. 

f.), 61,437 


Materia Medica 

Kantakdri(ka) (Solarium xan- 
thocarpum Schrad. & Wen- 
die.), 45, 401, 412. 420 

Kanfaki, 412 

Kanta lauha, 402 

Kantara, 129 

Kantareksu, 129 

Kapala, 432 

Kapardikd, 537 

Kapi kacchu, 438, 480 

Kapinjala, 261 

Kapittha (wood apple), 161, 
307, 579 

Kapittha patri, 579 

Kapota (dove), 272, 277-78, 

Kapota yanks, , 414 

KaraharT, 548 

Kara marda, 578 

Kara mardaka(Carissa carandus 
Liim.), 303 

Karanja (Pongamia pinna ta 
Merr.), 56, 412, 415, 426, 
442-43, 549-50 

Karavellaka (Momordica 

charantia Linn.), 330, 590 

KaravelliQca), 440, 443 

Karavi (Carum carvi Linn.), 

40, 440 
Karavira, 52, 428, 440, 443, 

Karbudara (Bauhinia purpurea 

Linn.), 109, 442 
Karciira, A31, 444, 515 
Kardit&ksa, 264 
Karikana, 402 
KariraQca), 310, 440, 595 
Karkandhu, 299, 310 
Karkata fyngf, 418, 471 

Karkati(ka), 438, 588 

Karkotaka, 590 

Karkoti(ka), 330, 331, 440 

Karma ranga, 577 

Karpasa, 486 

Karpasi, 444 

Karpura (Cinnamomum cam- 

phora Nees & Eberm.), 62, 

404, 405, 435, 437, 507 
Karuna, 104, 305, 439 
Kasa, 414, 426, 489 
Kasa mardafjcd) (Cassia occi- 

dentalis Linn ), 324-25, 415, 


Kaseru(ka), 438, 599 
Kasis(s)a (iron sulphate), 101, 

418, 428-30, 432, 533, 
Kasman(yd) (Gmelina arborea 

Linn), 44, 310, 406, 425, 

phala, 418 
Kas}ha patala, 453 
Kastheksu, 129 
Kasthodumbara, 542 
Kasturl (musk), 60, 405, 437, 

440, 507 
Kafabhi, 440 
Kataka, 438, 441 

p/ia/a, 419 
Kathara, 261 
XatfWzf, 403 
Katphala (Myrica nagi Thunb.), 

63, 414-15, 419, 424, 472 

Kattrna (Cymbopogon citratus 
Stapf.), 61 

Katukd (i) (Picrorhiza kurroa 

Royle ex Benth.), 21, 421, 

Kafu rohini, 429 

Katu tumbl, 332. 588 



KauntJ (Vitex agnus-castus 

Linn.), 58 
Kara maidaka, 426 
Kayamba, 265 
Keld, 569 
Kesara, 306, 419 
Ketaka{i) {Pandanus tectorius 

Soknd. ex Parkinson), 106, 

Kevuka, 331 
Keyu, 598 
Khada, 379 

Khadira {Acacia catechu 
Willd.), 22, 413, 545 
Khanda (sugar candy), 132, 

204, 407 

Khanddmalaka, 607 

Khandamra, 607 

Kha prasuta, 439 

Khar&hvd {Apium graveolens 

Linn.)., 41 
Khar a puspa, 415 
Kharbuja, 567 
Kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris 

Roxb.), 311, 342,437 
Kharjuraka, 438 
Kharjuri {Phoenix dactylifer 

Linn.), 311 
Kharjurikd, 558 
Khar par a (zinc ore), 88 
Khasa khasa, 490 
Khasa tila, 55 
Khatiks, 538 
Khukhundaka, 338 
Khurasani yavani, 490 
jKi/^a, 152 
Kimkini, 564 
Kimsuka (Butea monosperma 

Kuntze), 56, 432 

Kinihi, 442-43 
Xwva, 427, 430 
Kinmka, 190-91 
Kirata, 412 
-Kimta rtfcta, 329, 464 
Kiska, 432 

isWa, 428 

Kodrava, 201 

Kokanda, 444 

Kokildksa {Astercantha longi- 

folia Nees), 52, 485 
Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Lam ), 

Kola simbi, 591 
■Rjona dusa {Paspalum scorbi- 

culatum Linn.), 245 
Kosa kara, 103 
Kosa krt, 129 
Kos&mra (Schleichera oleosa 

Men.), 304, 318, 439, 581 
Kosa phala, 440 
Kosataki (Luffa acutangula 

Roxb.), 53, 430, 443, 589 
Kovidara (Bauhinia variegata 

Linn ), 109, 442 
Krakara, 261 
Kramuka, 413 
Krsna, 416, 423 
Krsna gandhd (a variety of 

«grw) 3 43 
Krsnaguru, 508 
Krsna karkata (black crab), 

•Kwrta loha, 423 
-Krta vedhana, 442 
Ksara, 401, 505 
Ksaudra, 136 
Ksavaka, 415, 426 
jdfra, 349 
.Ksihz kdkoli, 418, 456 


Materia Medlca 

Ksira morata, 438 
KsTra palandu, 596 
KsTra par pat j, 385 
Ksira phena, 150 
KsTra slka, 152 
Ksi{i)ri, 308, 562, 606 
Ksirl vfksas, 431 
Ksudra sahd, 412 
Ksudra varsabhu, 468 
Ksudra sveta, 415 
KuberaksT, 444 

Kubjaka {Rosa moschata 
Herrm), 105 

Kucandana, 413, 418, 444 
Kukkurunda, 53 
' Kukkuta (cock), 271 
Kukkuta mastaka, 402 
Kukkutanda, 432 
Kulahala {Blumea balsamifeia 

DC), 52,415 
Kulattha {Dolichos biflorus 

Linn.), 249, 444 

vfl/rya, 249 
Kulmdsa, 387, 619 
Kumari {Aloe barbadensis 

Mill.), 67, 440, 488 
Kumbha sarpi, 177 
Kumkuma {Crocus sativus 

Linn.), 60, 417, 437, 509 
Kumuda {Nymphaea alba 

Linn.), 103, 109, 421 

fa»t<&, 341 
Kunda, 523 
Kundalika, 618-19 
Kunduru{ka), 417, 515 
Kurantaka, All 
Kurantika, 414 
Kuruvinda, 432 
-RTwia, 414, 426 

Kusmanda {Cururbita pepo 

Linn), 331-32, 438, 587 
Kusmandaka, 331 
Kusmanda nadi, 333 
Kustha {Saussurea lappa C.B. 

Clarke), 61, 402, 403, 417, 

435, 444, 471 
Kusumbha {Carthamus inctorius 

Linn.), 251, 336 
Ku\aja {Holarrhena antidysen- 

tetica Wall.), 23-24, 412, 

417, 424, 442, 465 

p/za/a, 420 
Kufannafa, 414 
Kutheraka, 524-25 

Laghu badara, 561 

Laghu kantakari, 455 

Laghu samkha, 101, 537 

La/a, 367, 621 

Lajjalu {Mimosa pudica Linn.), 

58, 479 
LaArra (Lac), 49, 424, 443, 517 
Laksmana, 403, 487 
Lakuca (monkey fruit), 303, 

439, 566 
Lamajjaka, 445 
Langala, 428 
Langalaki, 445 
Langalf, 402, 439 
Lapsika, 616 
Lasuna, 443, 596 
Z.<2/<2 kastHrikd {Hibiscus abel- 

moschus Linn.), 63 
Lau/za, 404, 513 
Lava (common quail), 269 
Lavaka (common quail), 279 
Lavall, 582 
Lavana, 349, 443 



Lavanga (Syzygium aromaticum 

Merr. & L.M.), 63, 405, 

437, 439, 510 
Lingi, 442 
Lodhra (Symplocos cratae- 

goides Buch -Ham.). 49, 

431-32, 442, 478 

savara {Symplocos race- 

mosa Roxb ), 49 
Loha (iron), 78-82 

mala, 423 
Lomka, 593 

Madana (Randia dumetorum 

Lam.), 64, 412, 416, 442 

phala, 465 
Madhavl {Eiptage benghalensis 

Kurz) 104, 522 
Madhu (honey), 135, 443, 605 
Madhiicchista, 605 
Madhuka (jGlycyrrhiza glabra 

Linn ), 49 

Madhuka {Madhuca indica J F. 

Gmel.), 109, 312-13, 406, 

418-21, 438, 443, 565 

puspa, 418 
Madhu karkati(ka) (sweet 

lime), 306, 574 
Madhuka sara, 442 
Madhulaka, 190, 192 
Madhu pupaka, 614 
Madhu rasa, 416 
Madhu sarkara, 133 
Madhu sigru (a variety of 

sigru), 43, 413 
Madhu sirsaka, 383, 614 
Madhu yasti, 458 
Madhvdsava, 194 

Madya (alcoholic drinks), 188, 

443, 604 

gauda, 193 

khdrjura, 192 
Mahd bald {Sida rhombifolia 

Linn.), 46, 469 
Mahd ghrta, 111 
Mahd jallni, 476 
Mahd kosataki, 589 
Mah&medd, 418, 457 
Mahd nimba (Melia azedarach 

Linn.), 23, 464 
Mahd saha, All 
Mahd sugandhi, 437 
Mahd sveta, 415 
Mahd vrksa, 442 
Mahisa payas (buffalo milk), 

Majjd (bone marrow), 185-86 
Mdksika, 136-37, 404, 532 
Makustha (Phaseolus aconiti- 

folius Jacq ), 248 
Mdlati (Aganosma dichotoma 

K. Schum), 54, 424, 431, 

Mdlavaka, 571 
Mallikd (Jasmlnum sambac 

Ait), 104, 110 
Mdmsa (meat) 256-66, 348, 


Aniipa (marshy land ani- 
mals), 257-58 

Gramya (domesticated 

animals), 263 

asva, 263 

chdga, 263 

mesa, 263 

vrsa, 263 

Guhdsaya (animals dwelling 

in caves). 260 


Materia Medica 

aksa, 260 

babhru, 260 

dvipin, 260 

jambuka, 260 

marjara, 260 

rksa, 260 

simha, 260 

taraksu, 260 

vrfca, 260 

vydghra, 260 

JangaJa (animals of dry 

land forests), 257-63 

Janghala, 258-59 

e?ja, 258 

harina, 258 

krtamala, 259 

kuranga, 258 

mr^a matrka, 258 

Pfsatf, 258 

rajiva, 258 

/■&#*, 258 

sarabha, 258 

svadamspa, 258 

vapracura, 258 

vatdyu, 259 

vfnJw citraka, 259 

viiruta, 259 

Kosastha (animals dwelling 

in shells), 265 

bhalluka, 265 

sambuka, 265 

sasaka, 265 

sukti, 265 

vinaka, 265 

Kulecara (animals who live 

near water), 263-64 

camari, 263-64 

£0«<fo, 263-64 

/u%a, 263-64 

varaha, 263 

varana, 263 

Matsya (fish), 266 

rohita, 266 

Padin (265-66) 

ghantikd, 265-66 

karkata, 265-66 

Arsna karkata, 265-66 

kumbhira, 265-66 

kurma, 265-66 

nakra, 265-66 

sisumara, 265-66 

Parna tnrga, 260-61 

vanaukd, 260 

vr&fa marjara, 260 

vrfcsa markafika., 260 

P/tfvct (animals who swim 

in water), 64-65 

6a£a, 264 

balakd, 264-65 

harhsa, 264 

kacaksa, 264 

kadamba, 264 

krauhca, 264 

«c«iif mukhi, 264 

sarasa, 264 

sasdrikd, 265 

Prasaha (animals & birds 

who eat by snatching), 262-63 

Marcr. 262 

casfl, 262 

a*//w, 262 

grdhra, 262 

/ca/co, 262 

kurara, 262 

s'tfia ghdtin, 262 

uluka, 262 

Pratuda (packer birds), 262 

/writa, 262 



kdla kanthaka, 262 

kapota, 262 

khanjarifa, 262 

pika, 262 

sarika, 262 

sata patra, 262 

Vilesaya (animals who live 

in burrows in earth), 259-60 

akhu, 259 

bhujanga, 259 

godhd, 259 

sasa, 259 

Viskira (gallinacious birds), 


cakora, 261 

kapinjalaka, 261 

krakara, 261 

lava, 261 

tittira, 261 

vartikd, 261 

vikira, 261 
Mdmsa rasa, 372 
Mdmsa rohinl, 487 
Mamsi, 417, 435 
Manah sila(d) (realgar), 88, 

428, 432, 532 
Manaka (Alocasia indica 

Schott), 340 
Mana kanda, 403, 598 
Manda, 154-55, 166 
Manda, 355 

asta guna, 357 

dhanya, 356 

laja, 355-56 

rakta sali, 356-57 

sarva dhanya, 379 

vatya, 356 

jova, 379 
Mandaka, 610 

Manduka parnl (Centella asialica 

Urban), 326 
Manduki, 440 
Mandura, 531 
M<7«/, 96 
Manikya, 536 
Manjistha, {Rubia cordifolia 

Linn.), 49, 444, 474 
Mantha, 366, 619-20 
ManusT payas (woman's milk), 


Marakata, 537 
Mardvika, 192 
Marica {Piper nigrum Linn.), 

38, 167, 422, 443, 497 
Markata, 440 
Markava (Eclipta alba Hassk.), 


Mdrusa, 334 

Maruvaka, 524 

Atoa (Phaseolus mungo Linn ), 

249-50, 253, 336, 428 

aranya, 250 

bhaksya, 611 
M<&a parni {Teramnus labialis 

Spreng,), 46, 418, 458 
Masfu, 161-62 
Masiira (Lens culinaris Medic), 

248, 406, 408 
Mathita, 165 
Matsya (fish), 286-93 

ali, 288 

balanga, 289 

bhdskara, 289 

burnt, 291 

dirgha tundaka, 289 

dry, 291 ' 

eggs of, 291 

gargabha, 290 


Materia Medica 

illisa, 289 

irhbika, 290 

irhvaka, 290 

krsna matsya, 288 

madgura, 288 

nandikd varta, 287 

nandl varta, 289 

pathina, 287 

pond, 292 

prostika, 289 

pri>«, 288 

putnfied, 291 

river, 292 

rohita, 287 

ia&w/tf, 287, 290 

sailindhu, 290 

sea, 292 

small, 290 

srngi, 287-88 

well, 293 
Matsyandi (ka), 132, 407 
Matuluhga (citron), 305, 439 
Matulungi, 443 
Mayika, 473 
Mayuraka, 415, 430 
Mayura sikha, 487 
Meia, 47, 406, 418, 433, 456 
Medaka, 190-91 
Jlf«fos, 185 
Mesa (sheep), 274-75 
Mesa srngi, 413, 440, 443-44, 

Methi, 499 
Meihika (Trigonella foenum- 

graecum Linn.), 325 
Milk, 406 
Misreyd, 499 
Moca (Musa paradisiaca Linn. 

var. sapientum Kuntze), 


Moca rasa, 484 
Modaka, 327, 617 
Morata, 151-52, 413-14 
Mrdvika (Vitis vinifera Linn.), 

309, 418 
Mrnala, 520 
Muca (u)kunda (Pterospermwn 

acerifolium Willd ), 110, 523 
Mudga (Phaseolus radiatus 

Linn.), 247-48, 406, 441 

krsna, 247 

maha, 247 

supa, 159 

vanya, 248 

jhso, 376 
Mudga parni (Phaseolus trilobus 

Ait), 46, 418,458 
Muktd, 96, 407, 438, 535 
Muktd sukti, 407 
Mulaka (Raphanus sativus 

Linn.), 335-36, 427, 439, 595 
Mula kapotikd, 335 
Mundi (Sphaeranthus indicus 

Linn.), 54 
Mundinl, 267-68 
Muhja, 490 
Munjdtaka, (Orchis latifolia 

Linn.), 339, 445 
Afwra, 435 

Murvd, 402, 412, 420, 441, 444 

Musaka (mouse), 280 
Musali (Chlorophytum tubero- 
sum Baker), 50, 341, 479, 

Muskaka, 416, 548 
Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.) 

25, 407, 421, 423, 435, 



Mutra (urine), 204-208 

buffalo's, 206 

camel's, 206-207 

cow's, 205 

donkey, 207 

elephant, 206 

female, 208 

goat's, 205 

horse, 206 

human, 207 

male, 208 

sheep's, 205 
Mutra krcchra (dysuria), 167 
Miitrala drugs, 438 

Naga (lead), 75-77, 530 

Naga bala (Grewia popuWolia 
Vahl), 46 

Naga damani (Artemisia vulga- 
ris Linn.), 54, 483 

Naga danti, 415 

Naga kes(s)ara (Mesua ferrea 
Linn.), 65, 436 511 

Naga puspa, 417, 419 

Ndgara (Zingiber officinale 
Rose), 36-37, 423, 427 

Naga vadhu, 441 

Naipdla, 129 

Naipali, 106 

Nakha, 517 

Nakta mala, 413 

Nakula, 260 

Ndkuli, 479 

Nala, 414, 426, 490 

Nalada, 419 

Nali, 516 

Nalina, 419 

Nandi, 542 

Naranga(i) (orange), 304-5, 574 


Narikela (coconut), 315, 342, 


Nata, 402 

NavanTta (butter), 171, 603 

mahisa, 171-72 
Nava sdraka, 439 
Nikocaka, 569 

Nilanjana (lead sulphide), 88 
Nila pora, 129 
NilT kanda, 403 
Nilinf, 442, 463 
Nilotpala, 419, 519 
Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. 

Juss.), 22, 111, 329,420, 

424, 430 

Nimba, 412, 464 

Nimbuka (lime fruit), 305, 

439, 576 
Nipa (Adina cordifolia Benth. & 

Hook, f.), 107, 299, 439 
NipdlankT, 441 
Nirgundi, 415, 440, 466 
NTrica, 334 
Nisa (Curcuma hnga Linn.), 

55-56, 403, 421, 425, 444 
Nispdva (Dolichos lablab Linn.), 


simba (type of Dolichos 

lablab Linn.), 251 

simbi (type of Dolichos 

lablab Linn.), 251 
Nivara (type of paddy), 245, 

Nyagrodha, 68, 337 
Nyanku (antelope), 268 

Padma, 337 341, 421, 438, 518 
bija, 519 
cdrini, 518 
kesara, 405 
raga, 96 


Materia Medica 

Padmaka (Primus cerasoides D. 

Don.), 60, 418, 420, 516 
Paittika, 136 
PaksTndra, 96 
Pakva tasa sidhu, 193 
Pdkya, 439 
Palala, 385 
Paldndu {Allium cepa Linn.), 

34, 596 
Palankyd (Spinacia oleracea 

Linn.), 324, 593 
Patesa, 414, 416, 546 
Pdlevaka, 571 
Palevata, 439, 571 
Pamsu lavana, 404, 503 
Panaka, 382, 608 
Panasa (jack fruit), 315-16, 

jParaco #«vya, 429 
Pancdgni, 441 
Pahca hutasana, 441 
Panca kantaka, 426 
-PoKca Jfco/fl, 39, 421, 427, 498 
Panca ksiri vrksa, 68-69 
Pahca mahisa, 428 
Pancamla, 580 
Pahca mula, 444 

kaniyas, 67-68, 424 

kantaka, 445 

ksudra, 425 

laghu, 455 

mahat, 67-68, 425, 454 

z/tzg, 444 

va//f, 445 

vallija, 425 
Pahcangula (Ricinus communis 

Linn.), 336 
Panca sugandhi, 437 

valkala, 433 

Pdnduka, 272 

Pdniya kukkuta (water cock), 

Pawfctf (m«i), 102, 538 
Pahkaja, 406 

i^racfcz (mercury), 89-92, 531 
Pdrdvata (pigeon), 272 
Panbhadra {Erythrina variegata 

Linn.), 44, 548 
Paripela, 513 
Parisa, 68 
Parpata (Fumaria parviflora 

Lam.), 23, 329, 385, 476 
Parpati, 517 
Parpatika (Physalis minima 

Linn.), 308 
Partha {Terminalia aijuna W. 

&A.), 50 
Paru(u)saka (Grewia asiatica 

Linn.), 310, 313, 412, 419, 

Pasana bheda, 472 
Patala {Stereospermum sua- 

veolensT>C),44,, 107, 242, 

412, 425, 442, 453 
Patala garuda, 491 
Patanga (Caesalpinia sappan 
Linn.), 60, 517 
Patha (Cissampelos pareira 

Linn.), 23, 412, 416, 420- 

21,428, 474 
Patika, 440 
Patola. (Trichosanthes dioica 

"Roxb.), 330, 412, 593 
PatolT, 430 
Patolikd (Trichosanthes cucu- 

merina Linn.) 333-34 
Patra, 417, 436, 442 
Patraka (Cinnamomum tamala 

Nees & Eberm), 66 



Patturd, 336 
Paundraka, 129 

sarkara, 132 
Pauskara {Inula racemosa 

Hook, f.), 65 
Pauskara (lotus seed), 339 
Payas (milk), 141 
Payasvini, 438 
Payasya, 438, 444 
Peya, 359 

P/zafo (fruit), 349, 442 
Phala trika, All 
Phalgu {Ficus hispida Linn, f.), 

Phalini {Prunus mahaleb Linn.), 

Phanijjhaka (Ocimum basilicum 

Linn.), 108, 415 
Phanita (penidium), 131 
Phanjl, 414-15 
Phenaka, 384 
Phenika, 616 
Phogo, 592 
Pilu, 299, 443, 544 
Piluka, 439 
Pindki, 338 

Pinda kharjurikd, 311-12 
Pindalu, 484, 599 
Pinddruka (Colocasia esculenta 

Schott), 340 
Pippali {Piper longum Linn.), 

37-38, 167, 195, 422, 427, 

440, 442-43, 497 

mala, 403, 427, 497 
Pista, 569 
Pita candana, 508 
Pita rohini, 100 
Pittala, 530 
Plyusa, 150, 152 
Plaksa, 68, 337, 542 

jPofl&J, 610 
Prdci bala, 415 

Pracinamalaka, 299, 439, 452 
Prakiryd, 445 
Prapaundarikd, 49, 418 
Prapidana, 428 
Prapunnad{t)a {Cassia tora 

Linn.), 56, 327, 403, 442 
Praroha (adventitous rootj, 
Prasannd, 190 
Prasara{i)ni {Paederia foetida 

Linn.), 52, 468 
Pravdla, 535 
Priyala {Buchanania lanzan 

Spreng.), 307, 318, 562 

majja, 438 
Priyangu {Setaria italica 

Beau v.), 245, 417, 419, 

431, 513 
P«af (spotted deer), 267 
PrsniparnI QJraria picta 

Desv.), 45, 401, 424, 454 
Prthak parni, All, 431 
Prthuka, 367, 622 
Pwgtf, 442 

phala, 431 
Pumjata, A01 
Punarnavd {Boerhaavia diffusa 

Linn.), 26, 190, 412. 444 
Pundarika, 516 
Punnaga, 405, 522 

kesara, All 

Pupa, 383 

Pupaka, 386 

Puskara (lotus fruit), 317 

mw/a, 403, 471 
Puspa kdsfsa, 533 
Puspdnjana, 534 
Pt/gw rogtt, 96 


Materia Medica 

Putika, 413, 428, 442 
Putranjiva, 480 

Raga sa(rf)dava, 116-11, 381, 

Rajadana, 419, 438 
Raja kosdcaki, 589 
Raja ksavaka, 326 
Raja masa {Vigna cylindrica 

Skeels), 250 
Rajamra, 580 
Raja nirhbu, 305 
Rajata, 404, 423, 439 
Raja vrksa (Cassia fistula Linn.), 

21 ,' 430 
Rajika (Brassica nigra Koch), 

41, 253, 336 
Rakta apamaiga, 460 
Rakta candana, 403 420, 508 
Rakta eranda, 459 
Rak ta punarnava, 461 
Raktotpala (Nymphaea rubra 

Roxb.), 103, 519 
Raid, 59, 514 
Ramatha, 416 
Rambhd puspa, 407 
Ramyaka, 442 
Rasa, 69 
Rasaka, 88-89 
Rasa knya, 432 
Rasala, 381 
Rasand, 415 

Rasanjana, 403, 419, 534 
Rasna (Pluchea tanceolata Olivr 

& Hiern.), 63 

(Alpinia galarrga Willd.), 
RUsna, 445, 468 

Rasona (Allium sativum Linn.), 

32-3, 439 
Ratna (jewels), 69, 96 
Rddhi, 46, 406, 418, 433, 456 
Renukd, 416, 513 
Ritikd (bell metal), 77-8 
Rodhra, 414 
Rohisa trna, 471 
Rohita, 350 
Rohitaka (Tecomella undulata 

Seem.), 58, 484 
Romaka, 439 

lavana, 503 
Ropana curna, 432 
gArta, 431 
kalka, 431 
kasdya, 430 
taz/a, 431 
v<zrtf, 431 
Rsabha, 412 

Rsabhaka, 47 412, 418,457 
.ftsja, 268 
Rucaka, 404-6 
i?«Ar, 421 
Rupya,(ka) 404, 529 

Sadusana, 39, 498 
Sahacara, 414, 444 
Sahadeva, 412 
Saileya, 513. 435 
Saindhava, 418, 430, 432, 439, 

441, 502 
Saire(i)ya (Barleria cristata 

Linn.), 52, 111, 426 
Saireyaka, 413, 485 
Saivalaka, 444 
Saka (vegetables), 323, 349, 

413, 441, 545 

j>/ja/«, 419 



Sakharika, 311, 
Sakrdhva, 440 
Sakra yava, 416 
Saktu, 427, 620-21 

canaka, 365 

/07a, 365 

sali, 365 

j<zva, 365-66 
S(S~)a!a, 414, 443, 545 
Sala{i) parni, 424, 454 
Sa/a 5<3ra, 413 
Salt, 190, 201, 438 

dhanya, 408 

ma/za, 242 

jp/5#*, 610 

rakta (Orlza sativa Linn.), 


rice, 242-43 
Sallaki, 414, 444, 548 
Salmali (Salmalia malabarica 

Schott. & Endl.), 109, 549 

Saluka, 436, 520 
Salyaka, 268-69 
Samangd, 431 

•&wm (Prosopis spicigera Linn.), 
308, 550 

Samkhim, 440, 442-43 
Sampaka, 318 
Samsodhana, 442 

gArta, 429 

vartf, 428 
Samsvedaja (mushroom), 337 
Samtarpana, 437 
Samudra, 439 

lavana, 503 
Samudra phala, 544 
Samudra phena, 535 
Samudrikodbhava sarkara, 133 
Sarhyava, 383, 613 

5Vj«<z (Crotalaria juncea Linn.), 

109, 427 
.ftzna puspi, 442, 476 
Sandaki, 202, 381 
San{m)kha (conch shell), 96, 

101, 278, 537 

£an(m)kha puspT {Convolvulus 

pluricaulis Chois), 53-54, 

440, 480-81 
Sankhini, 428, 440 
Sapta cchada, 424, 440, 442 
Saptala, 442-43 
Saptaparna, 412, 427, 549 
Sara, 161-62 
Sarad vihanga, 264 
Sarala, 431, 445, 470, 512 
Sd.ramla.ka, 575 
Sara purhkha, 486 
Sarika (shama thrush), 279 
Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus 

R. Br.), 48, 412, 418, 425, 


Sar/a rasa, 417 
Sarkara, 132 
Sarkara, 194, 407 
Sarngesfha, 412, 421 
£arpa (snake), 278 

Sarsapa (Brassica campestris 
Linn.), 253, 336, 407, 427, 
saka, 594 

Sarvausadhi, 435-36 

Sasa (hare), 268, 408 

■&#, 441 
Saskuli, 385 
Sastika, 408, 438 
Satahva, (Foeniculum vulgare 
Mill), 64 


Materia Medica 

Satala, 466 

Sata pain, 105-106 

Sata poraka, 129 

Sata pupsa, 445, 498 

Sata puspi, 439 

Satdvarl {Asparagus racemosus 

Wild.), 50, 338, 412-13, 426, 

Safi (Hedychium spicatum Ham 

ex. Smith), 61, 515 
Satina (Pimm sativum Linn.), 

248, 325 
Sattaka, 384, 609 
Saurastri (alum), 102 
Sauvarcala, 503 
Sauvira, 201, 439 
Sauvira anjana, 533 
Sauvirakdnjana, 100 
Savara rodhra, 414 
Sehunda, 463 
§(s)ephalik(a)a, 467 
Sew, 568 
Sevan", 521 
Sevya (Vetiveria zizanioides 

Nash), 60 
Shunhi, 429 
Siddhdrtha, 252-53, 407, 416 

Siddhdrthaka, 443 
SJa&u, 193, 195 
S/grw (Moringa pterygosperma 

Gaertn.), 43, 413, 427, 439, 

443, 596 
Sikhari, 401 
SikharinT, 607 
Sikthaka, 55 
&7<?, 430 
Sild jatu (mineral pitch), 94- 

96, 418, 534 

Site rasa, 509 

Silemanf kharjura, 558 

Simba, 252 

SimM, 591 

Simbi dhanya, 253 

Simha pucchi, 401 

Simsapd (Dalbergia sissoo 

Roxb.), 57, 416, 551 
Simsipd, 413 
Sindhu, 264 
Sindura (red oxide of lead), 

103, 533 
Sinduri, 524 
Sinduvara (yitex trifolia Linn.), 

Sira vara, 594 
SVrJsa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth.) 

54-55, 68, 413, 443, 543 
Sirisika, 550 
Sisa, 423 
Sitd, 407, 431 
Sffa, 444 
Sita rasa, 193-94 

£fva, 407, 444 
Skandha, 413 

Slesmdtaka (Cordia myxa 
Roxb.), 316, 544 

Snuhi (Euphorbia nerifoha 
Linn.), 27 

Snuk, 442 
Sodhana curna, 430 
kasaya, 428 

rasa kriyd, 430 

tatfa, 430 
Soma, 431 
Somalika, 618 
Soma ra/7, 403 



Soma valka, 431 

Soma valli, 478 

Sorava, 373 

Sphatika, 535 

Sphurja, 441 

Sprkkd, 417, 515 

Sravana, 432 

Sreyasi, 327 

Srgdla vinnd, 412 

iSVz khanda candana, 405 

Sri puspa, 436 

Sri vasa (Pinus roxburghii 

Sargent), 59, 512 
Srivestaka, 417 
Srngata, 438 
Srngdtaka, 599 
Srngavera, 443 
$"«£* (Pistacia integerrima 

Stew, ex Brandis), 65, .428 
Srotonjana, 100, 534 
Sthauneyaka, 417, 514 
Sthird (Desmodium gangeticum 

DC), 45 
Sthulaild, 510 
S5cz(f) patra(Jcd), 129, 130 
Sudarsand (Crinum asiaticum 

Linn.), 51 
Sudha ksara, 504 
Sugandhaka, 415 
Sugadhdmalaka, 436 
Sugar cane product, 350 
£w£r<z dhdnya, 253 
Sufca ndsahva, 439 
Suksmaild (Elettaria cardamo- 

mum Maton), 63, 510 
&/fcta (vinegar), 199 
Suktaka, 439 
&fctf, 417, 537 
Sukundali, 441 ' 

Siilika, 371 
Sumana, 440 
Sumanas, 428, 445 
Sumukha, 415, 439 
Sunisannaka (Marsilia minuta 

Linn.), 326-27, 441, 594 
Sunthiii), 167, 417, 422, 496 
Supdrl, 581 
Sara, 189, 191, 439 
Surabhi, 43 
»S«ra darM (Cedrus deodara 

Loud.), 61 
Surdhva, 439 
Surana, 341, 350, 441 
Surasa, 415, 443 
Surdsfrajd, 428 
Surya kdnta, 536 
Siiryendu, 96 
Susavi, 412, 426 
Suvarcala, 428, 433, 482 
Suvarna, 404, 529 
Suvarana ksfri, 442 
Svadamstrd, 412 414, 444. 
SvSdu, 155 
Svadu kanfaka, 440 
Svddvamla, 156 
Svarjika, 439 
SVar/i" ksara, 504 
SVar«a (gold), 70-72, 423 

bhasma, 404 
Svarna gairika, 404 
Svarna ksfri, 465 
Svarna tali, 405 
£ve*a, 415, 442 
j!?veta kamala, 518 
£Wa kantakdrl, 455 
,!>Veta marica, 100 
£veta nisotha, 461-62 
■Svefa punarnavd, 467 


Materia Medica 

Syamd, 440 

Sydmdka {Echinochloa frumen- 

tacea Link.), 245 
Syama nisotha., 462 
Syonaka, 421, 425, 453 

Tadoga, 281 

Tagara {Valeriana wallichii 

DC), 58, 402, 417, 516 
Tagara padi,, 402 
Taila (oil); 179 

aksa, 183 

danti, 182 

eranda (castor oil), 181 

jyotismati, 82-83 

kimsuka, 183 

kosSmra, 181 

ksauma (linseed oil), 180 

kusumbha, 181 

pakva bhaksya 

sahakara, 184 

sarja rasa, 184 

sdrsapa, (mustard oil), 180 

slesmataka, 183 

sri parna, 183 

tila (gingili oil), 180 

>wa tf&fa, 184 
Tafcra (butter milk), 164-69, 

439, 603 
Tdkra kurcika, 152 
Takramla, 380 
Takra pinda, 152 
7a/a (Borassus flabellifer 

Linn.), 313-15, 438, 443, 


pa frf 432, 

pralamba, 339 

iwvw, 342 
7a/a vit, 432 

Talisa patra {Abies webbiana 

Lindle.), 66 
Tdlisa, 401, 443, 511 

/?<3fra, 405, 5*45 
Tambula, 582 
T5»ira (copper), 73-74, 423, 


Tdmra cuda, 486 
Tandula pisfa, 368 
Tanduliyaka {Amaranthus spi- 

nosus Linn.), 324, 592 
Tankana, 504 
Tapasa, 129 

v/-ftsa, 415 
TdpaseksUy 129 
Tarar (silver), 72-3 
Taraksu, 260 
Tarkari, 413 
Taste, astringent, 353-54 

bitter, 353 

pungent, 353 

saline, 353 

sour, 352 

sweet, 352 
Tauvara, 195 
Teja patra, 511 
Tejavati, 470 
Tiksna lauha, 402 
TY/cta, 412 

mra, 416, 421, 440 
Tila, (Sesamum indicum Linn.), 

247, 253, 427, 430. 
Tila parnT, 327, 444 
Tilvaka, 442 
Tinduka (Diospyros tomentosa 

Roxb.), 307, 317, 564 
Tinisd (Ougeinia dalbergioides 

Bentb..), 57 
Tinisa, 413, 443 
Ttnisa, 546 



Tintidika, (Rhus parviflora 

Roxb.), 304 
Tittidlkz., 578 
Tittira, 26] 

Tittiri (partridge), 271, 
Todana, 572 
Trapu, 423 
Trapusa (Cucumis sativus 

Linn.), 331-32, 588 
Trayamana, 424, 440, 476 
Trayanti (Gentiana kuroo 

Royle), 21 
Tri kantdka (Tribulus terrestris 

Linn.), 45, 426 
Tri karsita, 423 
Tri kafu, 428 
Triphala, 19-20, 416, 419, 422, 

428, 430, 433, 441, 451 
Tri sugandhi, 437, 511 
Trivrt (Operculina turpethum 

Silva Manso), 20-21, 442 
Trna danya, 299 
Txti, 416 

Tryusana, 38, 422, 497 
TugaksTri, 66, 418 
Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum 

Linn.), 108, 524 
TumbI, 558 
Tumbvru (Zanthoxylum datum 

Roxb.), 43 
Tuni, 549 

Tusodaka, 200, 439 
Tuta, 571 
Tuttha, 436, 532 
Tutthaka (copper sulphate), 

88, 418 

Tuvaraka (Hydnocarpus wigh- 

tiana Blume), 28, 272 
Tvak, 417, 436, 510 
Tvak tikta, 306 

Udadhi mala (cuttle fish bone), 

Udakirya, 445 
Udasvit, 165-66 
Udumbara (Ficus racemosa 

Linn.), 68, 317, 337, 542 
Ugra, 421 
Ulapta, 371 
Uthvl, 622 

Unduru karnika, 415 
Upa dhatu, 69, 82-92 
Upa kuncikd {Nigella sativa 

Linn.), 40, 550 
Upa rasa, 69, 92 
Upa ratna, (costly stones), 69, 

Upa visa, (subsidiary poisons), 

69, 100 
Upodikd (Basella rubra Linn.), 

334, 593 
Urabhra payas (sheep's milk), 

Usaka, 418 
Usana, 416, 421 
Uslra, 405, 417-18, 444, 513 
Usfra payas (camel milk), 143 
Utpala (Nymphaea stellata 

Willd.), 109, 341, 406, 421, 


Utsadana,, 432 

Vaca (Acorns calamus Linn.), 
53, 417, 421, 430, 435, 
442-43, 501 

Vadama (almond), 318-19 

Vahni mantha (Clerodendrum 
phlomidis Linn, f.), 44 patra, 402 

Vaidala bhaksya, 611 

Vaidalika; 252 


Materia Medica 

Vaidurya, 96, 537 

Vaijayantika, 440 

Vaikranta, 404 

Vaji karna, 426 

Vajra, 96, 404 

Vajra vrk$a, 416 

Vaka, 107, 265 

Vakkasa, 190-91 

Vakuci, 475 

Fdtw/a, 441, 522 

Fa/5 wo/a, 486 

Valuka, 299, 317, 417, 538, 

Vami, 486 
Vamsa (Bambusa bambos 

Druce), 58, 490 
Vamsaka, 129 

Vamsa rocctna (bamboo man- 
na), 66, 502 
Vanaspati, 441 
Vanga (tin), 73 
Vandaka ,101, 483 
Vandhuka, 405 
Vandhya karkofakf 590 

karkoti, 331 480 
VaAga, 530 
Varaha (hog), 276 
Varaha kanda (Tacca aspera 

Roxb.), 342 
FaraAi, 406, 598 

kanda, 473 
Varahga (Cinnamomum zey- 

lanicum Blume), 65 
Varardha, 437 
Vars&bhu (Trianthema portula- 

castrum Linn.), 328 
Varsiki, 106 

Vartaka (male bustard), 270 
Vartaka (Solarium melongena 

Linn.), 329-30 

Vartaku, 440 

Vartika (gray partridge), 270 
Vartika (female bustard), 270 
Varuna (Crataeva nurvula 

Buch. Ham.), 44, 327, 413, 

440, 547 
Varum, 190 
Farrarf, 43 
Vdryanna, 362 
Vasa (muscle fat), 185-86 

harhsa, 185 

kaka, 185 

kukkuta, 185 

kumbhira, 185 

mahisa, 185 

Twrga, 185 

sukara, 185 

w/iMca, 7S5 

F<wa, 452 

Vdsaka (Adhatoda vasica 

Nees), 66 
Vasanti, 522 
Vasira, 413-14 
Vasira, 444 
Vdspikd, (Carum bulbocasta- 

num Koch), 40 
Vdstuka (Chenopodium murale 

Linn.), 324 
Vdstuka, 591 
Vasuka, 413-14, 444 
Vata, 541 
Vataka, 617 
Vdtdma, 438 
Vafapatri, 479 
Fata*, 426 

Vatsadanl, 327, 425, 444 
Vatsaka, 420 
Fe«, 523 
Fe//a, 421 



Vettantara, 483 

Venu, 402 

Verm karira {Barribusa arundin- 
acea Willd ), 328 

Vesa vara, 384 

Vesma cataka (house spar- 
row), 270 

Vetasa, 68 

Vetavamla, 407 

Vetra, 439, 441 

Vetragra, 329 

Vibhitaka (Terminalia belerica 

Roxb.), 318, 442,451 
Vibhitaki, 422 
FzVfa, 439, 503 

Vidanga (Embelia ribes Burin. 
'f), 56-57, 415-16, 428, 442- 

43, 501 
ViddrT (Tpomoea paniculata 

R. Br.), 338, 406, 412, 425 
Viddrikd, AAA 
Vidari kanda, 473 
Vidruma, 96 
Vidula, AA2 
Vijaya sara, 546 
Vikankata, 299 

vfksa, 440 
KZ/eyf, 359 
Vimala, 132 
Ffra tare, 414, 444 
Visa, (poison), 69, 97-100 
Visa, 416, 421 
Visala (Trichosanthes bracteata 

Voigt), 48 
Visa musti, 415, 408 
Visanika, 442 
Fwa saluka, 339 
Fzctiu kranta, 480 
Visyandana, 615 

P7ivtf cfeva, 412 

Vi&vausadha, 416 

Vitagni, 280 

P7/ khadira, 545 

Vrddha dam, 478 

FW&K 47, 418, 433, 456 

Vrhad dara (Argyreia speciosa 

Sweet), 58 
PTffcf (variety of Orjzor sa«*va 

Linn ), 242 
Vrksddam, 414 
Vfksaka, 416 
Vrksamla, 406 
Vfntaki, 589 
F/-50 (Adhatoda vasica Nees). 

Vrscikali {Pergularia externa 

N. E. Br.), 51, 412, 415, 

440, 444 
Vyaghra nakha, All 
Vyaghri, 440 
Vyosa, 439 

Water, 210-11 

arhsudaka, 223 

antariksa jala, 223 

arogyathbu, 229-31 

audbhida (water coming 

from earth.), 218, 224 

bhauma (water on earth) 


anupa, 216-17 
jangala, 216-11 
sadharana, 216-17 

&oi7«f, 228 

candra kanta, 225 

caunga, 220 

caundya, 224 

coconut, 231-32 

cold, 227-28 


Materia Medica 

divya type of, 211-15 

dharaja, 212-13 

ganga, 212-13 

haima (water from snow), 

hot, 229 
karaka jata (water from hail 

stone), 213-14 
kedara, 222 
kiipa, 221 
nadeya, 217 
mrjhara (water from spring), 

palvala (water of small pond), 

poisonous, 213 
polluted, 226 
pollution, 233-36 
rain, 222 

river, 217, 225-26 
samudra, 213 
sarasa (water of pond), 

sea, 225 
spring, 224 

tadaga (small pond), 224 
tadaga (water from lake), 

' 220 
tausara (water from dew & 

forst), 214 

vapi, 220-21 
vikira, 221-22 
well, 224 

Yasa (Alhagi pseudalhagi 

Desv.), 22 
Yasfi, 406, 417 
Yava (Hordeum vulgare 

Linn.), 201, 245-46, 253, 

428, 444 
Yav&gu, 360 

krsard, 360 

payasa, 360 
Yam Lsara, 429, 439, 504 
YavdnT (Trachyspermum ammi 

Sprague), 41, 500 
Yavasd, 460 
Yava tikta, 440 
Yava, vamsaja, 246 
Yitaz, 402 

akrta, 380 

fcrta, 380 

kulattha, 378 

mulaka, 377 

navdnga, 378 

nimbu, 2>11 

panca mustika, 378 

patola, 377 
Yuthika (JasmTnum auriculatum 

Vahl), 105, 109, 521 


(Synonyms of Drugs) 

Abdhija, 535 
Abdhi mandukf, 537 
Abhaya, 451, 456 
Abhaya, 513 
Abhiru, 469 
Abhista-gandhaka, 522 
AbhraQcd), 531 
Accha, 518 
Adhah salya, 460 
Adhakl, 535 
Adhard, 456 
Adhara kanfaki, 469 
Agastya, 551 
Agastydhva, 551 
Agni mantha, 452 
Agni mukhi, 481 
^4gm" /*f/z, 498 
Agni sikha, 509 
Agni vaktraka, 481 
Agni vallabha, 514 
Ahiphena, 491 
Ahittha, 499 
AindrT, 462 
^4/a gandhd, 500 
^Ijfa gandhi, 484 
-4A3/F, 499 
yl/a karna, 547 
-4/a moda, 499 
.4/a srngikd, 461 
Ajya, 603 
Ajydra, 603 

Akasa, 53 1 
Akhu karni, 461 
Akhu visdpaha, 478 
Aksa, 451 

phala, 557 
Aksi bhesaja, 478 
-<4 Arsfra, 503 
Aksodaka, 570 
Aksota, 570 
Alavuni, 588 
Aluka, 570 
Amald, 604 
Amalaka, 451 
Amalaryaka, 508 
Ama vairi, 459 
Ambara, 475 
Ambha, 602 
Anibha phala, 568 
Ambhoja, 520, 544 
Arhbhoruha, 518 
Ambu, 602 
Ambu sirisika, 550 
Ambu valll, 482 
Ambu vasini, 453 
Ambu pddapa, 578 
Amla patraka, 466 
Amlct sdka, 578 
Amla vetasa, 575, 580 
Amilkd, 571 , 595 
Amogha, 451, 453 
Antra, 555 
Amrdta(kd), 579-80 


Materia Madica 

Antra tafa, 579 
Amrta, 451, 504, 535 
Anifta, 568, 602 
Amrt&hva, 567-68 
Amrtakvaya, 603 
Amrtala, 451 
Amrta phala, 451 
Amrta sanga, 5 32 
Amrta vallan, 452 
Amsapa, 566 
AmSumati, 454 
Amvasfha, 474 
AmvastkakT, 473 
Anala, 48 1 
Ananta, 460 
Angaraka, 416 
Angara karkari, 610 
Angara vallan, 550 
Ahjana, 533 
Anjira, 570 
Ankola. 463 
Ankolaka, 463 
Antah kotara puspi, 478 
^«« manthaja, 603 
i>a, 568, 602 
Apada rohini, 483 
Apamarga, 460 
Aparajita, 480, 486 
4peta raksasi, 524 
Aphenaka, 491 
4pAw, 491 
Aphuka, 491 
^?fto, 519 
Aragvadha, 462 
Aralu, 453 
Arama sltala, 486 
^4ra«z", 452, 454 
Aravinda, 518 
^rd/ia candrika, 462 
Ardraka, 496 

Argata, 543 
Arimedaka, 545 
Arista, 464 
Aristaka, 550 
Arjaka, 524 
Arjuna, 543 
^r£a, 487 
;4r&a kanta, 482 
^4r^<2 puspi, 48 1 
Arogya simbi, 463 
^rto g-a/a, 543 
Jr/a galaka, 485 
yfrt/w sadhana, 480, 550 
J>z/, 565, 570 
Aruna, 461 
Aruna, 498 
Aruska, 481, 565 
Aruskara, 481 
JVwta gandha, 502 
Asi patra, 463 
.<4sz£a, 523 
/4jz'fa druma, 545 
,4i/Ma bhedaka, 472 
^ima garbhaka, 546 
Asmaja, 534 
Asmanta, 466 
Asmari bheda, 472 
y4izna jow', 466 
Asphota, 459, 466 
Asfa padi, 523 
y4sfa varga, 457 
ylstAz samhdra, 487, 597 
samharaka, 487 
samhrta, 597 
srnkhalika, 597 
Asura, 503 
yliva gandha, 468 
^sWza, 488 
Asvattha, 541 
Asvavarchaka, 468 



Asyahva, 517 
Asya lalana, 514 
Atarusaka, 452 
Ati bald, 470 
Ati card., 518 
Ati chatrikd, 482 
.4**' g«/j<5, 454 
Ati kantaka, 460 
Ati ksuraksa, 485 
Ati manjula, 521 
-4rt" rasa, 468 
/lr7 ™/za, 487 
/I ft' saurabha, 555 
^/z" te/mf, 470 
^z 1 ? vi?a, 411 
Atma gupta, 480 
Atma raksa, 462 
Atyugra, 502 
Atyugra gandha, 499 
Audbhida, 503 
Audbhida lavana, 503 
/4i/j<a, 503 
ylva& puspi, 498 
Avalguja, 475 
J vara Arc/a, 561 
Avarttaki, 416 
Avegi, 478 
^[vja, 472 

,4vja&ta gandha, 485 
^jva/z, 531 
Ayaskdnta, 538 

Babbula, 546 
Badama, 568 
Badara, 560-61 
Badari, 560 
Bahula chada, 596 
£a/a, 469 
5a7<2, 512, 521 
J9a/a, 535 

5a/a bhadra, 416 

Balaka, 512 

.Ba/a mulaka, 595 

Bali, 514 
^afrnz - , 598 

jBa(ya, 468 

Bandha bhandhuka, 523 
Bandhinf, 520 
Bandhu jiva, 523 
Barha cuda, 514 
j&zMz, 490 
Bhadraia), 472, 519 
Bhadra candana, 459 
Bhadra dam, 470 
Bhadra kanta, 454 
Bhadra kastha, 470 
Bhadra musta, 412 
Bhadra parni, 468 
Bhadra parnika, 453 
Bhadra sriya, 508 
Bhadra yava, 465 
Bhadralla, 510 
Bhadra tarani, 521 
Bhadraudani, 469 
Bhadravati, 412 
Bhallataka, 481, 572 
£Aa£7, 481 
BhalluQca), 570 
Bhallu rakta phala, 570 
flftawff, 461, 474 
Bhandirani phala, 543 
Bhanga, 489 
Bhangura, 477 
Bhantaki, 589 
Bharadvdji 470 
Bhara v&hirii, 463 
Bharga parvani, 472 
Bhargavi, 489 
£fc&2f, 472 
Bhastna pihgala, 551 


Materia Medica 

Bhauma, 503 
Bhavy a, 577 
Bheka raja, 476 
Bhillaka vfksa, 548 
Bhirindika, 481 
Bhiru patrT, 469 

Bhisana, 514 
Bhisan-mata, 452 
JWrgu Mava, 472 
Bhrnga, 510 
Bhrnga bandhu, 523 
Bhrnga malika, 501 
Bhrnga raja, 476 
Bhfiigdhva, 476 
.BAw e/rafra, 598 
.BM dftdfrf, 451 
Bhujaga parnim, 483 
£/iu kadambaka, 500 
J5Aw mandali, 523 
Bhumija, 503 
Bhumi kadambaka, 460 
Bhumi kharjurika, 558 
Bhumi saha, 545 
Bhumydmalaki, 451 
Bhunimba, 464 
Bhurja, 546 
jPAm iamf, 550 
Bhusana, 497, 504 
Bhiisita, 463 
£Mta, 471 
£/zSta Jfceif, 467, 512 
J?^«fa nasana, 502 
i?/?«fa padapa, 544 
.BAwta vasa, 451 
J?/mta vrfc^a, 453, 460 
Bhutaghni, 501, 524 
j9/zK*f, 471 
Bhutika, 471 
Bhutika, 507, 
Bhuyas, 546 

Bija piira(ka), 573 
AV/a, 452, 454 
Bilvikd, 502 
Bimba kila, 523 
J?wn£f, 590 
5o/a, 535 

Brahma carini, 482 
Brahma kancana, 529 
Brahma kSsfha, 571 
Brahma mekhala, 490 
Brahma padapa, 546 
Brahma suvarcala, 482 
Brahmana y astikd, 472 
Brdhmani, 515 
Brahmf, 482, 486 
J9/7;aa* Z?a/<5, 469 
jBr/zotf kantakari, 455 
UrAaf kharjurika, 558 
J?r^3f fco?f, 593 
Brhat phala, 556 
Brhat puspd, 521 
£r/zaf va//f, 590 
Brhati, 455 
Brahma dam, 571 

Cakrahva, 516 
Cakra laksaria, 452 
Cakra marda, 475 
Cakrangi, 463 
Cakrika, 483 
Caksusya, 554 
Ca/a, 522 
Ca/a da/a, 541 
Camikara, 529 
Campaka, 522 
Campeya, 511, 522 
Ca«a puspikd, 479 
Canaka saka, 594 
Capaa, 480, 488, 514 
Candana, 508 



Candana puspaka, 510 
Candikd, 511 
Candra hasa, 452 
Candra hasyd, 455 
Candra kanta, 536 
Candra mani, 536 
Candra vald, 510 
Candrikd, 475 
Cdngeri, 595 
Capala, 497 
Capala, 531 
Cora, 562 
Ccrc/f, 518 
Carma kanfaka, 476 
Carma kas (i)a, 466, 487 
Carma ranga, 476 
Carmasahva, 466 
Cam, 516 
Can/ kesara, 521 
Carw parni, 468 
Caru patrika, 502 
Caru vahlika, 509 
C<?rw vrfcra, 542 
Catuh chada, 595 
Caturamlaka 580 
Caturangula, 463 
Caturannaka, 501 
Caturjata, 511 
Caturusana, 491 
Cauhari, 500 

yavdnt, 500 
Cavika, 497 
CavyaQia), 497-98 
Cerapoti, 481 
Cetafcf, 450 
Chadana, 486 
Chadmika, 474 
Chagala, 478 
Chardana, 465 
Chatra, 482 

Chatramlikd, 595 

C/z<zz7f, 549 

Chikkika, 484 

Chikkini, 484 

Chinna, 452 

Chinna granihinikd, 460 

Chinna ruha, 452 

Chinnodbhava, 452 

Ciccinda, 593 

Cff//, 592 

Ctf/tfrf, 592 

Cmra, 577 

Cincini phala, 461 

C/ra bilvaka, 550 

Cirajlvini, 549 

Cira patrd, 556 

Cirbhafi, 588 

Cirbhita, 588 

Cirim, 550 

Cirita patrika, 479 

Cft/YZ, 459, 498 

Ci>5, 462 

Cz7ra, 470 

Citraka, 498 

Cfrra /?Aa/a, 462, 589 

Civuka, 523, 562 

Cordka, 514 

Cucuka, 592 

G&fa, 483 

Cukra, 575 

Cukra, 595 

Cukrikd, 577 

Culaka 465 

Cumbaka, 538 

Curna pdrada, 533 

Cwta, 555 

DadW, 602 
Dodhi phala, 579 


Materia Medica 

Dadhi pupaka, 615 
Dadima, 560, 
Dadimi, 560 
Dadimi puspa, 484 
Dadrughna, 475 
Dahana, 498 
Daitya, 515 
Dak$indvarti, 467 
Dalahva, 511 
Da/a ia7/nz 598 
Dama, 524 
Damana, 524 
Damanaka, 524 
Damani, 483 
Dandahata, 603 
Dante, 524 
Danta bijd, 560 
Danta satha, 575 
Dazzf z, 46 1 

&z/a, 461 
DantT phala samdkrti, 569 
Darada, 533 
Darbha, 490 
Daruna, 498 
Da>u haridrd, 475 
Daru phala, 569 
Darpf, 475 

rasodbhava, 534 
Daia wiw/a, 455 
Dasangula, 567 
Dast, 485, 512 
Davidalika, 473 
Dendika, 591 
Deva a'a/f, 478 
Deva Jan/, 470 
Deva dhupa, 514 
Deva dundubhi, 524 
Deva gandhd, 486 
Deva gandhaka, All 
Deva kusuma, 510 

Deva ,ya/za, 469 
Deva irem', 474 
Deva i'.w/a, 604 
Devata, 456, 488 
Devatdhga, 478 
Deva tarw, 564 
Devi", 474, 480, 515, 590 
Dhamana, 490 
DhamanT, 516 
Dhana, 562 
Dhanaka, 467 
D/za/ze, 501 
Dhaneya 501 
Dhanu, 481 
Dhanvana, 547 
Dhanva ydsa(ka), 460 
Dhanya, 501, 572 
Dhanya, 522 
Dhanyaka, 501 
Dhanyaka, 501 
Dharmdna, 547 
Dhataki, 473 
Dhatri parni, 511 i phala, 451 
Dhattura, 488 
D/zata 6/zava, 530 
Dhatu kasisa, 533 
Dhatu maksika, 532 
Dhava, 547 
Dhavam, 454-55, 476 
D/rfra, 457 
Dhruva, 541 
Dhruva, 454 
Dhumra, 509 
Dhurandhara, 547 
Dhkrta, 488 
Dhurtta, 503 
Dhvaja, 567 
Dhvdmksa ndsini, 501 
Dhvanda, 485 



Dhvdnksa koli, 456 
Dhvanksa mdci, All 
Dina, 516 
Dindari, 535 
Dindinikd, 550 
Dipani, 479 
Dipaniya, 500 
Dipa vrksaka, 470 
DTptd, 466 
Dz>ja, 500 
Dipyaka, 500 
Dirgha chada, 545 
Dirgha danda, 459 
Dirghaka, 499 
Dirgha kilaka, 463 
Dirgha muld, 454 
Dirgha-mula, 460 
Dirgha nisvana, 537 
Dirgha patra, 483 
Dirgha patraka, 461, 543, 565 , 

Dirgha patri, 481 
Dirgha phala, 463 
Dirgha pu§paka, 487 
Dirgha varsdbhu, 461 
Dirghika, 482, 502 
Dithya, 510 
Divari, 469 
Z>/vya, 482 
i^fvj'a, 534 
Divyausadhi, 532 
Draksa, 554, 608 
Dravanti, 461 
Drdvida, 503 
Dravida, 515 
Drdvidi, 510 
Dravi ZoAa, 504 
Drdha bijaka, 557 
Drond, 482 

Drona puspi, 482 
Drsad bheda, 472 
Drsad garbha, 537 
ZVm phala, 519 
Dagdha, 602 

bhaksya, 612 
Dugdhikd, 481 
Duhpradharsini, 455 
Duhpraharsd, 558 
Duhputra, 514 
Duhsparsa, 455, 460 
Durdlabha, 460 
i>wr<2 mzZ/a, 460 
Z>«r<? ro/za, 558 
Durdroha, 567 
Duravagraha, 480 
Durbdld, 550 
Durdhara, 451 
Durga, 514 
Durjara, 574 
Durlabha, 515 
Durmand, 489 
Durmdsd, 483 
Dfinrf, 489 
Durvata, 459 
Z)m#<5, 473 
Dv(/«, 510 
Dvy'<z kutsaka, 544 
Dvija pnya, 478 
Dvipa, 550 
Dvipadd, 523 
Dvipa sambhavd, 558 
Dvipikd, 469 
Dvijdngikd, 463 

Edagaja, 475 
Ekdngi, 515 
E/a, 510-11 


Materia Medica 

Ela valu, 509 
Ela valuka, 509 
Eranda, 459, 
Eranda, 461 
Evaluka, 509 

Gaireya, 534 
Gairika, 532 
Go/a bhaksya, 548 
(So/a cirbhifa, 462 
Gaja kanta, 550 
Gaja pddapa, 542 
Ga/a pippalT, 498 
Gajara, 595 
Gajdsana, 541 
Galodha, 519 
Gamhhari, 453, 454 
Ganda durva, 489 
Gandaru, 593 
Garidha, 531 
Gandha garbha, 452 
Gandha karira, 479 
Garidha mamsi, 512 
Gandha mulaka, 512, 515 
Gandha millini, 515 
Gandha nakuli, 468, 479 
Gandha pitaka, 531 
Gandha rasa, 535 
Gadha s&raka, 508 
Gandha vira, 548 
Gandhadhya, 515 
Gandhaka, 531 
Gandhamat puspa, 543 
Gandharva hastaka, 459 
GandhSsma, 531 
Gandhavati, 515 
Gandhi velika, 507 
Gandhotkata, 524 
Gandhottamd, 604 

Gandiri, 604 
Ganeruka, 523, 549 
Gdngeruka, 572 
Gangeruki, 470 
Ganikd, 521 
Ganikarika, 523 
Gtf/z/a, 489 
Garagari, 478 
Garbha kantaka, 566 
Garbha kara, 480 
Garbha patani, 488 
Garbha patT, 550 
Gardhabhandaka, 542 
Garw* ma/, 537 
Gauda pdsSna, 538 
Gauda vastuka, 592 
Gawra, 519, 547 
Gaura druma, 549 
Gown, 475, 516, 524 
Gautami, 516 
Gavadani, 462, 485 
Gavedhuka, 470, 532 
Gayatri, 545 
Ghallaka, 604 
Gtena, 472, 510, 530, 531 
Ghana skandha, 582 
Ghana tvaksara, 478 
G/z<7«e /7/ra/a, 477 
Ghanta, 548 
Ghanta sabda, 476 
Ghantalika, 574 
Gfotfl, 574 
G/zo/a, 603 
Ghonta, 560 
Ghontali, 589 
G/icwa, 498, 501 
Gfy-ta, 603 

jw&va bhaksya, 612 
Ghrtapura, 613 



Ghr ta varnaka, 549 
Ghana priyd. 461 
Girija, 534 
Girijatu, 534 
Girika, 464 
G/n karnikd, 485 
Girt mallika, 465 
Gfn mrf, 532 
Girt Sdnujd, 476 
Gifisdhvaya, 534 
GoMf, 482 
Godanta, 532 
Godhuma bhaksya, 611 
Godhd skandha, 545 
Gojihvd, 482 
Go/Y&a, 482 
Gokanfaka, 454 
Gokarnd, 468 
Goksura, 454, 455 
Go/5, 532 
Go//*5, 590 
Go/omf, 489, 501 
Gomeda, 536 
Gopa kanya, 459 
Go^a va//F, 459 
Gopdngana, 459 
Gopitta sambhava. 516 
Goraksa, 574 
Gorasa, 603 
Gorocand, 516 
Gosirsa, 508 
Gostani, 554 
Gofra puspaka, 547 
Go/ra vitapl, 547 
Grahi, 555 
Grama kanda, 598 
Grdmya, 463, 524 
Granthi parna{t), 515 
Granthika, 564 

Granthika mula, 497 
Granthika. patra, 512 
Granthila, 595 
Granthimdn, 597 
Granthimat phala, 566 
Granthini, 559 
Grha kanya, 488 
Grismakd, 522 
Grnjana, 596, 597 
Gw/i, 473, 598 
" Gucchd phala, 544 
Gucha puspa, 549 
G«</J, 554 
Gw(fa patraka, 604 
Guda phala, 544 
Gwtfa fva/fc, 510 
Guda yukta bhaksya, 611 
Guddmayahara, 597 
Gudha patra, 595 
Gudha puspaka, 565 
Guduci, 452 
Guggulu, 514 
Gu/ia, 454 
Gw/ya, 483 
Gupta sneha, 463 

Haimavati, 451, 452, 501 
ila/inz, 488 
Hallaka, 519 
Hamsa padi, 478 
Hanu, 517 
Hanurndga, 517 
Hapusd, 501 
Zfara, 604 
f/ara 6f/a, 531 
Hara Aura, 554 
Harenuka, 513 
.Han bhadraka, All 
Harita chada, 596 


Haridra, 475, 549 
Haridraka, 549 
Hariri mani, 537 
Harinf, 521 
Haritala, 532 
Harltaki, 450-51 
Hari valuka, 509 
Han vasa, 541 
Harsani, 480 
Hastaluka, 599 
Hasfi g/iosa, 589 
Hasti'kanda, 595 
Hasfz /«?r«<z, 459 
Hasfi fco/i, 560 
Hasti magadha, 498 
itoft mayuraka, 499 
jiataka, 511, 529 
Havfe, 498, 603 
Haya pucchika, 458 
HayamgavTna, 603 
Jf«iia, 511,529 
ffema dugha, 465, 542 
Hemanidhi, 531 
Hemahvd, 465 
Hijjala, 544 
Hima mocika, 486 
jffmwt valuka, 507 
Himavatl, 465 
Himopala, 507 
JET/rfci*. 502 
jJ/ngM /rartrf, 502 
Eingula, 533 
i?z><5, 536 
Jffra kasmarl, 453 
Hiraka, 536 
Hiraiiya, 529 

if/to, 467 
Holaka, 622 
Hrasva badara, 561 

Materia Medica 

Hrasva pathoja, 519 
Hrasva phala, 565 
Hrsvanga, 457 
JffrflSVfl, 574, 577 
Hrdya gandhaka, 503 
Hrfvera, 512 - 
Hutabhuk, 498- 
Hyahya tala, 517 

///a/a, 544 
JTesu, 604 

vikara, 604 
/Arsu gandhika, A17> 
Jksu vallT, 473 
J k sura, 485 
Indari, 618 
Indivara, 519 
J«^fra varum, 462 
/radra jaw, 465 
Indrahva, 462 
Indrairvaru, 462 
Indraksa, 457 
Ihgudi, 548 
Irimeda, 545 
Tsafca, 489 

Jagatyahva, 517 
Ja/a, 602 
/a/a cara, 537 
7a/a gojaka, 569 
Ja/a kama, 481 
Ja/a kanda, 599 
Ja/a vetasa, 544 
Jalauka sarhvrta, 544 
Ja/f, 59J 
Ja/mf, 478, 589 
Jambhala, 575 
JambhTla, 575 
Jambiraka, 575 



Jambu, 556 
Jamba nada, 511, 529 
Jambuka, 521 
Jamuna, 534 
Janarii, 517 
Jangala, 478, 508 
Jangini, 547 
Ja«f, 517 
Jantuda, 517 
Jian/u banana, 50 1 
Jantuka, 502 
Jantu ndSana, 500 
«7a«/M vrksa, 542, 581 
Ja/xz, 523 

pvspa, 523 

rakta, 523 
Jarana, 499, 502 
Jarjjara, 596 
Jiz/<2, 451, 512 
J<2?a mdmsi, 512 
•Tata rupdka, 529 
Jatayu, 514 
Jetf, 520 

&0ja, 509 

j?afrv, 509 

/j/za/a, 509 

suta, 509 
Jtf///«, 501 
JavahvS, 500 
Javani, 500 
Javdhlya, 500 
Javasdhvd, 500 

Jaja, 450, 452, 480, 486, 489 
Jayantika, 520 
Jayapala, 461 
/e/a phala, 565 
Jihma, 516 
Jihmuta, 478 
//«£«, 547 

Jingini, 547 
Jlraka, 499 

iveta, 499 
7fra (krsnd), 499 
/fraa vdluka, 478 
7zV<2, 457 
/fva bhadrd, 457 
Jivaka, 457, 458 
Jivana, 602 
JTvanf, 457 
Jivamya, 451, 457 
Jlvaniya gana, 458 
Jivantaka, 591 
JTvanti, 452, 457, 458 
Jzva vardhinT, 457 
Jvara ndsim, 414 
Jvardntaka, 464 
./Vara vinasim, 452 
Jyotismati, 470 
J>>0# ,«>»j<2, 508 

i^ca, 504, 512, 538 
bhajana, 538 
lavana, 504 
sambhava, 504 
Kacata, 482 
Kacchapdlikd, 544 
Kacchura, 460 
Kacha gandha, 599 
2&Mfoff, 559 
Kadamba, 543 
Kadamba puspT, 460 
i&2£5, 477, 558 
JKa&a ballabhd, 556 
.Kafca janghd, 477 
.Kafca kustha, 465 
Kaka pilu, 564 
&zfca pilukd, 483 
JKto tffo<5, 550 


Materia Medica 

Kaka vallan, 489 
KairavinI, 518 
Kakamaci, 477 
Kakanantika, 483 
Kakatikta, All 
Kakayu, 489 
Kakini, All 
Kakodumbarika, 570 
Kakoll, 456, 457, 458 
Kakubha, 543 
Kala, 462, 533 
Za/a mala, 525 
Xa/a me«, 462 
Kala mesikd, 474, 475 
jO/a parni, 462 
JK/a i<5foz, 486, 592, 594 
Kala sara, 564 
Kala skandha, 545 
Kalaseya, 603 
Za/aif, 454 
Kalavrntika, 453 
Kalhdra, 519 
Kalidruma, 451 
Kalihari, 488 

.Kaflfca, 463, 486, 500, 501, 592 
Kalinda, 587 
Kalinga, 465, 587 
Kaliyaka, 508 
■Kiz/pa, 604 
Kama bija, All 
Kama diiti, 453 
Kamahva, 580 
Kamala, 518 
kesara, 519 

Kamandalu, 542 
iTcwa torw, 483 
jO/na vallabha, 555 
.Kama vrksaka, 483 
Kambhari, 453 

Karhbojl, 458 
Kambu, 536 
Kambu mdlini, 480 
Kambu puspi, 480, 481 
Kdmini, 483 
Kafnkola, 510 
Kamksi, 535 
Kamkusfha, 465 
Kamkusthaka, 465 
Kampila (led), 461 
Kampolaka priya, 5A6 
Kamsya, 530 
fizp£, 497 

mw/flf, 497 
Kana jiraka, 499 
JGwiafcar, 488,511, 529 
Kanaka k§irl, 465 
Kancana, 511, 522, 529 
Kahcanaka, 466 
Kancana ksirl, 465 
Kancana puspikd 520 
KdHcandhvaya, 519 
Kdncanara, A66 
Kancani, 489 

Zantfa, 597 
JKandbt vtf//f, 473 
Kandaka, 598 
Kandala, 480, 597 
Kandara, 592 
Kandardla, 570 
Kandaruha, 463 
Kandatikta, 464 
Kandausadha, 496 
Kandhu, 561 
Kandhuka, 561 
Kandira, 592 
Kandu, 514 
Kanduka, 589 
Kanguni, 470 



Kanxna, 478 
Kanta, 548 
Kdnta pd$ana, 538 
Kanfa phala, 454 
Kantdhvd, 513 
Kanfakddhyd, 549 
Kantakdri, 455 
Kantaki, 452, 548, 558 
Kantaki lata, 588. 
Kantaki phala, 566 
Kantakini, 455 
Kantdrikdy 455 
Kanyd, 510 
Kapardikd, 537 
Kaphanjikd, 461 
JBar/rf, 509, 579 
Kapi druma, 512 
£zpz kacchu, 480 
J&z/H /oAa, 530 
jKffpi pippali, 460 
Xarpz/a, 509, 530, 551 
Kapila, 513 
Kapitana, 543 
Kapittha, 579, 580 

parn, 579 
Kapittharjaka, 525 
Kapota vankd, 482 
Kapota varna, 510 
.Kara c/ttttfa, 545 
Karabha priya, 544 
Karahari, 548 
Karahdta, 465, 484 
Kardhataka, 520 
Kardla, 501, 525 
Karamarda, 578 
Kararh vara, 548 
Karanja, 549 
Karanji, 550 
Xflra/F, 530, 560 

Kdravellaka, 590 

Karavelli, 590 

IsTaravf, 498, 499, 500, 502 

Karavira(ka), 488 

Karcura, 515 

Kariraka, 595 

Karkandhu, 561 

Karkandhu bdndhavd, 560 

Karkaru, 587 

Karkasa, 595 

Karkasa chada, 521, 589, 593 

Karkata, 572 

Karkata Srngi (ka), 471 

Karkafaka, 572 

Karkatdkhyd, 471 

Karkati, 558, 560, 588 

Karkotaka, 590 

Karma rahga, 511 

Karmdra, 490 

Karmuka, 545 

Xar«f, 463, 523 

Karnikd, 521 

Kdrpasa, 486 

Karpura, 507, 608 

Karsa phala, 451, 

Karsini, 465 

Karvuddra, 544 

Zaia, 487, 489 

Kdsaghni, 472 

Kasamarda, 595 

Kasdyd, 473 

Kdseksu, 489 

Xoyeru, 599 

Kaseruka, 699 

Kdsfsa, 533 

KdsmarT, 453 

Kasmorya, 608 

Kdsmari, 453 

Kd§mlra, 471, 509 


Materia Medica 

Kastha sariva, 459 
Kasfhalu, 599 
Kastha pdtald, 453 
KasturiQca), 507 
Ksirini, 481 
Katabhf, 548 
Katarhbhaka, 453 
Katankateri, 475 
Katankati, 475 
Kathilla, 590 
Kathillaka, 467 
Katijara, 525 
ifozTz, 516 
Katphala, 472 
Katu, 477, 497 
ifcfu bhadra, 496 
ifofu granthi, 497 
jKa/M kamkola, 510 
Katuparni, 465 
.Ka^M sarkard, 504 
7T(3?m tumbl, 588 
Katubhi, 470 
Katuka, 491 
Katukata, 496 
KatukT, 463 
KafurohinT, 463 
Katutraya, 491 
Kaundinya, 482 
Kaunti, 513 
Kausika, 514 
Kausumbha, 594 
Kautaja, 465 
■Kauvera, 471 
Kavalkola, 470 
Kavari, 484 
Kdyasthd, 451, 456 
-STeia A/-? phala, 550 
Xeia musfika, 464 
Kesa ranjana, 476, 511 

JsTeiara, 519, 522 
Kesari, 466, 573 
■Kaff, 469, 512 
J&/5, 569 
Ketaki, 521 
i&jw, 598 
Keyukd, 598 
Khadird, 479, 545 
Khalinx, 479 
Khanda, 531 
Khariddmalaka, 607 
Khandamra, 607 
XAara, 537 
Khara manjari, 460 
Khara parnini, 482 
Khara patra, 524 
Khara puspa, 500 
isf/jara itf/fcor, 472 
Khara vdtikd, 53 7 
Khara yastika, 469 
Khardhva, 499 
Kharbuja, 567 
Khar jar a, 514 
Kharju, 558 
Kharjura, 608 
Kharjun, 479 
Kharjurikd, 558 
Kharparikd tuttha, 532 
Khasakhasa, 490-91 
r/7a, 490 

.Kfazft 538 
Khatikd, 538 
Khafini, 538 
Khatvahga, 453 
Khecara, 533 
JT/tedb, 512 
XAwra, 517 
Khuraka, 530 
Khurdsdni yavdni, 490 



Kicaka, 490 
Kila druma, 470 
KTldla, 602 
Kilasa, 590 
Kilfma, 470 
Kimkini, 564 
Kim kirata, 546 
Kimkirataka, 485 
Kithnubdlaka, 465 
Kimsuka, 546 
Kinihi, 460 
Kinjalka, 519 
Kirata, 464 

tikta, 464 
Kirfti,, 480 
Kirmi, 546 
KT{a marl, 478 
J&7a noma, 478 
JGtavo, 488, 514 
Xz/z, 500 
jKftfa, 531 
Klitanaka, 458 
Kokanada, 519 
Kokildksa, 485 
JCo/a, 561 
Xofa simbi, 591 
isTo/a vallika, 497 
Komala valkald, 582 
Zoia phala, 560 
Kosdmra, 581 
KosatakT, 589 
i£?/J vrksaka, 465 
Koviddra, 466 
Krakaca, 595 
Kramuka, 581 
Krandana, 572 
Kravyadi, 512 
Krmi phala, 542 
Krmighna, 501, 508 

Krmijd, 517 

Krmika, 581 

Krostu ghanfika, 487 

Krostu pucchd, 454 

Af«ii, 497, 499, 517, 533, 

551, 578 
Krsna gandha, 596 
jKhsna malhkd, 525 
Krsna mula, 459 
Krsna phala, 475, 591 
Krsna vrntika, 453,458 
Krsndbija, 587 
Krsndguru, 508 
Krsndrjaka, 525 
Krsnayah mala, 531 
jKjrta chidra, 589 
X/-/a malaka, 462 
.K>fa trana, 416 
Krta vedhand, 589 
Krtrimaka, 503 
Krtrima ratna, 538 
Krura, 484 

karma, 48 1 
Kruraka, 468 
Ksanaka, 514 
J&sw, 503 
Ksdra patra, 591 
Ksdra Srestha, 546 
Ksdrika, 593 
Ksatra vrksa, 523 
Ksatriyd, 562 
Ksaudra, 605 
Ksavaka, 484 
Ksetra dutikd, 455 
2S£fra, 464, 602 
Ksira gandha, 473 
Kjfra fcJ&o/f, 456, 457, 458 
Kslra pdka, 538 
l&fra sukla, 473 


Materia Medica 

Ksira valli, 473 

Ksira vrksa, 541, 542 

Ksira paldriau, 596 

Ksireya, 606 

Ksirl, 487, 541, 562, 606 

Ksiri vrksa, 562 

Ksirini, 456, 465 

Ksoda, 589 

Ksudra, 455 

Ksudra candana, 508 

Ksudra Jamba, 556 

Ksudra panasa, 566 

Ksudra patah, 548 

Ksudra phald, 462 

Ksudra saha, 458 

Ksudra tandula, 501 

Ksudra varsdbku, 468 

Jfrwra, 485, 490 

Ksuraka, 454, 485, 523, 537 

■Kwi/a kantaka, 545 

Kubjaka, 521 

ifwca, 561 

Kucandana, 517 

Kuddala, 466 

Kukkura dru, 486 

Kukkuta mardaka, 486 

Kukkuti, 549 

Kula, 532 

Kulahala, 460 

Kulaja, 579 

Kulaka, 593 

Kulaputraka, 524 

■ATw/F, 466 

JTw/tfa, 515 

Kulira sriigi, 471 

Kulmdsa, 619 

Kumaraka, 547 

Kumdrl, 480, 488 

Kumbha, 461 
Kumbha virya, 550 
Kumbha yonika, 482 
Kumbhi, 472 
Kumbhika, 453 
Kumkuma, 509 
Kumudd, 472 
Kumuda, 519 
Kumudi, 518 
Kumudvati, 518 

Kumut, 519 

Kunafi, 532 

-STunc/", 500 

jKTun<&, 522, 523 

Kundali, 452, 466 

Kundalikd, 618-19 

Kunduru, 514 

Kunduruki, 548 

Kunjan, 473 

Kuntati, 481 

Kuntha, 524 

Kurandi, 594 

Kurangaka, 484 

Kurangini, 458 
Kurantaka, 485 
Kuravaka, 485 

£wrca sirsaka, 457 
.Kt/ra vindaka, 472 
iSTwicr, 490 
ifttfaff, 466 
Kusesaya, 518 
Kusimbi, 591 
Kusimsipd, 551 
Kusmdnda, 587 
Kusmdndaki, 587 
Kusfha, 471, 529, 531, 59u 
Kusfha krntana, 475 
Kustumburu, 501 
Kusumdnjana, 534 



Kusumbhaja, 594 
Kufaja, 465 ' 
Kutamnata, 453 
Kutara vahini, 461 
Rata sdlmali, 484 
Kutheraka, 524 
iSTu.ff, 515 
Kupnjara, 593 
iTwtfra, 593 
Kutsdsra, 591 
Kuvala, 561 
Kuvalaya, 519 

jLtfg/iu Mva phalakrti, 568 

Laghu kanfakari, 455 

Laghu pancamula, 455, 456 

Laghu puspa, 521 

■LtfgAw samkha, 537 

Laghvi, 560 

Laguda, 488 

Lajjalu, 479 

Laksa, 517 

Laksa puspa, 521 

Laksmand, 455 

Laksmi, 456, 550 

Laksmi phala, 452 

Lakuca, 566 

Lambu, 460 

Langali, 480, 488, 557 

Laghu badara, 561 

Lapsika, 616 

Lasuna, 596 

Laf<5, 513 

Lctfa kasturika mada, 507 

Lata p amy a, 510 

Lata* pfta/a, 490 

jLatfa vrksa, 557 

Latahva, 459 

Lauha, 531 

Z-avc, 510 
Lavali, 582 
Lavana, 504 
Lavanga, 510 
Lav any a, 482 
ie/f, 531 
Lobhaniya, 460 
Lodhra, 478 
LoAa, 530-31 
£o/za karsaka, 538 
Lohaja, 531 
Lohita, 508 
Lomasd, 501 
Lomasi, 588 
Lonika, 593 
LitfigJ, 574 
Lwfa, 522 

Madadhma karmani, All 
Mada kdrini, 490 
Madana, 465, 488, 524, 605 

phala, 465 
Madayantikd, 520 
Madhavl, 522, 698 
Madhavocita, 510 
Madhorduti, 453 
Madhu, 458 
Madhu cchista, 605 
Madhu karkatika, 574 
Madhu kostha, 565 
Madhu partii, 48 1 
Madhu phala, 554 
Madhu pupaka, 614 
Madhu rasa, 474 
Madhu sigru, 551 , 596 
Madhu sirsaka, 614 
Madhusita, 605 
Madhu sravd, 474, 478 
Madhu stila, 565 


Materia Medica 

Madhu trna, 604 

Madhu yoni, -554 

Madhuja, 605 

Madhuka, 458, 565, 608 

Madhulika, 458 

Madhura, 456-57 

Madhura gana (group of drugs 

having sweet taste), 458 
Madhuyasti, 458 
Madhvaga, 565 
Madhvalu, 599 
Madira, 604 
Madya, 604 
Mc<fy<3 gandha, 522 
Madya vasinl, 473 
Magadha, 497 

m«/o, 498 
Magadhi, 497-98 
Ma/za Z>fl/a, 469 
JWaAa dirgha, 470 
Mafia druma, 565, 567 
Afa/ja ghord, 471 
Mahajali, 589 
Maha jalini, 476 
Maha jalinikd, 476 
Maha.jambu, 556 
MaAa kanda, 596 
Maha koSataki, 589 
JWaM kumbhi, 412 
Maha meda, 456-58 
Maha mundT, 460 
Maha nirhba, 464 
Mahaphala, 462, 557, 587, 589 
Maha purusa dantika, 469 
Maha rasa, 604 
Ma/75 jaAa, 458, 521 
Maha satavarT, 469 
Maha simbitika phala, 568 
Mafta skandha, 556 

Maha svetd, 473 
Maha syama, 478* 
Maha taru, 463 
Maha tumbi, 588 
Maha vrsd, 419 
Mahaddala, 592 
Maharha, 508 
Mahati, 455 

Mahat panca inula, 454-56 
Mahat prdthsu, 582 
Mahaujasi, 470 
Mahausadha, 496 
Mahausadhl, 482 
Maheruna, 548 
Mahisaksa, 514 
Mahonnati, 543 
Mahoraga, 516 
Mahotika, 455 
Mahotpala, 518 
Makanda, 555 
Makola, 538 
Makostha, 569 
Maksika, 532, 605 
Afa/a, 517 
Mo/aft' 520 
Malati jata, 504 
Malati patrika, 509 
Malati suta, 509 
Malavaka, 571 
Mdlavikd, 462 
Malaya, 516 
Malayaja, 508 
Mahna, 497 
Mo//a, 532 
Mallika, 520 
Mallikd puspa, 465 
Mdlukd patra, 466 
Matulanl, 489 
Malum, 452 



Malya puspi, 476 
Mamo gupta, 532 
Mdrhsa masa, 458 
Mdrhsa rohinf, 487 
Mamsi, 512 
Mcma, 512 
Mana kanda, 598 
Manahsila, 532 
Mdnaka, 598 
Manda, 604 
Mandaka, 603, 610 
Mandala, 488 
Mandala chada, 467 
Mandala patrika, 551 
Mandana, 532 
Mandapa kami, 522 
Mandara, 487, 548 
Manduka parm, 483 
Manduki, 482 
Mandura, 531 
Mangalya, 457, 516, 541 
Mani, 456 
Mani chidra, 456 
Mani mantha, 502 
Manikya, 535 
Manjistha, 474 
Manjula, 414, 570 
Manohvlka, 532 
Manojndy 480 
Manorama, 523 
Mantha, 619 
Marakata, 537 
Mardaka. 475 
Marica, 497-98 
M&rica, 510 
Marica patraka, 545 
Mdrjara gandhika, 458 
Marjan, 507 
Marjika, 607 

Marjita, 607 
Markafi, 480, 499 
Markava, 476 
Marudbhava, 460, 592 
Mdruhya, 511 
Maruka, 524 
Maruvaka, 524 
Maruvan, 524 
Masa bhaksya, 611 
Masa parni, 458 
Masura, 462 
Mara, 488 
Mathita, 603 
Matsyddani, 482 
Matsya gandha, 489 
Matsya gandhi, 482 
Matsya gandhika, 501 
Matsya kali, 593 
Malsydndikd, 604 
Matsya pitta, 463 
Matsydksi, 482, 489 
Mdtula, 488 
Mdtulunga, 573 
Mauktika, 535 
Mauktika mandira, 537 
Mdyika, 473 
Mayura jahgha, 453 
Mayura iikhd, 487 
Mayurahva sikha, 487 
Mayuraka, 460 
Mecaka, 514 
■A/etfJ, 456-58 
Medhyd, 481, 516 
Medmi, 520 
Megha ndda, 592 
Megha puspa, 544 
Meghdbha, 556 
Meghdkhya, 472 
jkfe/a, 463 


Materia Medica 

Mesa kusuma, 475 
Mesa sfrigT, 467 
Mesa valli, 467 
MethiQca), 499 
Minandi, 604 
MisT, 498 
Misra, 499 
Misreya, 499 
Jl/w/<7, 588-89 
Mldyini, 522 
Mlecha, 533 
Mlecha mukha, 530 
Moca, 548-49, 559 

nirydsaka, 484 

rasa, 484 

•sr<M, 484 
Mocaka, 484 
AfoJa, 499 
Modaka, 617 
Modaki, 547 
Moha nasini, 485 
Moham, 479 
Morata, 474 
Motika, 535 
Mrdahga phalini, 589 
il/riw c/za<fa, 486, 558 
A//y/« kanfaka, 485 
Mrdu phala, 563 
Mrdu puspa, 543 
Af/vfu frafc, 546 
Mrdula, 558 
MfdvTka, 554 
-Mfga lendaka, 572 
A//-ga mada, 507 
Af/-ga ndfifc/, 507 
Afrg'a jwc/za #,&*, 572 
Mj-gdndaja, 507 
Mfnala, 520 
Mftyu puspaka, 604 

Muca £««<&, 523 
Mucilindaka, 562 
Mudga parni, 458 
Mukha, dusaka, 596 
Mukha mandana, 523 
AfufcAf, 452 
AfMfc*<J, 520, 535 

/>Aa/a, 535 

sphota, 537 
Mukulaka, 569 
ikfiJ/a, 471 
Mulaka, 595 
Mundi, 460 
Muni, 524 
Muni druma, 551 
Af«wf nirmita, 59 1 
Mm/ii suta, 524 
Mum' vallabha, 562 
Munika, 482 
Munja, 490 
Mura, 515 
Murvd, 474 
Aftt&ff, 479, 598 
Musikahva, 461 
Muskaka, 548 
Mwsfa, 472 
Musti pramdna, 568 

Nddeya, 543 
Nadija, 534 
JVarfz fezn/5, 477 
Ndditun, 594 
JVcga, 511, 530 
iVaga 6a/a, 470 
Naga bhedana, All 
Ndga bhid, All 
Naga damani, 480, 483 
JVcga danf?, 462 
JViaga gandhd, .483 



Naga garbha, 533 
Nagdhvd, 483 
Ndgaja, 533 
Naga kesaraka, 511 
Naga kinjalka, 511 
JVaga mata, 532 
Ndga puspa, 511 
Ndgara, 496, 498 
Nagaranga, 574 
JVagarf, 590 
Naga vallari, 582 
JVagmf, 487, 582 
Nahusa, 516 
Naipala, 464, 530 
Naipali, 532 
JVafcfei, 517 
Nakhdnka, 517 
Nakhara, 517 
Nakona, 549 
Nakta mala, 549 
Nakule$ta, 479 
Nakuli, 479 
JVafo, 490 

iVafa, 516 
JVa/a, 520 
Nalada, 512 
iVfl//, 516 

Ndlika{a), 467, 516, 594 
JVa/z«F, 518 
Nalini ruha, 520 
Namaskari, 479 
Nameru, 470, 512 
Namra, 543 
Nandana, 470, 512 
iVamtf, 542-43 
JVamS, 443 
Nandint, 513 
Nandi padapa, 549 
Nandi taru, 547 

Narangaka, 574 
Narangi, 574 
Narayarii, 469 
Narikela, 557 
Naritikta, 464 
Nartaki, 516 
Narttaka, 490 
JVaja samvedarta, 485 
JVa/tf, 490 
iSfata bhusana, 532 
Natangi, 471 
iVa?i, 516 
Navanita, 603 
Afaw, 546 
Nepali, 522 
JNfe/a, 464 

Netropama phala, 568 
Nibuka, 576 
Nidigdhikd, 455 
Nidrdri, 464 
Nija ghosa, 530 
Nikocaka, 463, 569 
Nikumbha, 461 
Nikunjaka, 544 
JVzZa, 518, 533 
JVT/a wan/, 537 
JVF/a maiijari, 467 
Nila puspa(a) y 515, 485 
Nila puspaka, 467 
iVF/a puspT, 580 
iSTf/a ratfza, 537 
JVf/a sinduka, 467 
JVf/a syanda, 485 
JVf/f&a, 463 
NilinT, 463 
Nilotpala, 519 
Nirhba, 464 
Nimba patrikd, 579 
Nimbaraka, 464 


Materia Medica 

Nimba v?ksa, 548 

Niaxbuka, 576 

Nipa, 543 

Nlpa, 602 

Nirball phala, 558 

Nirbhartsana, 517 

Nirgundi, 466-67 
Nirjala, 603 
Nirloha, 535 
Nirmahesvari, 530 
Nirmalyd, 515 
NTrmedhya, 516 
/Visa, 475 
Niskuti, 510 
Niyarnana, 464 
TVr/o/za, 530 
Nyagrodha, 541 

Osa, 503 

Pacarhpaca, 475 
Pa&, 517, 564 
Pacfa ro/ii, 541 
Padapa, 578 
iWJ, 477 
Padama, 518 
£ya, 519 
karkati, 519 
jjctfra, 471 
Padma cdrini, 518 
Padma rdga, 536 
Padmahva, 518-19 
Padmaka, 516 
Padmini, 518 
Pddyodana, 469 
Paittika, 605 
Pdkdn, 466 
P<j£j>a, 503, 504 
Pdkydhva, 504 

Palarh(n)kasa y 514, 517 
Paldndu, 596 
Palanduka, 596 
Palahkya, 593 
Palasa, 546 
Palasi, 515 
Pdlevaka, 571 
Palindi, 482 
Pa///, 604 
Pa///.&z, 579 
Pam$u bhava, 503 

lavana, 503 
Panaka, 608 
Panasa, 566 
Pahcakola, 498 
Panca loha, 530 
Pancangula, 459 
Pandu, 582 
Pandu phala, 593 
Pandu putri, 513 
Pdnduka, 593 
Paniya, 602 
Pa«£a, 538 
Pankaja, 518. 
Pankeruha, 518 
Papa ce//„ 474 
Papa nasdka, 473 
Papa nasana, 466 
Pdrada, 531 
Paramanna, 606 
Parankita, 588 
Para pita, 521 
Parasvadi, 560 
Param vqrna, 532 
Pdrdvata, All, 531 
Pdribhadra, 548 
Pdribhadraka, 464, 471 
Pdribhdvya, 471 
Pdriharya, All 



Parijata, 470, 548 
Pdripela(va), 513 
Pari pistaka, 530 
Parnika, 454 
Parpata(ka), 4 "6 
Parpafi, 517 
Parxjataka, 484 
Pdrthiva, 503 
Parusa, 563 
Parusaka, 563, 608 
PdrvatTyd, 473 
Parana, All 
Pasana bheda, 472 
Pdsavana, 503 
Pa/a, 562 
Pa/a ra#a, 517 
ranjana, 517 
Patada, 486 
Patala, 531 
Patala, 453, 454 
PatSla garuda, 491 
Pafali puspa, 522 
Patanga, 517 
PflfM, 474 
Paf/ia, 602 
Pa//tf, 498 
Paihyd, 450 
Pato/a, 593 
Pafra, 511 
Patradhya, 512 
Patrairvdru, 588 
Pattura, 482, 517 
Pa?«, 484 
Patuttama, 502 
Paundrdhva, 516 
Pawra, 471, 535 
Pauskara, 471 
Pauskarahva, 471 

Paufkardnghrikd, 471 
Pavitra, 550 
Payas, 602 
Payasa, 606 
Payasvim, 456, 473 
P/w/o, 578 
P/wr/a, 577 
Phala puraka, 573 
Phala raja, 567 
P/zo/a varttula, 587 
P/za/e ra/ia, 453 
Phalini, 513 
Phalottamd, 451, 554 
Phaluka, 598 
Phanija, 579 
Phanijjaka, 524 
ittaft/r, 472, 593 
Phanjitaka, 593 
Phena, 535 
Phend, 466 
Phenika, 616 
Phenila, 550, 561 
P/zog-o, 592 
Picchd, 484 
Picchaka, 484 
Plcchila, 544 
P/c/zf/a, 549 
Pichila bijaka, 577 
Pzcm, 486 

marda, 464 
PzVca bandhu, 555 
Pf/«, 544 
Pf/w keyukd, 598 
PF/w Parnika, 474 
P/K(fcz kharjurikd, 558 
P/#da musta, 472 
Pinda phala, 588 
Pinddlii, 484, 599 
Pinddra, 484 


Materia Medica 

Pindl, 465, 475, 485 
Piridi tagara, 516 
Pindita, 509 
Pinditaka phala, 465 
Pingald, 516 
Pingamana, 512 
Pingana, 538 
Pippala, 541 
J»(p,pafi; 497-98 

inula, 497 
Pisacika, 512 
Pitta, 569 
Pwimfl, 509 
Pi*a, 475 
Pita, 508, 536 
PFta candana, 508 
Pzta rfarw, 475 
PFta kalika, 476 
Pita loha, 530 
Pita phena, 550 
Pitapuspa, 520 
Pita puspaka, 469, 546 
Pita rafcta, 516 
Pifa wa, 463, 508 
Pita varna, 549 
Pfta varnafca, 589 
Pita vastrdhva, 509 
Pita vrksaka, 512 
Pitadru, 475 
Pltaka, 531 
Pitani, 454 
Pitraha, 476 
Pttta, 597 
Pittala, 530 
Pfvarl, 469 
Plaksa, 542 
Plavaga, 543 
Plihari{i), 484, 486 
Po/i&a, 610 

Potaki, 593 
Potikd, 595 
Prabhadraka, 464, 548 
Prabhu, 531 
Praci nagara, 452 
PracTnamalaka, 452 
PrdcindmbasthakI, 474 
Pragraha, 463 
Prahasanti, 522 
Prahlddini, 478 
Prakdsana, 530 
Prakirna, 550 
Pramathd, 451 
Pramodini, 473 
Prdnada, 451 
Pranalaka, 591 
Pr apathy a, 451 
Prapaundarika, 516 
Prapitaka, 589 
Prapunnada, 475 
Prapunnata, 475 
Prapunndta, 582 
PrarohT, 542 
Prasddaka, 591 
Prasdranf, 468 
Prasravana, 602 
Pratdnikd, 459, 468 
Pratarsana, 543 
Prart visa, 477 
Prafz visnuka, 523 
Pratyak pu$pf, 460 
Pratyak srera, 461 
Prav&la, 535 
Pravrsenya, 543 
PrTtikd, 507 
Priydla ; 562 
Priyam badd, 520 
Priyam jiva, 453 
Priyangu, 513. 



Prsni parni, 454-55 
Prthak parni, 454, 474 
Prthivi bhava, 503 
Prthivi kanda, 598 
Prthu chada, 570 
Prthu simba, 453 
Prthustanvi, 502 
Prthuka, 622 
Prthvi, 500 

Prthvikaia), 467, 500, 502 
Prja, 542 
Puga, 581 
Pugi phala, 581 
Punarbhu, 467 
Punarnavd, 467-68 
Pundarika, 516, 518 
Punndga, 522 
Pura, 514 
Puruhuta, 465 
Puskara jafa, 471 

mw/a, 471 
Puskare ruha, 518 
jPwjpa, 592 
Puspa gandhd, 52 1 
Puspa kasisa, 533 
P«5/>a &e*«, 534 
Puspa mrtyu, 490 
Puspa phala, 587 
Puspa rasa, 605 
Puspdnjana, 534 
Puspdsava, 605 
Puspendra, 522 
Pustaka simbikd, 591 
P«/a, 513 
Pa tana, 451, 512 
Pflri, 500 
Pftfz rfarw, 470 
P3/z mayiiraka. 5.00 
Puti parna, 550 

Pwfr vardhana, 500 
P«tf varvara, 484 
Pf/fi* vara, 507 
Pita' vrfcsa, 470 
Puti phala, 475 
Putika, 550 
Putrada, 487 
Putrahjiva, 480 

Raivati, 479 

jRo/fl £a/a, 468 

Raja jambu, 556 

Pa/a kadamba, 543 

Pa/a karkap', 558 

Pq/a kaseruka, 472, 599, 699 

Raja kosataki, 589 

Pc/a man, 593 

Pa/a nirhbuka, 576 

Raja putraka, 580 

Piz/a /wfrf, 588 

Pa/a vrksa, 462 

Rajdhvd, 562 

Rdjaldbu, 588 

Rajdmra, 580 

Rajamrastaka, 580 

Rajani, 475, 530 

Rdjdrha, 487, 508 

Rajas, 531 

Rajata, 529 

Pa/7, 520 

phala, 593 
Rdjlva, 518 
Raksd bija, 550 
Pa&ffi, 487, 592 
Pa&ta, 533, 536 
Rdkta apamarga, 460 
Rakta blja, 524 
Rakta candana, 508 
Rakta cumaka, 461 


Materia Medica 

Rakta danda, 459 
Rakta druma, 517 
Rakta eranda, 459 
Rakta gandhika, 519 
Rakta ghna, 484 
Rakta kandaka, 599 
Rakta kastha, 517 

Rakta kusuma, 560 
Rakta nala, 591 
Rakta padT, 478 
Rakta pddikd, 479 
Rakta pasdna, 532 
Rakta phala, 460, 541 
Rakta phala, 590 
Rakta punarnavd, 467 

itafcta puspa, 467, 546, 548 
Rakta puspd, 521, 524 
Rakta puspaka, 466 
Rakta puspika, 549 
Rakta raja, 533 
Rakta samana, 461 
-Ra&te jara, 508, 545 
Rakta varnaka, 535 
Hafcta yasti, 474 
Raktaka, 454, 517, 523 
Raktalu, 599 
Raktahgi, 474 
Raktika, 483 
Raktotpala, 519 
Ha/a, 514 
JRa/na, 577 
Ramasenaka, 464 
Ramatha, 502 
Rambha, 559 
Ramya, 522 
Ramyaka, 464 
Randhri, 490 
Rariga, 530 
Ranga nayaka, 465 

Rangint, 458 
Ran/ana, 508 
Rahjanaka, 461 
Ranjani, 463, 475, 517 
Hasa, 531 
/Jasa, 465 
i?aM, 468, 474 
Rsabhaka, 457 
Rasagrya, 534 
ifcwa'a, 555, 575 
Rasala, 554, 607 
Rasana, 468 
Rasahjana, 534 
Rasayana vara, 411 
Rdsnd, 468 
Rasodbhuta, 534 
Rasonaka, 596 
Rasottama, 531 
Rdstra ndkuli, 455 
Rasyd, 468 
JRa/Aa, 465 
jRata" priyd, 482 
Ravana, 564 
JRavi" ndmaka, 530 
&ftft/, 456-57 
Recana, 461, 465 
itecf, 461 
itenw, 476 
Renuka, 513 
Rikta puspika, 477 

i?//>w, 514 
Ritija, 534 
Rocana, 516 
Rogdhvaya, 471 
JRoAf, 484 
Rohina, 484 
jRo/rtpj, 451, 463 
Rohisaka, 471 
Rohisa trna, 471 



Rohita,46i, 484 

Rohuaka, 484 

Roma, 511 

RomaQcd) lavana, 503 

Romasa, 511, 599 

Roma sakumbhari bhava, 503 

Rosana, 531 

Rsabhaka, 457, 458 

i? W 6z/, 459 

Rucaka, 503 

i^wcz', 516 

Ruci phala, 568 

i?«/za, 489 

Ruhita, 484 

Rukmaka, 529 

Rupyaka, 529 

Sabhangd, 469 

Sacidanta, 473 

Sadanga, 454 

Sa^c /?/za/a, 452, 542 

<SWa />w,g?a, 487, 523 

§adava, 606 

Sadgrantha, 501, 515 

Sadgranthi, 497 

Sadpada priyd, 522 

Sadusana, 498 

Sahdcara, 485 

Sahadeva, 469 

Sahakara, 555 

SahasraksT, 544 

Sahasrangi, 544 

Sahasra madhuka c/iadd, 487 

Sahasra patra, 5 1 8 

Sahasra vlryd, 469 

Saikhanka, 460 

&rf/a, 534, 545 

niryasa, 534 
Saileya, 513 

Sailuka, 544 
Sailuka, 544 
Sailusa, 452 
Saindhava, 502 
Saireya, 485 
Saireyaka, 485 
S'afrfiE, 545 
Sakala, 510 
Sakatakhya, 547 
-Sa&ra Srestha, 457 
Safca vfra, 59 1 
Sa&a vrksa, 547 
Sakata mukha, 473 
Sizfc/K, 510 
Sakra bhuruha, 465 
Sakra ddru, 470 
Sakrahva, 465 
&!&*«, 620 
Sakulddani, 489 
55/a, 545, 562 

niryasa, 514 
Saldfu, 452 
Sail, 499 
&ztf/a, 602 
&z/ma, 499, 520 
&J/z Paraf, 454, 455 
Sali pista, 610 
Sallaka, 453 
Sallakiy 548 
SalmalT, 549 
Salmall patrikd, 549 
Sdlmali vestaka, 484 
&?«*«. 453, 509, 520 
Salilka kantaka, 460 
Salyaka, 465 
Salya parni, 456 
Samam chada, 582 
Samdmsa, 469 
Samangd, 474, 479 


Materia Medica 

Sirikrama, 488 
Sirisa, 543 
Sirisika, 550 
Sirna vrnta, 589 
Sisa, 530 
Sista, 489 
Sita, 554 
Sz7a, 470 

Sita{a), 462, 502, 604 
5zY5 aparajita, 485 
,£jfa 6/tfra, 467 
Sitabhra, 507 
Sitahvaya, 507 
Sitaka, 546 
S7/a foz«, 489 
SzYa ksudra, 455 
Sffa nalina, 508 
Sfifa jpafef, 469 
Szta puspa, 571 
^ffa rc/a, 507 
Sitasiva, 499 
Sft<? ifngf, 477 
Sitopald, 604 

&va(a), 450-51, 472, 514, 550 

Szva sekhara, 522 

Sivatika, 468 

Skandapa, 541 

Skandha phala, 558 

Slaksna tvak, 466 

Slesmataka, 544 

Swift* fc«/a, 593 

Swrtf /wra, 481 

5ne^a v/-/f J«, 470 

Snigdha chads, 560 

Snigdha parpi, 474 

Snuhi, 463 

Sobhana, 465 

Soma, 482 

Somalika, 618 

Soma fcszn, 478 

Soma padapa, 472 

S^/Ma ra/7, 475 

Soma valka, 472 

Soma vallari, 482 

Soma va//f, 475, 478 

Somaka, 587 

.&>#a phalini, 4%9 

Sosana, 563 

Sphatika(a), 507, 535, 536 

Sphatikomala, 536 

Sphaurya, 564 

Sprkka(a), 471, 515 

Sprstlka, 476 

Sreni, 558 

Sresfha, 451 

S>eja.sf, 451, 468, 474, 498 

Sfgala vit, 454 

Srgalika, 473 

SVz gtf/ta, 518 

Srf fc/-', 545 

Sri man, 523, 549 

^/■j mar?, 466 

Srz maf, 533 

Srf marl, 522 

&•? nivasa, 512 

Sriparw, 453,472 

Srfpati, 549 

Sri phala(a), 451, 463 

Sri puspa, 510 

Sri vasa, 512 

Srfc, 515 

Smgara, 510 

Srng&ra bhUsana, 533 

SrngataQcd), 599 

Srngavera, 496 

tf/Tjgf, 457, 471 

SVngf namni, 471 

Srotoja, 533 



Sthala srngdfa, 454 
Sthalya, 453 
Sthauneyaka, 514 
Sthavira, 513 
Sthira, 454 
Sthula bhantaki, 455 
SfM/a garbha, 490 
Sthula kanda, 598 
Sthula phala, 549 
Sthula puspa, 522 
Sthulaild, 510 
Sthulajdji, 500 
Styanam payas, 602 
S'l/Ma, 502 
Sucikd puspa, 521 
5wcJ mukhl, 473 
Sucyagra, 490 
Suddha(a), 502, 604 
Stft&a, 504, 604 

ksara, 504 
Sudhdvdsa, 588 
Sugandha mula, 461, 582 
Sugandfidksa, 503 
Sugandhika (a), 471, 485, 499 
SugandhinT, 521 
Suhrttrdnd, 476 
^wAra chada, 514 
£w£a M<zya, 453 
Suka parna, 514 
Swfoz ^M7>fl 560 
Suka puspa, 515 
^wAra vrksa, 543 
Sukahva, 513 
Sukdnda, 489 
Sukandaka, 590 
Sukha varca. 504 
Sukhodbhavd, 482 
Sukla(d), 452, 473, 499, 523 
>Wc/# kanda, 411 

Sukodara, 511 

Sukomala, 525 

Sukosaka, 581 

Sukra mdtd, 412 

Sukra puspa, 490 

Sukra puspikd, 488 

Suksma, 592 

Suksma nala paldndu, 597 

Suksma patrd, 486 

Suksma pat raka, 546 

Suksma patrikd, 469 

Suksmaild, 510 

Suksmanaka, 504 

&ifcff, 517, 537, 577 

Suktija, 535 

SWa/tf , 524 

Sulomasd, 477 

Sw/va, 530 

Sumand, 520 

Sumusfika, 591 

Sundara, 536 

Sundika, 548 

SwTigf, 592 

Sunirjasd, 547 

Sunisana, 594 

Sunisannaka, 594 

Sunthi, 496 

Sunyd, 516 

Swpa dhupana, 502 

Supan, 581 

Suphala, 568 

Suprabha, 516 

Supuspaka, 516 

Swra, 604 

Swra druma, 470 

Surabhi, 522 

Surabhi chada, 579 

Surana, 591 

Surdhva, 470 


Materia Medica 

Surakhyd, 473 

Surahgaka, 517 

Surasa, 524 

Suratna, 529 

Suratnaka, 535 

Surendra, 597 

Surya bhakta, 482 

Surya kanta, 536 

Surya mani, 536 

Surya parni, 458 

Stirya vallabha(d), 476, 5 1 8 

Siiryahvaya, 417 

Suryakhya, 536 

Suryavarta, 482 

Susena(a), 462, 578 

SusavT, 500 

Susrdva, 548 

iSwta, 531 

Skta .wenf, 461 

Sutikta, 464 

Sutungika, 593 

SWaAfi, 468, 479 

St-tofcald, 482 

Suvarcikd, 504 

Suvarna, 529 

Suvarna ketaki, 521 

Suviraja, 533 

Suvratd, 515 

Svaccha, 531 

Svaccha phala, 501 

Svadamstra, 454 

Svddu, 574 

Svddu kantaka, 454 

Svddu mamsi, 456 

Svadu masd, 458 

Svddu puspikd, 481 

Svaduka, 473 

Svddvaguru, 508 

jSV&frf, 554, 558 

Svalpa, 466 
Svalpa ghanta, 416 
Svalpa kanda, 599 
Svalpa kosthaka. 599 
Svdmin, 531 
Svapdisva, 542 
Svara bhedaka, 575 
Svarji ksdrd, 504 
Svarjika,{a) 504 
Svarna bhumika, 510 
Svarna gairika, 532 
Svarna jati, 520 
Svarna ksiri, 465 
Svarna puspikd, 521 
Svarna varnd, 475, 532 
Svarna yuthi, 52 1 
Svarna dru 463 
Svasanaka, 482 
Svastika, 594 
Svayarh gupta, 480 
&><?fcz, 485 
S>eta, 489, 529 
SVeta camara, 489 
iSVetar candana, 508 
,SWa dandd, 4S9 
Sveta jati, 520 
y^veto kamala, 518 
Sveta kantakdri, 455 
^e« kumbhikd, 453 
iSVeta kusuma, 466 
Svetamarhbhoja, 518 
^vera marica, 596 
Sveta nddi, 538 
Sveta nisotha, 461 
Sveta puspa, 485, 488 
S*veta sara, 545 
£Veta syandd, 485 
SWta mw/fl, 467 
SWta punarnavd, 467 



Svitra bhesaja, 542 
Sydmd, 513 
Syama, 411 
Syama bhusana, 497 
Syama nisotha, 462 
Syama vama, 543 
Syamaka, 41 1 
Syamala, 541 
Syandana, 546, 564 
Syondka, 453-54 

Tagata, 465, 516 
raz'/fl kanta, 485 
Tk&ra, 603 
Ta7a, 532, 567 
7a/a mulika, 419, 598 
Talapatri, 598 
Za/fl pairika, 419 
TalTsa, 511 

patra, 511 
Tamala, 511, 545 
Tamalaki, 451 
lama rasa, 518 
Tdmbula, 582 
Tamra, 483 
Tamra, 530 
Tamra cuda, 486 
Tamra mull, 460 
Tamra phala, 463 
Tamra puspd, 453 
Tamra puspi, 473 
Tamra sdra, 508 
Tamra vatff, 474 
Tandri, 502 
Tanduld, 501 
TanduliyaQca), 592 
Tankana, 504 
Tanuka, 510 
Tapana, 481 

TapanTya, 529 
Tapasa, 511 
Tapasa druma, 548 
Tapya, 532 
Tapincha, 545 
Tapta Iomasa, 533 
Tapya, 532 
Jara, 529 
Taraka, 536 
Taraki, 478 
Tara/a, 488 
Tarangaka, 538 
Tarksya, 534 
Tdrksa saila, 534 
Tarupi. 521 
re/a, 470 
Tejanya, 470 
Tejapatra, 511 
Tejasvim, 470 
Tejavati, 470 
Tffc^a, 490, 497, 524 
Tiksna dm, 544 
7Tfc^a fcr/a, 584 
Tiksna sdra, 565 
Tiksna tandtda, 497 
TYfcfa, 463 
Tiktaka, 481 
Tiktottama, 593 
17/a taeaa, 490 
rz'/aAra, 523 
Tilaparna, 508 
Tila puspaka, 451 
Tilvaka, 478 
Tindisa, 591 
Tinduka, 564 
Tindukdbha phala, 511 
Tindukini, 416-11 
Tinisa, 546 
Tiriniksi, 550 


Materia Medica 

Tirita, 478 
Tittidi, 577 
Tittidika, 578 
Tivra, 490 
Todana, 572 
Toya, 602 
Toya kama, 544 
Toya pippali, 482 
Trapu, 530 
Trapusa, 588 
Trapusl, 462, 588 
Trayamana, 476 
Trayamanaka, 476 
Trayanti, 476 
Tridanta, 456 
Tridivodbhava, 510 
Trijatct, 511 
TVtfrtf, 454, 599 
7W £a«.te, 454 
Ttikata, 454, 599 
7W &«?*, 504 
Trinetra, 531 
Tripadikd, 478 
7Vz* parm, 454 
Tri phala, 451 
Triputa, 462, 510, 522 
Tn sandhya, 523 
7>i sugandhi, 511 
TVivrr, 461-62 
Trivrta, 462 
TVtw, 471 
7Wzd! rara, 536 
Trna ra/a, 557, 567, 604 
7>«a saundika, 547 
TVwfz, 510 
rrvraf, 546 
Tryasra, 461 
Tryusana, 497 
Tuda, 571 

Tugak?m, 502 

ra/reif, 502 
7W<2, 486 
TulasT, 524 
Tulasl chada, 512 
7Wwz, 549 
HawAz", 588 
r«/?Jf, 590 
Titfiga, 550 
r««ga vrfoa, 557 
7w«gf, 500 
Tungini, 469 
7wt«, 549 
Tt/nf, 463 - 
Tuntuka, 453 
Turangakvd, 468 
Tan, 488 
Turuska, 509 
Turu§ka, 490 
iKta, 571 

Tutthaifi), 463, 532 
Tuvara, 533 
Tuvaraka, 572 
Ji/varf, 535 
Tvaci c/wfra, 498 
TVacz" saraka, 490 
Tvajfc, 510-11 
JVafc fcf&f, 502 
Tvakoca, 510 
rwwrz, 482 

XJdaka, 602 
Udicya, 512 
Udreka, 464 
Udumbara, 542 
Udumbara cchada, 461 
Udupati priya; 5 1 8 
Udyalaka, 466 
£/gra kanda, 590 



Ugra gandha, 596 
Ugra gandha, 501 
Ugra gandhi, 500 
Ugra kanda, 590 
Urhvi, 622 
Unmatta, 488 
Upa citrd, 461 
Upa kdlikd, 500 
Dpa kulya, 497 
{7/wz kuncika, 500 
£//we visdnikd, 477 
Upodikd, 593 
Uraga, 530 
Urdhva tikta, 464 
£/ru puspikd, 416 
Usira, 513 
[/#ra, 593 
£/f/wr/a, 471 
Uttana patra, 459 

Faca, 501 
Vacamcula, 459 
Vddara, 486 
FaoTiu, 515 
Vahlika, 482 
rjAfii/, 461 
Vahlika, 502 
Fata/ m«MF, 488 
Fa/2«z ndma, 498 
Fatef rucz, 470 
FaAw kanta, 543 
Fa/w manjan, 524 
Vahu patra, 451 
Vahupdda, 541 
Vahu patraka, 483 
Vahu phenika, 466 
FaAw /wta, 546 
Vahu putrd, 469 
Vahu putrikd, 469 
Vahula, 510 

Vaidala bhaksya, 611 
Vaidehi, 497 
Vaidurya, 537 
Vaijayantika, 452 
Vaikuntha, 524 
Fizwavf fcs/n, 502 
Fa/7 dantaka, 452 
Vajikari, 468 
Fa/w, 536 
Fa/ra kanda, 597 
Vajra manthahva, 512 
Fo/ra tundailca), 463 
Ffl/m va/Zarf, 487 
Fayn, 463, 597 
Fa/era, 471 
Vdkuci, 475 
Vakula, 522 
Fa/a patra, 460 
Fa/a patrikd, 545 
Fa/a varjana, 537 
JVSZifcS. 470, 473, 485 
Fa//aJfcf, 548 
FaCT, 499, 582 
Fa////a, 497 
Fa/w, 589 

Valukaifl), 209, 53, 
Farm, 486 
VarhSa, 490 

fcjfrz, 502 

rocand, 502 
Vamsajd, 502 
Vandhva, 490 
Fana karnika, 548 
Fawa mdlika, ATS, 522 
Fa«a methikd, 499 
Fana vildsinT, 481 
Vanajd, 458 
Vanaspati, 541 
Vdna-unddna-vdki, 485 


Materia Medica 

Vandaka, 483 

Vandha noma, 520 

Vandhya, 516, 535 

Vandhya karkotaki, 480, 590 

Vandhya karkotf, 480 

Vandhya yogesvari, 480 

Vanga, 530 

Vanga sena, 551 

Vanira, 543 

Vanjula, 543 

Vanotsava, 555 

Fan sambhuta, 503 

Vanya, 513 

i^Ma, 500 

Vapusa, 501 

Vapya, 471 

Ftfra(c), 451, 509-10, 514, 534, 

549, 564, 594 
Fare tikta{a), 414, 476 
Fara varnini, 475 
Varada, 468 
Varaha, 472 
Varaha karm, 468 
Fara/if, 473, 598 

Aandtf, 473 
Varanga, 465, 510 
Fara/f, 510 
Vardhamanaka, 459 
Varhina, 516 
Fori, 460 
Fan, 486, 512 
For; cakra, 536 
Vari dhara, 472 
Van sambhava, 510 
Farz" iu&ft", 537 
Fan ra//J, 590 
Fan/a, 537 
Vari kapha, 535 
Van's tha, 512 

Varna vati, 415 
Varna vindsini, 475 
Varnya, 509 
Varsa kala, 499 
Forotf &e/«, 568 
Varsika, 476, 534 
Vdrsikl, 522 
Far/a Ma, 530 
Varttikd, 589 
Varuda, 567 
Far«pa(5), 459, 523 
Varunatmajd, 604 
Varuna, 547 
'Varum, 604 
Varvara, 535 
Farva«(f), 500, 524 
Fa^a, 452 
Fara, 472 
Vasanta, 451 
Vdsanta mandana, 533 
VasantajUt 522 
Vasanti, 522 
Vasira, 460 
Fai/ro, 503 
Vaspika, 502 
Fasfi moifl", 499 
Vastika, 499 
Vastika parnika, 594 
Vastra bhusand, 414 
Vastra tagahrt, 533 
Vastuka, 591 
Vastukdkdrd, 593 
Fajw, 503 
Fffjy chidra, 456 
Vasuratna* 535 
Vasuka, 487, 522 
Vasuttama, 529 
Faiya, 480 
Fa.ta, 541 



Vataka, 617 
Vata patra, 525 
Vata patrl, A19 
Vata Vairi, 568 
Vafi, 542 
Vatika sira, 497 
Vatsadani, 452 
Vatsa gandha, 484 
Vatsaka, 465 
F<5£y<5, 469 
Vatyalaka, 469 
Vdtyayani, 469 
Vayasoli, 456 
Vayastha, 451-52 
Vayasyd, 550 
Vedhye mukhya, 507 

F<?/«, 523 

Vellantara, 483 
F«ii, 478 
Fe««, 490 

nihsrta, 604 

Vestaka, 512 

Fefcwa, 543, 575 

Vibhanda, All 

Vibhitaka, 451 

Fifrf/m, 523, 589 

Ftfa, 503 

Ffcfa/J, 462 

Vidanga, 501 

Vidarigandha, 454 

Viddrl kanda, 473 

Vidarika, 473 

Viddha karnika, 474 

Vidruma, 535 

Vidura, 536 

Vigandhd, 501 

Fi/flya, 450, 489 

Vijaya raktd, 474 

V i jay a sdra, 546 

KzfauA, 474 
Viklrana, 487 
Vilodita, 603 
Vimala, 466 
Vindhya jdta 451 
FiWk Ptfrra, 487 
V/mta, 524 
Fzpra, 543 
Fwfi, 456 
Ffrfi, 559 
Fzra, 471, 513 
Virapuspd, 469 
Ffrvz sena, 565 
Ffra suklika, 456 
Ffra vrksa, 481 
Viradru, 483 
Virana miilaka, 513 
Ffrata chad a, 593 
Virecl, 463 
Fzsa, 477 
FtfaZz, 455 
VisadanT, 462 
Ff,?<zm, 457 
Ffaa dhvamsi, 472 
F/,svz kantaka, 590 
F/ya mustf, 591 
Fisa musfika, 464 
Ffaa ndsini, 480 
Visanika, A61 
Visaghna, 592 
Visaghni, 485 
Ffca puspaka, 465 
Ffsa tinduka, 564 
Visarada, 522 
Visakha, 467 
Pwa/tf, 462 
Fz'io/ja, 461,488 
Fz#nz, 518 


Materia Medica 

Visnu krdnta, 480 
Vi&dhani, 463, 551 
Visra, 501 
Viiva, 496-97, 520 
Viivausadha, 496 
Visva bhesaja, 496 
Visxa deva, 470 
Visva gandhika, 501 
Visva riipaka, 508 
Visyandana, 615 
Vit khadira, 545 
Vivarnaka, 515 
Vodhi padapa, 541 
F<?/<? mo/5, 486 
P><ot<2 sodhana, 461 
KttW/ra, 513 
tfarw, 478 
FrrfdVrz, 457 

sukha, 456 
FrAaf j?«spf 476 
Krto tikta, 474 
Vrksadam, 483 
Ffte gandhini, 470 
Vrksaka, 473 
FrA-Jfl rw/ia 5 483 
Frte sarsaka, 482 
Frfaa vatff, 473 
Frnf5, 417 
Vrntaki, 455, 589 
F/vzta fcafo, 478 
Frata pfta/a, 470 
Frs-a, 452, 457 
Vrsabhaksi, 462 
F/?a, 461,468 
Vrscikali, 467 
Fra/za bhadra, 463 
Frsyc kanda, 419 
Vrtta lata, 454 
Vukovaka, 522 

Fyarf/zz, 517 

ghata, 462 
Vyaghra, 459 
Vyaghra nakha, 517 
Vyaghra puccha, 459 
Vydghratara, 459 
Vyaghn, 455, 564 
Fjafo, 498, 588 
Fj-o/tf damstrtaka, 454 
Vydmaka, 471 
Vyadhi samT, 550 
F><wfl, 497 

rc/rtfl bMsana, 490 
Yajhaka, 546 
F?/«<z raefa, 478 
Yajhanga, 542 
Yaksa dhupa, 514 
raft,ya vasa, 541 
F&a, 460 
Fasa/fca, 460 
Yasaskari 457 
y<3#/ madhu, 458 
y"flfj/F madhuka, 458 
Fa#/ puspa, 480 
Yasfydhva, 458 
Fata chada, 559 
Yatuka, 517 
Yavagraja, 504 
Ydvaka, 517 
Fava kantaka, 416 
Yava ksara, 504 
Yavanesta, 598 
F5wwif, 490 
Favam, 490, 500 
Yavanika, 500 
F#v&.y<J, 460 
Yavasaka, 460 
Fcra iw&a, 504 

Index 711 

Yoga sadhdka, 51 A Yugma patra, 466 

Yugala, 471 Yukta rasa, 468 

Yugma kantika, 560 .YuthpoS, ggl